This set of words has been reduced according to several etymological criteria, as described in Section 2 above: 1 words that are attested in Old Irish are eliminated as pre-dating the contact period, 2 words with likely cognates given elsewhere in non-Germanic Eu- ropean languages, e. Parenthetical notes in that column remark on trends in the use of either the ON or SG word e.
Notes in square brackets give words in SG further derived from transferred ON bases. Some words fit into more than one category, however, and others would seem to fit in none of them. This allows each word to be counted once, but also shows any possible semantic clustering by initial segment.
References Blake, John L. Scottish Studies Lochlann 6. Calder, George. A Gaelic Grammar. Glasgow: MacLaren. Chadwick, Nora K. Chen, Matthew Y. Language Cheng, C. Kachru et al. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Fellows-Jensen, Gillian. Edinburgh: John Donald. Haugen, Einar. The Scandinavian Languages: An introduction to their history. Cambridge, Mass. Henderson, George. The Norse Influence on Celtic Scotland. Gamalnorsk ordbok, med nynorsk tyding. Oslo: Det Norske samlaget. Jackson, Kenneth H. Jennings, Andrew. Language Contact across the North Atlantic ed.
MacAlpine, Neil. A Pronouncing Gaelic-English Dictionary. Glasgow: Gairm. MacBain, Alexander. Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. New York: Hippocrene. MacEachen, Eoghan. Perth: R. MacLennan, Malcolm.
Marstrander, Carl J. Bidrag til det Norske Sprogs Historie i Irland. Klasse, No. Kristiania: Jacob Dybwad. Nicolaisen, W. Scottish Studies 4. Scottish Studies 8. Scottish Language 7.
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Oftedal, Magne. Scottish Gaelic Studies Rogers, Henry. Studia Celtica 7. Lingua Schulze-Thulin, Britta. Language Contact across the North Atlantic.
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Sommerfelt, Alf. Paper presented at the 9th International Morphology Meeting, Vienna. Dissertation, The Ohio State University. Thomason, Sarah G. Language Contact. Thurneysen, Rudolf. A Grammar of Old Irish. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Van Coetsem, Frans.
Dordrecht: Foris. Leuvense Bijdragen Heidelberg: Winter. Wang, William S. The Lexicon in Phonological Change. The Hague: Mouton. Watson, Seosamh. Weinreich, Uriel. Languages in Contact: Findings and problems. Reprinted E-mail: tstewart truman. Related Papers. Phonetic variation, sound change, and identity in Scottish Gaelic.
By Claire Nance. Scandinavian-Gaelic Contacts. By Peder Gammeltoft. Vikings in the Hebridean economy: methodology and Gaelic language evidence of Scandinavian influence. By Roderick McDonald. The sub-types of intial lenition in Scottish Gaelic. By Thomas W Stewart. Many of the now-Christians from the Hebridean Gall-Gaidheal played a considerable part in the colonisation of Iceland in the late ninth century, and there is evidence to suggest they also took part in the fairly heavy settlement of Cumbria during that period. By the time of Somerled and his sons, at the very least a token adherence to the Christian religion had taken over, indeed to the extent that Somerled started and his son completed a small chapel on Iona, which had suffered so badly from the earlier depredations.
Ironic perhaps, but the descendants of those who first so dismayed the Christians were now fast becoming its adherents and indeed its principal benefactors. It should be becoming obvious by now that a number of similarities between the traditions of the Viking settlers and the Gaels are apparent, and the fusion of these traditions as they interbred and became one people solidified them. A strong oral historical, poetic and genealogical focus in both traditions fused to strengthen their ways and formed the forerunners of the highland bards or seannachies.
The strength of kith and kin connections gelled to form the precursor to the later clan system and indeed in my opinion built the foundations for the entire Highland way of life — loyalty to the tribal leader and clan members, the relatively insular self-help methods found in somewhat isolated communities, and raiding of nearby neighbours in an almost ritualistic fashion. Cattle die, kinsmen die The self must also die; but glory never dies, for the man who is able to achieve it.
It can be seen from these that, although some of their code may appear a little brutal to the modern mind, particularly to those whose adherence to political correctness is of the zealot variety, the ideals and mindset of the Vikings was well-suited to their relatively harsh environment and the flourishing of their local communities. Living by this code would not be too difficult for most people of the time, as its inherent righteousness is too easily apparent. Perhaps it may be insufficiently gender-generous for the modern feminist, but that is to examine it too closely with a contemporary mindset, and also to conveniently forget that women played just as specific a part in daily life then as they do today.
At least there was little of the patronising misogyny so apparent in the laws of the Christians…. A society with a strong oral tradition, they exhibited a love of word-play and riddling, something that has been evident in many early cultures — c. Oedipus and the Sphinx, which dates from around BCE. I have quoted an example in Appendix 2. But the design of their ships, both the raiding craft and the trading ones, influenced the native island design heavily.
Most of the island craft prior to the Viking incursion was along the curragh model, a simple framework covered with animal hide — and rather unsuited to long voyages, though some were of course accomplished St Brendan springs to mind. Once the new idea caught on, the Western Isles were rapidly denuded of trees, for in point of fact in early times they were heavily afforested. The well-known galley or birlinn of the Isles is nothing more than a late-model Viking longship, with its high curved prow and stern, the single fixed rudder, facilities for both oars and sail and very shallow draft.
One final thing really has to be mentioned when talking about the overall Viking culture. The monks and literati of the early church generally describe them as barbarians. However, a quick contrasting of the hygienic practices of the two may lead to somewhat different conclusions. As one of the sagas makes clear during a passage giving advice to those reading - Combed and washed every thoughtful man should be and fed in the morning; for one cannot foresee where one will be by evening; it is bad to rush headlong before one's fate.
The thirteenth-century English chronicler, John of Wallingford, recorded complaints about it; he claimed that the Vikings had always been combing their hair and taking baths and changing their underwear, which gave them an unfair advantage over their Anglo-Saxon rivals for the affections of the local maidens!
This obsession with personal hygiene is borne out by numerous finds of grooming kits, comprising tweezers, ear scoops and finger-nail scrapers, in both male and female grave goods. It is generally held by Anglo-orientated historians that the Viking Age came to an end with the death of the English king Harold in , defeated by William of Normandy, himself of Norse descent. The Orkneys, Shetlands and Caithness remained under token Norse ownership for many more years.
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Unfortunately for him he drowned on the way home from his wedding. Alexander II had already decided to trim the wings of the Lordship, but fell ill and died during an expedition in His son started negotiations with Haakon in but Haakon declined to cede the Isles to Scotland. He decided instead to invade, and this led to the Battle of Largs in , and in July of a treat was made ceding Man and all the Sudreys to Alexander for the princely sum of 4, marks in 4 yearly instalments, and marks annually thereafter.
In the 14th century, the Earldom of Orkney passed by marriage and descent to the St Clair family. Arguments over various missed payments for the Sudreys interrupted negotiations over many years, but in a treaty was signed and James III took Margaret of Denmark as his bride, part of her dowry being the Orkneys. The remainder of the dowry continued outstanding until , when Christian of Denmark ceded the Shetlands to Scotland in remittance.
As, to my mind, are the impressions they have given over the years of a group of people who not only were responsible for many aspects of Scottish culture, but whose pioneering spirit lives on in many Scots today. Gifting is praiseworthy. Generosity is praiseworthy. Moderation is praiseworthy. Courage is praiseworthy.
The seeking of good over ill is praiseworthy. Hospitality is praiseworthy. Courtesy is praiseworthy.
THE NORSE INFLUENCE ON CELTIC SCOTLAND.
Tolerance is praiseworthy. The pursuit of wisdom and knowledge is praiseworthy. The defence of freedom is praiseworthy. Industriousness is praiseworthy. Vigilance is praiseworthy. The protection, nurturing and forbearing of kin is praiseworthy. Showing respect for elders is praiseworthy.
Loyalty to friends and kin is praiseworthy. Keeping an oath is praiseworthy. Honouring the sanctity of marriage is praiseworthy. Refraining from mockery is praiseworthy. Refraining from arrogance is praiseworthy. Making kin, honour and justice more important than gold is praiseworthy. Cleanliness is praiseworthy.
Good organization is praiseworthy. Persistence is praiseworthy. The rule of law is praiseworthy. To try ones steel against an opponent fairly is praiseworthy.
THE NORSE INFLUENCE ON CELTIC SCOTLAND. » 30 Apr » The Spectator Archive
Respect for the dead is praiseworthy. For a man to never strike a woman is praiseworthy. I am man's treasure, taken from the woods, Cliff-sides, hill-slopes, valleys, downs; By day wings bear me in the buzzing air, Slip me under a sheltering roof-sweet craft.
Soon a man bears me to a tub. Bathed, I am binder and scourge of men, bring down The young, ravage the old, sap strength. Soon he discovers who wrestles with me My fierce body-rush - I roll fools Flush on the ground. Robbed of strength, Reckless of speech, a man knows no power Over hands, feet, mind.
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