But the same work contains an appendix with many examples of proverbs used in arguing for contrary positions, but proverbs that are not inherently contradictory,  such as "One is better off with hope of a cow's return than news of its death" countered by "If you don't know a goat [before its death] you mock at its skin". Though this pair was used in a contradictory way in a conversation, they are not a set of "counter proverbs".
Discussing counter proverbs in the Badaga language , Hockings explained that in his large collection "a few proverbs are mutually contradictory In many cultures, proverbs are so important and so prominent that there are proverbs about proverbs, that is, "metaproverbs". The most famous one is from Yoruba of Nigeria, "Proverbs are the horses of speech, if communication is lost we use proverbs to find it," used by Wole Soyinka in Death and the King's Horsemen. In Mieder's bibliography of proverb studies, there are twelve publications listed as describing metaproverbs.
There is a growing interest in deliberately using proverbs to achieve goals, usually to support and promote changes in society. On the negative side, this was deliberately done by the Nazis. For example, proverbs have been used for teaching foreign languages at various levels. The most active field deliberately using proverbs is Christian ministry, where Joseph G. Healey and others have deliberately worked to catalyze the collection of proverbs from smaller languages and the application of them in a wide variety of church-related ministries, resulting in publications of collections  and applications.
Navy Captain Edward Zellem pioneered the use of Afghan proverbs as a positive relationship-building tool during the war in Afghanistan , and in he published two bilingual collections   of Afghan proverbs in Dari and English, part of an effort of nationbuilding, followed by a volume of Pashto proverbs in There is a longstanding debate among proverb scholars as to whether the cultural values of specific language communities are reflected to varying degree in their proverbs.
Many claim that the proverbs of a particular culture reflect the values of that specific culture, at least to some degree. Many writers have asserted that the proverbs of their cultures reflect their culture and values; this can be seen in such titles as the following: An introduction to Kasena society and culture through their proverbs ,  Prejudice, power, and poverty in Haiti: a study of a nation's culture as seen through its proverbs,  Proverbiality and worldview in Maltese and Arabic proverbs,  Fatalistic traits in Finnish proverbs,  Vietnamese cultural patterns and values as expressed in proverbs ,  The Wisdom and Philosophy of the Gikuyu proverbs: The Kihooto worldview ,  Spanish Grammar and Culture through Proverbs,  and "How Russian Proverbs Present the Russian National Character".
However, a number of scholars argue that such claims are not valid. They have used a variety of arguments. Grauberg argues that since many proverbs are so widely circulated they are reflections of broad human experience, not any one culture's unique viewpoint. Also, within any language's proverb repertoire, there may be "counter proverbs", proverbs that contradict each other on the surface  see section above. When examining such counter proverbs, it is difficult to discern an underlying cultural value.
With so many barriers to a simple calculation of values directly from proverbs, some feel "one cannot draw conclusions about values of speakers simply from the texts of proverbs". Many outsiders have studied proverbs to discern and understand cultural values and world view of cultural communities. Seeking empirical evidence to evaluate the question of whether proverbs reflect a culture's values, some have counted the proverbs that support various values.
For example, Moon lists what he sees as the top ten core cultural values of the Builsa society of Ghana, as exemplified by proverbs. In studying Tajik proverbs, Bell notes that the proverbs in his corpus "Consistently illustrate Tajik values" and "The most often observed proverbs reflect the focal and specific values" discerned in the thesis.
A study of English proverbs created since showed in the s a sudden and significant increase in proverbs that reflected more casual attitudes toward sex. Another study mining the same volume counted Anglo-American proverbs about religion to show that proverbs indicate attitudes toward religion are going downhill.
There are many examples where cultural values have been explained and illustrated by proverbs. For example, from India, the concept that birth determines one's nature "is illustrated in the oft-repeated proverb: there can be no friendship between grass-eaters and meat-eaters, between a food and its eater".
Some scholars have adopted a cautious approach, acknowledging at least a genuine, though limited, link between cultural values and proverbs: "The cultural portrait painted by proverbs may be fragmented, contradictory, or otherwise at variance with reality It is clear that the Soviet Union believed that proverbs had a direct link to the values of a culture, as they used them to try to create changes in the values of cultures within their sphere of domination.
Sometimes they took old Russian proverbs and altered them into socialist forms. Many proverbs from around the world address matters of ethics and expected of behavior. Therefore, it is not surprising that proverbs are often important texts in religions. The most obvious example is the Book of Proverbs in the Bible. Additional proverbs have also been coined to support religious values, such as the following from Dari of Afghanistan:  "In childhood you're playful, In youth you're lustful, In old age you're feeble, So when will you before God be worshipful?
Clearly proverbs in religion are not limited to monotheists; among the Badagas of India Sahivite Hindus , there is a traditional proverb "Catch hold of and join with the man who has placed sacred ash [on himself]. A reference book to the eleven surviving major religions of the world by Selwyn Gurney Champion, from Some sayings from sacred books also become proverbs, even if they were not obviously proverbs in the original passage of the sacred book. Not all religious references in proverbs are positive, some are cynical, such as the Tajik, "Do as the mullah says, not as he does.
An Indian proverb is cynical about devotees of Hinduism, "[Only] When in distress, a man calls on Rama". Dammann wrote, "In the [African] traditional religions , specific religious ideas recede into the background The influence of Islam manifests itself in African proverbs Christian influences, on the contrary, are rare. Reflection of Christian values is common in Amharic proverbs of Ethiopia, an area that has had a presence of Christianity for well over 1, years.
The Islamic proverbial reproduction may also be shown in the image of some animals such as the dog. Although dog is portrayed in many European proverbs as the most faithful friend of man, it is represented in some Islamic countries as impure, dirty, vile, cowardly, ungrateful and treacherous, in addition to links to negative human superstitions such as loneliness, indifference and bad luck. Though much proverb scholarship is done by literary scholars, those studying the human mind have used proverbs in a variety of studies. A similar test is being prepared in German.
The study of proverbs is called paremiology which has a variety of uses in the study of such topics as philosophy , linguistics , and folklore. There are several types and styles of proverbs which are analyzed within Paremiology as is the use and misuse of familiar expressions which are not strictly 'proverbial' in the dictionary definition of being fixed sentences. Grigorii Permjakov  developed the concept of the core set of proverbs that full members of society know, what he called the "paremiological minimum" For example, an adult American is expected to be familiar with "Birds of a feather flock together", part of the American paremiological minimum.
However, an average adult American is not expected to know "Fair in the cradle, foul in the saddle", an old English proverb that is not part of the current American paremiological minimum. Thinking more widely than merely proverbs, Permjakov observed "every adult Russian language speaker over 20 years of age knows no fewer than proverbs, proverbial expressions, popular literary quotations and other forms of cliches".
There is not yet a recognized standard method for calculating the paremiological minimum, as seen by comparing the various efforts to establish the paremiological minimum in a number of languages. A good introduction to the study of proverbs is Mieder's volume, Proverbs: A Handbook. Mieder has also published a series of bibliography volumes on proverb research, as well as a large number of articles and other books in the field. Stan Nussbaum has edited a large collection on proverbs of Africa, published on a CD, including reprints of out-of-print collections, original collections, and works on analysis, bibliography, and application of proverbs to Christian ministry Paremia is a Spanish-language journal on proverbs, with articles available online.
Mieder has published a two-volume International Bibliography of Paremiology and Phraseology , with a topical, language, and author index. The study of proverbs has been built by a number of notable scholars and contributors. Earlier scholars were more concerned with collecting than analyzing.
Desiderius Erasmus was a Latin scholar — , whose collection of Latin proverbs, known as Adagia , spread Latin proverbs across Europe. From the 20th century onwards, proverb scholars were involved in not only collecting proverbs, but also analyzing and comparing proverbs. Archer Taylor was a 20th century American scholar, best known for his "magisterial"  book The Proverb.
Current proverb scholars have continued the trend to be involved in analysis as well as collection of proverbs. Claude Buridant is a 20th century French scholar whose work has concentrated on Romance languages. She has written on proverbs in Jewish traditions. Healey is an American Catholic missionary in Kenya who has led a movement to sponsor African proverb scholars to collect proverbs from their own language communities.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Short traditional saying that expresses a truth. For the biblical text, see Book of Proverbs. See also: List of proverbial phrases. Main article: Paremiology. This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Folklore genres, types, and subtypes. Folk religion Myth Old wives' tale Ritual Legend tripping. Folk song Folk instrument. Folk art Outsider art. Folkloristics Morphology folkloristics Motif folkloristics Aarne—Thompson classification systems. Languages portal Philosophy portal. Not by bread alone: Proverbs of the Bible. New England Press. European Proverbs in 55 Languages. Veszpre'm, Hungary. Wolfgang Mieder. Proverbs are never out of season: Popular wisdom in the modern age Oxford University Press.
The Proverb. Neil Norrick. Amsterdam: Mouton. Anand Prahlad. African-American Proverbs in Context. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. Journal of Islamic and Human Advanced Research 2 Alan Dundes. On whether weather 'proverbs' are proverbs. Proverbium Also, , in Folklore Matters edited by Alan Dundes, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. The Academy. July 14, no. Gillian Hansford.
Understanding Chumburung proverbs. Journal of West African Languages Daniel Ben-Amos. Introduction: Folklore in African Society. Forms of Folklore in Africa , edited by Bernth Lindfors, pp. Austin: University of Texas. Sabir Badalkhan. Messenger, Jr. Anang Proverb-Riddles. The Journal of American Folklore Vol. Finnegan, Ruth. Oral Literature in Africa. The Saylor Foundation, International Journal of Linguistics and Communication 11 2 , Iranian Studies Myanmar Proverbs in Myanmar and English.
Yangon: Pattamya Ngamank Publishing. The Dictionary of Modern Proverbs. New Haven: Yale University Press. Kent, Graeme. Aesop's Fables. Newmarket, UK: Brimax. Advice is a dangerous gift. Tolkien's Hobbit. University of Pennsylvania: PhD dissertation. Alster, Bendt. An Akkadian and a Greek proverb. A comparative study. Die Welt des Orients Moran, William L. An Assyriological gloss on the new Archilochus fragment. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology Prejudice, power, and poverty in Haiti: A study of a nation's culture as seen through its proverbs.
Aquilina, Joseph. A Comparative Dictionary of Maltese Proverbs. Malta: Royal University of Malta. Mongolian Proverbs: A window into their world. San Diego: Alethinos Books. Okumba Miruka. Oral Literature of the Luo. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers. Yale University Press. Proverbs are never out of season. New York: Oxford University Press. Vladimir: Vladimirskii Gosudarstvennyie Universitet, Pragmatic and stylistic aspects of proverbs. Flavell, Linda and roger Flavell.
The Dictionary of Proverbs and Their Origins. London: Kyle Cathie. Evan Bell. An analysis of Tajik proverbs. Masters thesis, Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics. Research in African Literatures Vol.
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Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society , 13, — Syntactic Structures in Irish-Language Proverbs. Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship 29, Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages Khakas and Shor proverbs and proverbial sayings. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Sakayan, Dora. Reported and direct speech in proverbs: On Armenian dialogue proverbs. Mitchison, Naomi and Amos Kgamanyane Pilane. Folklore Vol. Kone, Kasim. Bamana verbal art: An ethnographic study of proverbs.
PhD dissertation, Indiana University. Michael Ahland. From topic to subject: Grammatical change in the Amharic possessive construction. Studies in Language Nikolaos Lazaridis. Christopher J. Translating New Testament proverb-like sayings in the style of Nsenga proverbs. Archaic lexis in Polish Proverbs. The proverb in Venda: a linguistic analysis. MA Diss. University of Johannesburg, Watson, Wilfred GE. Classical Hebrew poetry: a guide to its techniques. Sanusi and R.
The role of Yoruba proverbs in preserving archaic lexical items and expressions in Yoruba. DOI: Thomas Fielding. Select proverbs of all nations. New York: Covert. On a mountain there is still a road. Peshawar, Pakistan: InterLit Foundation. Calvin C. Katabarwa and Angelique Chelo. Wisdom from Orma, Kenya proverbs and wise sayings. Nairobi: African Proverbs Working Group.
The Sound of the One Hand. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. Zarbul Masalha: Aghan Dari proverbs. Philip B. Yampolsky, trans. New York, Columbia University Press. Indian Wisdom and Its Spread beyond India. Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. Proverbia Septentrionalia. Phraseology in planned languages. Language problems and language planning Gertrud Schneider-Blum.
The Reed book of Maori proverbs. Reed Books, Senft, Gunter. The Trobriand Islanders' Ways of Speaking. Volume 27 of Trends in Linguistics. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Mieder, Wolfgang. Proverbs: A handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society.
The function of proverbs in discourse. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. A contextual study of the social functions of Guji-Oromo proverbs. Saabruecken: DVM Verlag. Niane's Sundiata: An Epic of Mali". Proverbium — Culture, tradition and society in the West African novel. CUP Archive, Peter Unseth and Georgi Kapchits. The proverbs of Middle-Earth , 2nd edition. Hayes, Kevin. Kent: Kent State UP, Renker, Elizabeth. Mellville and the Worlds of Civil War Poetry. Leviathan — A culture "full of choice apophthegms and useful maxims": invented proverbs in C.
Taylor, Archer. Some notes on the use of proverbs in Chinese novels. Proverbium no. No use dying over spelled milk. New York: Penguin Books. When life gives you lululemons. Blessed are the Cheesemakers. Stanton, Michael. Repinecz, Jonathon. Whose Hero? University of California, Berkeley: PhD dissertation. Supplement Series of Proverbium , Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. Macfie and F. A Proverb Poem by Refiki. Asian Folklore Studies Vol.
Akande, Akinmade Timothy and Adebayo Mosobalaje. The use of proverbs in hip-hop music: The example of Yoruba proverbs in 9ices's music. Journal of American Folklore : Lau, Peter Tokofsky, Stephen D. Winick, eds. Philadelphia: John Winston. The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs , 5th ed. The Proverbial Charles Dickens. Bryan and Wolfgang Mieder. Heinemann Educational Books. Burlington: University of Vermont. Supplement series to Provebium, All our eggs in a broken basket: How the Human Terrain System is undermining sustainable military cultural competence. Military Review, March—April: 57— Between a Rock and a Soft Place.
Christian Higher Education Introduction to Paremiology. Berlin: De Gruyter Open. Online: Open Access version. Ahmed and Reginald H. The heritage of war and state collapse in Somalia and Somaliland. Third World Quarterly Set the overgrowth alight and the new shoots will spring forth: New directions in community based research. Coinage in the Northumbrian landscape and economy, c.
Leeds University: Doctoral dissertation. The Poetics of the Ancient Greek Proverb. Journal of Folklore Research Vol. Dissertation at Marburg Fr. The proverbial wisdom of Shakespeare.
New York: Garland. Paremia University of Pennsylvania dissertation. Proverb is as proverb does. New York, Bern: Peter Lang. Is seeing believing? Proverbs and the adaptation of a fairy tale. Proverbium 7: The function of proverbs in discourse , p. The Athlete: a movie about the Ethiopian barefooted Olympic champion. Journal of African Cultural Studies Vol. Silly Girls. Sight and Sound Proverbial titles of dramas. Kwesi Yankah. The Proverb in the Context of Akan Rhetoric.
Bern: Peter Lang. Proverb usage in the praise songs of Igede: Adiyah poet Micah Ichegbeh. Refranes en las canciones de Chava Flores. Paremia , pp. Proverbs in the Blues. See pp. A discography of American Country music hits employing proverb: Covering the years Proceedings for the Stillwater, Oklahoma: The Association. Supplement series of Proverbium Linguistica Ljubljana Retrieved The Guardian.
Singh, Anup K. Dictionary of Proverbs. Neelkanth Prakashan Publishers.
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Courtroom proverbial murals in Lebanon: a semiotic reconstruction of justice. Social Semiotics DOI Watermark Publishing. Research in African Literatures Regulating the reality? Proverbs in Polish graffiti, Estonia and Poland. Creativity and Tradition in Cultural Communication 1, Archived from the original on Yoko Mori.
Review of Dictionary of Japanese Illustrated Proverbs. Kenyatta University PhD dissertation. Richard Honeck. A Proverb in Mind. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Design and Art Australia Online. Retrieved 3 June Die Unterrichtspraxis Bonn: Praesens. Old wisdom reimagined: Proverbial cartoons for university students. Tradition and innovation: Proverbs in advertising. Journal of Popular Culture Fall into the intertextual gap: Proverbs, advertisements, and intertextual strategies.
Bread, the staff of advertising. Paremia 9: Proverbs in Zimbabwean advertisements. Journal of Folklore Research Liveson Tatira. Counter proverbs. In Doing proverbs and other kinds of folklore , by Charles Clay Doyle, Journal of Language and Social Psychology 6. Simple Together World Horse. When someone is good at what he does but is a nonconformist, there is a temptation in horse racing, like in all kinds of other areas of human endeavor, to dismiss him for his nonconformity rather than to recognize him for his excellence.
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Good Excellence Horse Racing. I love horse racing, I play golf, and I love travelling. Ian Rush. Love Horse Racing Golf. The profession of book writing makes horse racing seem like a solid, stable business. John Steinbeck. Business Horse Racing Book.
It is true that the Puritans banned all recreation on Sundays and all games of chance, gambling, bear baiting, horse racing, and bowling in or around taverns at all times. They did so, not because they were opposed to fun, but because they judged these activities to be inherently harmful or immoral.
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Chantal Sutherland. Love Horse Racing Nothing. Horse racing is animated roulette. Roger Kahn. Horse Racing Roulette Animated. The sport of horse racing which, at its best, showcases the majestic beauty of this animal and the athleticism of jockeys, has reached an alarming level of corruption and exploitation. Tom Udall. Beauty Best Animal Horse. Along with my passion for horse breeding, I was a horse racing enthusiast In I was elected as a committee member and subsequently as a steward of the Turf Club.
I had a burning desire to clean up the sport, which had always carried the stigma of gambling and manipulation. Cyrus S. Passion Horse Racing Always. Football is only once a week. Those sports are insanely popular. Horse racing is oversaturated. Unless tracks cut back to three days a week of full fields, a lot of people will really hurt down the road.
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