The Anglican church continues to be the state church, and with other religions being persecuted until the early 19th century, became the majority religion. Catholics, the only legal religion until , suffered severe persecution over the next three centuries. Despite this, they survived in low numbers, especially in the north of England.
In all persecution against Catholics ended. Between the mid nineteenth century and mid twentieth century the number of Catholics increased due to Irish immigration and conversions from Anglicanism. Traditionally, any Protestant religion in England that is not Anglican is referred to as non-conformist. Protestant dissent against Anglicanism began in the reign of Elizabeth I , and these dissenters sought a more "pure" Protestantism, thus the name "Puritan".
Puritans were strongly linked to the side of Parliament in the English Civil War. Following the restoration of the Monarchy, the Act of Uniformity clarified Anglican doctrine and persecuted those who did not adhere to it. Persecution was relaxed in Methodism was started later, by John Wesley By , there were 4. The Puritan movement split in two: the Presbyterians and the Separatists. Many Puritans backed Parliament, which defeated and executed Charles I. Nonconformists were allowed their own places of worship and their own teachers, if they accepted certain oaths of allegiance.
The movement becomes known as the Plymouth Brethren. However, about Congregational churches have continued in their historic independent tradition. The following major events affected church history and the records. England History mentions other specific events.
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This record became known as the "parish register. Ministers were required to send copies of their parish registers to the bishop of the diocese. A fine was imposed for not complying. Many people obeyed regarding burials, but baptisms and marriages continued in secret. These records are unique among English religious records because they are so detailed. To avoid the tax, some people did not register events. In effect, it placed a bounty on Catholic priests.
Protestantism in the United Kingdom
Common law marriages were also outlawed. Some laws against Roman Catholics were repealed, including those related to taking and prosecuting priests. Catholics were also enabled to inherit and purchase land.
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- Unit 1 - The Church of England in the Sixteenth Century;
- History and organization.
- The English Reformation.
Many priests started to keep records. Printed forms were used. However, religious events were still recorded in parish registers. Henry's personal faith seldom strayed farther from Catholic orthodoxy than politics required. After he had jettisoned his first wife, the Pope, and Latin Mass, he desired little further change in doctrine of liturgy. But many of his subjects had lived with-or in-an heretical subculture, Lollard or Protestant.
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All had seen a king upend the Vicar of Christ, compel monks to marry nuns, and embark on his own series of scandalous marital experiments. So they were bound to question the number of sacraments, the existence of purgatory, and nearly everything else that came to mind.
Protestantism flourished despite royal disapproval, and Henry vacillated. Ruling as lord protector, the boy's uncle Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, relaxed controls on religious dissent and set off raucous debate. In order to restore a measure of uniformity, he persuaded Parliament in to require use of Thomas Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer.
Peasants in Cornwall, Devon, and Norfolk immediately rose up against the Prayer Book as well as inflation, enclosure, eviction, and ruinous war with Scotland and by now France. Before the year ended, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland broke off the war and turned to erasing the last traces of Catholicism.
He imprisoned conservative bishops, issued a clearly Protestant second edition of the Prayer Book , replaced church altars with tables, simplified clerical vestments, and pushed a harsher Act of Uniformity through Parliament. He further inflamed popular anger by plundering church resources and, after Edward's death , maneuvering his own daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, onto the throne. Given the unpalatable choice between two queens, the people supported Mary Tudor.
Northumberland and his puppet were soon imprisoned in the Tower of London. Mere rumors that Mary intended to wed her Catholic first cousin Philip II of Spain and re-establish the Catholic Church caused a revolt in Kent, but she proceeded to do both. Scores of leading Protestants fled to Geneva and other havens on the Continent, where they came under the influence of Calvinism.
Church of England - HISTORY
Cranmer and some others were martyred in the Smithfield Fires. In five years, England lost a great deal, including Calais, her last piece of France.
When "Bloody" Mary Tudor died childless in , England rejoiced to be rid of her, if not to get her twenty-five-year-old half-sister in the bargain. Elizabeth I quickly disestablished Roman Catholicism once and for all. The Elizabethan Settlement was her attempt to replace both the Catholic Church and her father's Church of England with a coherent "reformed Catholicism," Roman in most doctrines, but national in organization and worship.
In she made the Thirty-Nine Articles the doctrinal standard. Recognizing the ability of "zely people" fervent Protestants and Catholics to frighten one another into supporting her moderate approach, Elizabeth replaced numerous bishops with clerics radicalized by exile on the continent. Although they and the more-extreme Puritans preferred the simplicity and "purity" of the first-century church and theocracy of Geneva, memories of Mary Tudor's excesses kept them from undermining the status quo. Elizabeth's great popularity and her skill in playing zealots against one another allowed her to keep the several church parties in dynamic balance.
Religion colored nearly every issue for the remainder of Elizabeth's forty-five year reign. Elizabeth prudently placed her under house arrest. Protestant extremists saw her as another Bloody Mary and plotted her death. Catholics saw Mary as the rightful ruler of England. In northern earls led a Catholic rebellion.
Mary Queen of Scots had been raised in France, and the French saw her as a means of tipping the scales against Spain. By Protestants in Elizabeth's government had steered her into a position in which she had no choice but to execute Mary. Foreign affairs became an extension of religious conflict. Desire to stamp out Protestantism partially inspired Spain to send Jesuit provocateurs to England, launch the Armada, and perform other unfriendly acts.
Missionary zeal helped revive English interest in New World colonies and caused England to give military support to Protestant rebels in the Spanish Netherlands. Elizabeth's lack of a husband or an heir also took on religious overtones. Beginning in Parliament presumed to demand that she either marry and produce a Protestant heir or appoint a Protestant successor.
Such intrusions were to be expected, for Henry VIII had granted, and Elizabeth had endorsed, the right of Commons to discuss any matter, including the church, without limit. Protestant extremists therefore used Parliament to push reform of church and state beyond the lines that Elizabeth had drawn. John Field and Thomas Wilcox published their Admonition to the Parliament advocating "the restitution of religion and reformation of God's church. Matters came to a head in , when Puritans submitted bills to abolish the episcopacy and the Prayer Book.
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Elizabeth ordered the bills withdrawn and threw Peter Wentworth in the Tower when he protested, but Commons persisted in offering unwelcome opinions. The shortage of qualified lower-ranking clergymen loyal to the Elizabethan Settlement led to lax enforcement of religious conformity laws and the development of "prophesyings," local Bible-study groups. The prophesyings caused in turn the rapid evolution of a class of independent preachers and lecturers. Many prophesyings became independent congregations willing to undertake further reform on their own. Elizabeth was able to suppress some prohesyings, to purge the Church of Presbyterian innovations, and to rally bishops to defense of the episcopacy; but these successes did not long survive her.
From the beginning, the Church of England was an unstable coalition of Protestant fanatics, closet Catholics, opportunists, and confused believers with no factional allegiance. Throughout the sixteenth century the church attracted and repelled foreign and domestic support for itself and for the Crown while trying to reconcile the conflicting demands of faith and statecraft. Elizabeth's middle way did not satisfy extremists, nor did it win many friends among those who had been content with the Church under Henry VIII.
In the next century the coalition fell apart at last, and England sank into civil war. Explore This Park. Info Alerts Maps Calendar. Alerts In Effect Dismiss.
Related The Church and the Monarchy in the 16th Century: England became Protestant
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