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Anglia Journal of English Philology. See all formats and pricing. Online ISSN See all formats and pricing Online. Prices are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable. Volume Issue 4 Nov , pp. Volume Issue 4 Dec , pp. Volume Issue Dec , pp. Volume Issue 3 Apr , pp. Volume Issue 3 Jul , pp. Volume Issue 3 Dec , pp. Volume Issue 4 Mar , pp. Volume Issue 4 Jun , pp. Volume Issue 3 Jan , pp.
Volume Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume Issue 2 Jan , pp. Volume Issue Jahresband Jan , pp. Volume 99 Issue Jahresband Jan , pp. Volume 98 Issue Jahresband Jan , pp. Volume 97 Issue Jahresband Jan , pp. Volume 96 Issue Jahresband Jan , pp. Volume 95 Issue Jahresband Jan , pp. Caius Julius Solinus, a Latin author of the third century of the present era, wrote of the people living on the southern borders of Egypt: "The inhabitants of this country say that they have it from their ancestors that the sun now sets where it formerly rose.
The changes in the movement of the sun in each successive age make the use by many peoples of the term "sun" for "age" understandable. When they find the number nahui added, they render nahui ollin by the words sun tonatiuh in his four mo26 Cf. Bury s comments to Timaeus, notes, pp. IV The stars of the north would become stars of the south; this is what seems to be described by the Mexicans as the "driving away of the four hundred southern stars.
See also by the same author, Examen critique de Vhistoire de la gSographie du nouveau continent , II, However, one cannot imagine the sun as wandering eastward: the sun and the entire firmament of the fixed stars travel westward. Also Brasseur, Histoire des nations civilise es du Mexique, I, Steinschneider, Hebrdische Bibliographie , Vol. Hai Gaon, the rabbinical authority who flourished between and , in his Responses refers to the cosmic changes in which the sun rose in the west and set in the east.
Aver-rhoes, the Arab philosopher of the twelfth century, wrote about the eastward and westward movements of the sun. The tradition heard by Herodotus in Egypt speaks of four reversals. Later in this book and again in the book that will deal with earlier catastrophes, I shall return to this subject. At this point, I leave historical and literary evidence on the reversal of earth s cardinal points for the testimony of the natural sciences on the reversal of the magnetic poles of the earth.
The Reversed Polarity of the Earth A thunderbolt, on striking a magnet, reverses the poles of the magnet. The terrestrial globe is a huge magnet. A short circuit between it and another celestial body could result in the north and south magnetic poles of the earth exchanging places. It is possible to detect in the geological records of the earth the orientation of the terrestrial magnetic field in past ages. This, because of small capacity for magnetization in the Earth s magnetic field after freezing, may remain practically constant. If this assumption be correct, the 41 Steinschneider, Hebraische Bibliographie, Vol.
XVIII, pp. Although repeated heating of lava and rocks can change the picture, there must have remained rocks with inverted polarity. Another1 author writes: "Examination of magnetization of some igneous rocks reveals that they are polarized oppositely from the prevailing present direction of the local magnetic field and many of the older rocks are less strongly magnetized than more recent ones.
On the assumption that the magnetization of the rocks occurred when the magma cooled and that the rocks have held their present positions since that time, this would indicate that the polarity of the Earth has been completely reversed within recent geological times. The reversed polarity of lava indicates that in recent geological times the magnetic poles of the globe were reversed; when they had a very different orientation, abundant flows of lava took place. Additional problems, and of a large scope, are: whether the position of the magnetic poles has anything to do with the direction of rotation of the globe, and whether there is an interdependence in the direction of the magnetic poles of the sun and of the planets.
The Quarters of the World Displaced The traditions gathered in the section before last refer to various epochs; actually, Herodotus and Mela say that according to Egyp1 J. Fleming , p. Was the cosmic catastrophe that terminated a world age in the days of the fall of the Middle Kingdom and of the Exodus one of these occasions, and did the earth change the direction of its rotation at that time?
If we cannot assert this much, we can at least maintain that the earth did not remain on the same orbit, nor did its poles stay in their places, nor was the direction of the axis the same as before. The position of the globe and its course were not settled when the earth first came into contact with the onrushing comet; in Plato s terms, already partly quoted, the motion of the earth was changed by "blocking of the course" and went through "shaking of the revolutions" with "disruptures of every possible kind," so that the position of the earth became "at one time reversed, at another oblique, and again upside down," and it wandered "every way in all six directions.
A few days later, if we follow the biblical narration, immediately before the hurricane changed its direction, "the pillar of cloud went from before their faces and stood behind them"; this means that the column of fire and smoke turned about and appeared from the opposite direction. Mountainous tides uncovered the bottom of the sea; a spark sprang between two celestial bodies; 1 See, e.
The Midrashim speak of a disturbance in the solar movement on the day of the Passage: the sun did not proceed on its course. Also, the day of the Lawgiving, when the worlds collided again, was, according to numerous rabbinical sources, a day of unusual length: the motion of the sun was disturbed. The answer was not apparent even to contemporaries, at least for a number of decades. In the gloom that endured for a generation, observations were im3 Rashi, the commentator, is surprised by the combination of the words, "at the turning of the morning" lifnot haboker.
The word lifnot from pana , when used with reference to time, means robin-bobin. Buber, The Kalevala relates that "dreaded shades" enveloped the earth, and "the sun occasionally steps from his accustomed path. In Voluspa Poetic Edda of the Icelanders we read: No knowledge she [the sun] had where her home should be, The moon knew not what was his, The stars knew not where their stations were.
Then the gods set order among the heavenly bodies. The Aztecs related: "There had been no sun in existence for many years. Some said Here, and some said There ; but when the sun rose, they were all proved wrong, for not one of them had fixed upon the east. Some thought it would take place in the north and their glances were turned in that direction. Others thought it would be in the south. Actually, their guesses included all directions because the dawn shone all around. Some, however, fixed their attention on the orient, and maintained that the sun would come from there.
It was their opinion that proved to be correct. Crawford in the Preface to his translation of Kalevala.
Donnelly, Ragnarok, p. Donnelly thought that this tradition signified that "in the long-continued darkness they had lost all knowledge of the cardinal points"; he did not consider that it might refer to the displacement of the cardinal points. VII, Chap. They were also unable to orient themselves on their march.
Arabia also Erev kept its name, "the evening land,"13 though it lies to the east of the centers of civilization—Egypt, Palestine, Greece. Eusebius, one of the Fathers of the Church, assigned the Zeus-Europa episode to the time of Moses and the Deucalion Flood, and Augustine wrote that Europa was carried by the king of Crete to his island in the west, "betwixt the departure of Israel out of Egypt and the death of Joshua.
The reversal of the earth s rotation, referred to in the written and oral sources of many peoples, suggests the relation of one of these events to the cataclysm of the day of the Exodus. Like the quoted passage from Visuddhi-Magga, the Buddhist text, and the cited tradition of the Cashinaua tribe in western Brazil, the versions of the tribes and peoples of all five continents include the same elements, familiar to us from the Book of Exodus: lightning and "the bursting of heaven," which caused the earth to be turned "upside down," or "heaven and earth to change places.
Isaiah 21 : In Jeremiah 25 : 20 the name "Arab" is used to denote "a mingled people. V, Die Chronik transl. Karst, , "Chronikon Kanon"; St. Augustine, The City of God, Bk. Thus we read: "In Menin Flanders the peasants say, on seeing a comet: The sky is going to fall; the earth is turning over! Insolation was impaired by heavy clouds of dust, and the radiation of heat from the earth was equally hindered. Spring follows winter and fall follows summer because the earth rotates on an axis inclined toward the plane of its revolution around the sun.
Should this axis become perpendicular to that plane, there would be no seasons on the earth. Should it change its direction, the seasons would change their intensity and their order. The Egyptian papyrus known as Papyrus Anastasi IV contains a complaint about gloom and the absence of solar light; it says also: "The winter is come as instead of summer, the months are reversed and the hours are disordered. Tyndall Heat a Mode of Motion, 6th ed. Erman, Egyptian Literature Vandier, La Famine dans I Egtjpte ancienne , p.
Weill, Bases, methodes, et risultats de la chronologie igyptienne , p. The four seasons do not observe their proper times," we read in the Texts of Taoism. The sun was not fixed to an unwander-ing and certain course, so as to distinguish orient and Occident, nor did he bring back the seasons in order. The oral traditions of primitive peoples in various parts of the world also retain memories of this change in the movement of the heavenly bodies, the seasons, the flow of time, during a period when darkness enveloped the world. As an example I quote the tradition of the Oraibi in Arizona.
They say that the firmament hung low and the world was dark, and no sun, no moon, nor stars were seen. Legge , I, Chavannes, , p. B Ibid. Goodwin, ed. The Fourth Book of Ezra, which borrows from some earlier sources, refers to the "end of the seasons" in these words: "I sent him [Moses] and led my people out of Egypt, and brought them to Mount Sinai, and held him by me for many days. I told him many wondrous things, showed him the secrets of the times, declared to him the end of the seasons.
The words 8 Donnelly, Ragnarok, p. Markham, The Incas of Peru, pp. In his later work Quatre lettres sur Mexique , Brasseur came to the conclusion that a stupendous catastrophe occurred in America and that migrating tribes carried the echo of this catastrophe to many peoples of the world, ii IV Ezra 14 : 4. Moreover, it is said in rabbinical sources that in the time of Moses the course of the heavenly bodies became confounded. With the fall of the Middle Kingdom and the Exodus, one of the great world ages came to its end.
The four quarters of the world were displaced, and neither the orbit nor the poles nor, probably, the direction of rotation remained the same. The calendar had to be adjusted anew. The astronomical values of the year and the day could not be the same before and after an upheaval in which, as the quoted Papyrus Anastasi IV says, the months were reversed and "the hours disordered. Because in the Pyramid texts dating from the Old Kingdom there is mention of "five days," it was erroneously concluded that in that period a year of days was already known.
Neither is any reference to a year of days or to "five days" found in the very numerous inscriptions of the New Kingdom prior to the dynasties of the seventh century. There exists a direct statement found as a gloss on a manuscript of Timaeus that a calendar of a solar year of three hundred and sixty days was introduced by the Hyksos after the fall of the Middle Kingdom; 16 the calendar year of the Middle Kingdom apparently had fewer days. In a later chapter of this work extensive material will be presented to demonstrate this point.
The number of days in a year during the Middle Kingdom was less than ; the earth then revolved on an orbit somewhat closer to the present orbit of Venus. An investigation into the length of the astronomical year during the periods of the Old and Middle Kingdoms is reserved for that part of this work which will deal with the cosmic catastrophes that occurred before the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
Here I give space to an old Midrashic source which, taking issue with a contradiction in the scriptural texts referring to the length of time the Israelites sojourned in Egypt, maintains that "God hastened the course of the planets during Israel s stay in Egypt," so that the sun completed revolutions during the space of regular years. But cf. Waddell , Loeb Classical Library; there the introduction of the reform of adding five days to a year of days is ascribed to the Hyksos King Aseth, who also introduced the worship of the bull calf Apis.
Freedman and Simon , ix, Hitherto world time was counted, but henceforth we count it by a different reckoning. Lava dust suspended in the air and carried around the globe accounted for this phenomenon. One German contemporary compared the gloomy world of the year with the Egyptian plague of darkness. Germany heard the clash of arms through all the sky; the Alps rocked with unwonted terrors. Symons, pp. Phythian-Adams, The Call of Israel , p. Fairclough, , i, It was seen for only a few days and vanished while still in the north.
The "clash of arms" heard "through all the sky" was probably the sound that accompanied the entrance of the gases and dust into the earth s atmosphere. If the eruption of a single volcano can darken the atmosphere over the entire globe, a simultaneous and prolonged eruption of thousands of volcanoes would blacken the sky. And if the dust of the comet of —44 had a darkening effect, contact of the earth with a great cindertrailing comet of the fifteenth century before this era could likewise cause the blackening of the sky.
As this comet activated all the volcanoes and created new ones, the cumulative action of the eruptions and of the comet s dust must have saturated the atmosphere with floating particles. Volcanoes vomit water vapor as well as cinders. The heating effect of the contact of the globe with the comet must have caused a great evaporation from the surface of the seas and rivers. Two kinds of clouds—water vapor and dust—were formed. The clouds obscured the sky, and drifting very low, hung as a fog.
The veil left by the gaseous trail of the hostile star and the smoke of the volcanoes caused darkness, not complete, but profound. This condition prevailed for decades, and only very gradually did the dust subside and the water vapors condense. It is remarkable that a new world age was proclaimed by an Etruscan diviner named Voclanius as having begun with the approach of the comet of — Amid this profound obscurity, ten years before the appearance of the fifth sun, mankind was regenerated.
After this catastrophe, darkness covered the earth: "The sun is veiled and shines not in the sight of men. None can live when the sun is veiled by clouds. None knoweth that midday is there; the shadow is not discerned. Not dazzled is the sight when he [the sun] is beheld; he is in the sky like the moon. If the midday could not be discerned, the disc of the sun was not clearly visible, and only its diffused light made the day different from the night. See Humboldt, Researches, II, The Papyrus Ipuwer, which contains the story of the plagues of Egypt, says that the land is without light [dark].
Jeremiah says 2 : 6 : "Neither said they, Where is the Lord that brought vis up out of the land of Egypt, that led us through the wilderness, through a land of deserts and of pits, through a land of drought, and of the shadow of death, through a land that no man passed through, and where no man dwelt?
The sinister meaning of the words "shadow of death" corresponds with the description of the Ermitage Papyrus: "None can live when the sun is veiled by clouds. The phenomenon of gloom enduring for years impressed itself on the memory of the Twelve Tribes and is mentioned in many passages of the Bible: "Thou hast. The robin-bobin. Israelites "wandered in the wilderness in a solitary way. In Job 38 the Lord speaks: "Who shut up the sea with doors [barriers], when it brake forth. When I made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddling band for it.
These clouds dimly glowed at night; their upper portion reflected the sunlight. The glow being pale during the day and red after sunset, the Israelites were able to distinguish between day and night. The names Bezalel and Rafael mean "in the shadow of God" and "the shade of God. Fresnel , lournal asiatique, In Ages in Chaos these events will be synchronized with the Exodus.
WEBSTER'S GERMAN THESAURUS EDITION
In this gloom Hiko-ho-no-ninigi-no-Mikoto fostered justice, and so governed this western border. The Chinese annals of Wong-shi-Shing, in the chapter dealing with the Ten Stems the ten stages of the earth s primeval history , relate that "at Wu, the sixth stem. On the Samoan islands the aborigines narrate: "Then arose smell. The sea too arose, and in a stupendous catastrophe of nature the land sank into the sea. The new earth the Samoan islands arose out of the womb of the last earth. The heavens are enclosing. Finished is the world of Hawaii. Aston , pp. Chavannes, , I, The migration in Central Polynesia, shrouded in gloom, is narrated in the traditions of the aborigines of this part of the world about a chief named Te-erui who "lived long in utter darkness in Avaiki," who migrated in a canoe named "Weary of Darkness" to find a land of light, and who, after many years of wandering, saw the sky clearing little by little and arrived at a region "where they could see each other clearly.
But the wise men of the Northland could not know the dawn of morning, for the moon shines not in season nor appears the sun at midday, from their stations in the sky-vault. The dreaded shadow covered the earth when Ukko, the highest of the Finnish deities, relinquished the support of the heavens. Hailstones of iron rained down furiously, and then the world became shrouded in a generation-long darkness. This "twilight of the gods" of the Nordic races is but the "shadow 30 Ibid. The entire generation of those who left Egypt perished in the lightless desert.
Vegetation died in the catastrophe. The Iranian book of Bundahis says: "Blight was diffused over the vegetation, and it withered away immediately. For a long time there was no green thing seen; seeds would not germinate in a sunless world. It took many years before the earth again brought forth vegetation; this is told in the written and oral traditions of many peoples. According to American sources, the regeneration of the world and of humankind took place under the veil of the gloomy shadows, and the time is indicated as the end of the fifteenth robin-bobin.
When the breeze blew, the clouds conveyed a sweet odor. In the Papyrus Anastasi IV, written "in the year of misery," in which it is said that the months are reversed, the planet-god is described as arriving "with the sweet wind before him. The fragrance was like that of myrrh and frankincense. The cover of clouds remained over the desert until after the death of Aaron. Ginzberg, Legends, VI, According to Targum Yerushalmi, Exodus 35 : "The clouds brought the perfumes from paradise and placed them in the wilderness for Israel.
The Vedic hymn compares the fragrance of the star Agni to the scent of the lotus. Ambrosia In what way did this veil of gloom dissolve itself? When the air is overcharged with vapor, dew, rain, hail, or snow falls. Most probably the atmosphere discharged its compounds, presumably of carbon and hydrogen, in a similar way. Has any testimony been preserved that during the many years of gloom carbohydrates precipitated? When the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it.
It was called "corn of heaven" and it was ground between stones and baked in pans. The grains dissolved in the heat and evaporated; but in a closed vessel the substance could be preserved for a long time. Bloomfield, , Were such a thing possible, the desert would be preferable to tillable land that yields bread to the laborer only in the sweat of his brow. There was a world fire, says the Icelandic tradition, followed by the Fimbul-winter, and only one human pair remained alive in the north.
The Maoris of New Zealand tell of fiery winds and fierce clouds that lashed the waters into tidal waves that touched the sky and were accompanied by furious hailstorms. The ocean fled. The progeny of the storm and hail were "Mist, and Heavy-dew and Light-dew. Then clear light increased in the world, and the beings who had the Sinai Desert. See F. Bodenheimer and O. Theodor, Ergebnisse der Sinai Expedition , Pt. A German professor suggested also Blattlause. Roscher, Nektar und Ambrosia , p.
But where are forests in a desert where lice would prepare on the leaves of the trees three meals a day for a myriad of migrants? MacCulloch, Eddie Mythology , p. The destruction of the world was accompanied by hurricanes, hail meteorites , and sky-high billows; the land submerged; a mist covered the earth for a long time; heavy dew fell to the ground together with light dew, as in the passage quoted from Numbers 11 : 9.
The writings of Buddhism relate that when a world cycle comes to an end with the world destroyed and the ocean dried up, there is no distinction of day and night and heavenly ambrosia serves as food. These clouds originated from the pillar of cloud. Among the hymns of the Atharva-Veda there is one to the honey-lash: "From heaven, from earth, from the atmosphere, from the sea, from the fire, and from the wind, the honey-lash hath verily sprung.
This, clothed in amrite ambrosia , all the creatures revering, acclaim in their hearts. It is described by the Greek poets in identical terms with manna: it had the taste of honey and a fragrance. This heavenly bread has given classical scholars many headaches. Greek authors from Homer and Hesiod down through the ages continually referred to ambrosia as the heavenly food which in its fluid state is called nectar.
Roscher, Nektar und Ambrosia, p. Budge, The Book of the Dead 2nd ed. What could it be, this heavenly bread, which served also as a veil for a goddess-planet, and was used as an ointment, too? It was honey, said some scholars. But honey is a regular food for mortals, whereas ambrosia was given only to the generation of heroes.
The belief of Aristotle and other writers19 that honey falls from the atmosphere with the dew was based on the experience of those days when the world was veiled in the carbon clouds that precipitated honey-frost. These clouds are described as "dreaded shades" in the Kalevala. From these "dreaded shades," says the epos, honey dropped. All traditions agree also that the source of the heavenly bread falling from the clouds with the morning dew was a celestial body. The Sibyl says that the sweet heavenly bread came from the starry heavens. Crawford , p. For this reason ambrosia or manna is called "heavenly bread.
The haggadic literature says that the quantity which fell every day would have sufficed to nourish the people for two thousand years. The grains also fell upon the water, and the rivers became milky in appearance. The Egyptians relate that the Nile flowed for a time blended with honey. Plutarch, On the Face De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet. See the volume of Manetho in the Loeb Classical Library, pp. The first and second were the colors of the substances, ashes and "blood," that constituted the plagues Exodus 7 and 9 ; the last one was the color of ambrosia that turned into nectar on land and water.
A memory of a time when "streams of milk and streams of sweet nectar flowed" is also preserved in Ovid. Chasms opened up, springs disappeared, and new springs appeared. The horns blown by the priests for seven days played no greater natural role than Moses rod with which, in the legend, he opened a passage in the sea. Bloomfield , pp. Miller, , i. A correct translation requires: "very far at the city Adam. Garstang, The Foundations of Bible History , p. The great walls of Jericho—they were twelve feet wide—have been excavated. The archaeological evidences also prove that robin-bobin. Sellin and C.
Watzinger, Jericho: Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen Garstang and G. Garstang, The Story of Jericho The language of the Talmud and Midrash suggests that the same comet returned after some fifty years. Once more it passed very close to the earth. This time it did not reverse the poles of the earth, but kept the terrestrial axis tilted for a considerable length of time. Again the world was, in the language of the rabbis, "consumed in the whirlwind," "and all the kingdoms tottered," "the earth quaked and trembled from the noise of thunder"; terrified mankind was decimated once more, and carcasses were like rubbish in this Day of Anger.
Stones fell from the heavens, sun and moon stopped in their paths, and a comet must also have been seen. Habakkuk describes the portent in the sky on that memorable day when, in his words, "the sun and moon stood still in their habitation": it had the form of a man on a chariot drawn by horses and was regarded as God s angel. See also Midrash of Rabbi Elieser or of 32 Midot.
Was thine anger against the rivers? Was thy wrath against the sea, that thou didst ride upon thine horses and thy chariots of salvation. Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers. The mountains saw thee, and they trembled: the overflowing of the water passed by: the deep uttered his voice. The sun and moon stood still in their habitation: at the light of thy arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear. Thou didst march through the land in indignation, thou didst thresh the heathen in anger. Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses, through the heap of great waters.
At his step the earth is shaken, at his look nations are scattered, robin-bobin. Art thou wrathful at the sea, that thou art storming on the steeds, upon the chariots in triumph. The hills writhe at thy sight. Thou trampest earth in fury, thou art threshing the peoples in thine anger. James Moffatt, The world burned. The Greek story of Phaethon will be introduced here because of the interpretation heard by Solon during his visit to Egypt. Phaethon The Greeks as well as the Carians and other peoples on the shores of the Aegean Sea told of a time when the sun was driven off its course and disappeared for an entire day, and the earth was burned and drowned.
The Greek legend says that the young Phaethon, who claimed parentage of the sun, on that fatal day tried to drive the chariot of the sun. Phaethon was unable to make his way "against the whirling poles," and "their swift axis" swept him away. Phaethon in Greek means "the blazing one. The chariot of the sun, driven by Phaethon, moved "no longer in the same course as before. It was "borne along just as a ship driven before the headlong blast, whose pilot has let the useless rudder go and abandoned the ship to the gods and prayers.
The meadows are burned to white ashes; the trees are consumed, green leaves and all, and the ripe grain furnishes fuel for its own destruction. Great cities perish with their walls, and the vast conflagration reduces whole nations to ashes. Miller , Book II. Nor does its chilling clime save Scythia; Caucasus burns. Phaethon sees the earth aflame. In this pitchy darkness he cannot tell where he is or whither he is going. The golden sands of Tagus melt in the intense heat, and the swans.
The Nile fled in terror to the ends of the earth. Great cracks yawn everywhere. Even the sea shrinks up, and what was but now a great watery expanse is a dry plain of sand. The mountains, which the deep sea had covered before, spring forth, and increase the numbers of the scattered Cyclades. The disturbance in the movement of the sun was followed by a period as long as a day, when the sun did not appear at all. Ovid continues: "If we are to believe report, one whole day went without the sun. This may 2 "Si modo credimus. The globe changed the inclination of its axis; latitudes changed, too.
Ovid ends the description of the world catastrophe contained in the story of Phaethon: "Causing all things to shake with her mighty trembling, she [the earth] sank back a little lower than her wonted place. He discovered that "neither he himself nor any other Greek knew any thing at all, one might say, about such matters.
One of the priests, an old man,4 said: "There have been and there will be many and divers destructions of mankind, of which the greatest are by fire and water, and lesser ones by countless other means. For in truth the story that is told in your country as well as ours, how once upon a time Phaethon, son of Helios, yoked his father s chariot, and, because he was unable to drive it along the course taken by his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth and himself perished by a thunderbolt—that story, as it is told, has the fashion of a legend, but the truth of it lies in the occurrence of a shifting of the bodies in the heavens which move around the earth, and a destruction of the things on the earth by fierce fire, which recurs at long intervals.
These words of the priest were only an introduction to a revelation of his knowledge about lands that were erased when Greece also and 3 Plato Timaeus transl. Bury, He told the story of a mighty kingdom on a great island in the middle of the Atiantic Ocean that submerged and sank forever into its waters. Atlantis The story narrated by Plato of the island of Atlantis that ruled Africa as far as the border of Egypt and Europe as far as Tuscany on the Apennine peninsula and that in one fatal night was shattered by earthquakes and sank, never ceased to occupy the imagination of the literati.
Strabo and Pliny thought that the story of Atlantis was an illusion of the elderly Plato. But to this day robin-bobin. Poets and novelists have exploited the story freely; scientists have done so with caution. An incomplete catalogue of the literature on Atlantis in included 1, titles. Ceylon, Newfoundland, and Spitzbergen have also been considered.
This was due to the fact that traditions of inundations and submersion of islands exist in all parts of the world. Plato set down what Solon had heard in Egypt from the learned priest. Yonder is a real ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and 1 J. Gattefosse and C. Roux, Bibliographie de TAtlantide et des questions con-nexes Herrmann, Unsere Ahnen und Atlantis Baer, L Atlantique des anciens Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, a great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent; and, moreover, of the lands here within the Straits they ruled over Libya as far as Egypt, and over Europe as far as Tuscany.
Much speculation was offered, not only on the whereabouts of Atlantis, but also on the cultural achievements of its inhabitants. Plato, in another work of his Critias , wrote a political treatise, and, as no real place in the world could have been the scene of his utopia, he chose for that purpose the sunken island. Modern scholars, finding some affinity between American, Egyptian, and Phoenician cultures, think that Atlantis may have been the intermediary link.
There is much probability in these speculations; if they are justified, Crete, a maritime base of Carian navigators, may disclose some information about Atlantis as soon as the Cretan scripts are satisfactorily deciphered. One point in Plato s story about the submersion of Atlantis requires correction. Plato said that Solon told the story to Critias the elder, and that the young Critias, Plato s friend, heard it from his grandfather when he was a ten-year-old boy.
Critias the younger remembered having been told that the catastrophe which befell Atlantis happened 9, years before. There is one zero too many here. We do not know of any vestiges of human culture, aside from that of the Neolithic age, nor of any navigating nation, 9, years before Solon. Numbers we hear in childhood easily grow in our memory, as do dimensions. When revisiting our childhood home, we are surprised at the smallness of the rooms—we had remembered them as much larger.
The destruction of Atlantis is described by Plato as he heard it from his source: "At a later time there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of your [Greek] warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at robin-bobin. As if recalling what had happened, the Psalmist wrote: "Destructions are come to a perpetual end: and thou hast destroyed cities, their memorial is perished with them.
One of them, usually that of Deucalion, is described by Greek authors as having been simultaneous with the conflagration of Phaethon. The floods of Deucalion and Ogyges brought overwhelming destruction to the mainland of Greece and to the islands around and caused changes in the geographical profile of the area. That of Deucalion was most devastating: water covered the land and annihilated the population.
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According to the legend, only two persons— Deucalion and his wife—remained alive. Julius Africanus wrote: "We affirm that Ogygus [Ogyges] from whom the first flood [in Attica] derived its name, and who was saved when many perished, lived at the time of the Exodus of the people from Egypt along with Moses. And that is according to reason. For when the Egyptians were being smitten in the anger of God with hail and storms, it was only to be expected that certain parts of the earth should suffer with them.
Roberts and J. Donaldson , VI, V, Die Chronik, "Chronikon-Kanon. Frazer, Folklore in the Old Testament , I. Seth Calvisius, in Opus chronologicum , assigns the year anno mundi or before the present era to Phaethon s conflagration, and to the Flood of Deucalion, and to the Exodus.
Related Ruf der Tiefe: Roman (Gulliver) (German Edition)
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