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Two fundamental procedures are possible for the successful controlling of these dismantling projects: a centralized or a decentralized management organization. How these project control processes can be realized in an optimal way, is, next to other economic specifications of the dismantling of nuclear power plants, the topic of a new research project of the Chair of Management Accounting at the University Duisburg-Essen. In that process, results and experiences from other research and practical projects concerning general large-scale projects are being used.
Selected findings have been compiled and are being discussed in this paper. The billion euro market. Dismantling of nuclear power plants; Der Milliarden-Euro-Markt. Rueckbau von Kernkraftwerken. Technologieberatung und Interim Management. The decommissioning of the shut-down nuclear power plants is an enormous market potential.
In order to develop this strategic business segment, different strategies offer for companies. Um dieses strategische Geschaeftsfeld zu erschliessen, bieten sich fuer Unternehmen unterschiedliche Strategien an. Ruimte in regels : 10 succesvolle voorbeelden op wet en regelgeving binnen ruimtelijke ordening voor multifunctionele landbouw voor en door gemeenten. Deze VNG brochure geeft een overzicht van 10 succesvolle voorbeelden op wet en regelgeving binnen ruimtelijke ordening voor multifunctionele landbouw voor en door gemeenten. Van traditionele bestemmingsplannen naar een nieuw, ontwikkelingsgericht beleid.
De brochure is samengesteld door PPO. Exposure to gamma irradiation at doses 0. Using gamma irradiation at level of 20 and 40 Gy stimulated both leaf shape and thickness of stem. The contents of total phenol, total saponin and some unsap contents were increased with increasing gamma irradiation. The new title financial incentives regulations of the Dutch government are outlined.
The regulations offer the tax payer a number of financial advantages when investments are made for energy saving capital goods. Also for installers and advisors the regulations offer new chances to realize energy saving measures in maintenance, replacement or extension of existing installations. Omkering van de bewijslast: knelpunten in de regeling en bij de toepassing van de omkering van de sanctie deel I.
De omkering van de bewijslast als processuele sanctie op het niet nakomen van de aangifteplicht en de daaraan verbonden bijkomende verplichtingen lijken niet weg te denken uit ons belastingrecht. Diurnal versus nocturnal pollination success in Billbergia horrida Regel Bromeliaceae and the first record of chiropterophily for the genus. Full Text Available Billbergia horrida is endemic of the Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil and characterized by flowers with typical traits for pollination by nocturnal animals.
Although the majority of Billbergia species rely on diurnal pollination by hummingbirds, B. The role of different groups of pollinators on the reproductive success of B. Bats contributed to Amounts of nectar production and sugar concentration were similar to those of other chiropterophilous bromeliads and only the nectar volume changed significantly throughout the period of flower availability.
Recurring visits by hummingbirds were probably because the flowers of B. Effect of gamma irradiation and chemical mutations on production and genetic behaviour of spathiphyllum wallisii regel in vitro. In vitro culture of Spathiphyllum wallisii using different types of nutrient media, different explants, growth regulators, different mutations treatments; gamma irradiation, colchicine and sodium azide, and SDS protein electrophoresis was investigated. The study was carried out during in tissue culture laboratory of natural products department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Egypt.
The obtained results showed that culturing shoot tip of Spathiphyllum wallisii on Murashige and Skoog medium MS was effective in enhancing establishment stage than Lavopivre or White media. Also, exposing plantlets to gamma irradiation at 0. The most effective band was band number 6 with molecular weight 83Kda, which was present with sodium azide treatment at 0. Safety-relevant assessment concerning the proposals for investigations in proposed locations for stage 3 of the deep geological repositories project; Sicherheitstechnisches Gutachten zum Vorschlag der in Etappe 3 SGT weiter zu untersuchenden geologischen Standortgebiete - Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager, Etappe 2.
Important basic considerations to be made when narrowing down the choice of host rock types and the selection of possible locations are discussed. These include, amongst others, safety concepts for the repositories, geological models and technical feasibility of repositories in Opalinus Clay, Brown Dogger layers and marl.
The properties of various host rocks are discussed. Methods to be used in choosing at least two possible sites for repositories are considered. Also, the radioactive dosage to be expected at the various sites proposed is discussed. A safety-relevant comparison of the sites is made and an overall assessment is presented. The locations proposed for surface facilities at three proposed locations are discussed. The report is completed with an appendix containing tables and a list of relevant expert reports. According to nuclear legislation, the owner of an operational license for a nuclear power plant has to provide a periodic safety verification PSU every 10 years.
The Beznau-1 nuclear reactor block KKB1 received its definitive operational license in October , after test operation during 7 months. Moreover, it laid down that NOK has to periodically report on the safety of the facility. The extent of the PSU was defined in such a way that many documents concern the whole power plant, i. It contains documents for the evaluation of both reactor blocks at KKB. The evaluation of ageing surveillance takes the whole operational period of the facility into account, i.
Moreover, important developments that occurred after the surveillance time interval have been taken into account, especially the status of the examination of the defects discovered during the revision shutdown in concerning the material of the reactor pressure vessel of block 1. Otherwise, the necessary refit works have to be performed in time. KKB has produced the requested proof for the long-term operation of both blocks. ENSI concludes that there are no safety technical objections against the operation of both blocks beyond the limit of 40 years. On the basis of the state of knowledge when the considerations were made, the criteria for shutting down will not be reached in the 10 following operational years, neither by KKB1 nor by KKB2.
Technical expertise on the safety of the proposed geological repository sites. Planning for geological deep repositories, step 1; Sicherheitstechnisches Gutachten zum Vorschlag geologischer Standortgebiete. Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager, Etappe 1. On October 17, , on request of those Swiss government institutions responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA presented its project concerning geological sites for the foreseen disposal of radioactive wastes to the Federal Authorities.
According to the present disposal concept, two types of repository are foreseen: one for highly radioactive wastes HAA and the other for low radioactive and intermediate-level radioactive wastes SMA. If a site fulfils the necessary conditions for both HAA as well as for SMA, a combined site for both types of waste may be chosen. The project for deep underground waste disposal first defines the process and the criteria according to which sites for the geological storage of all types of radioactive wastes in Switzerland have to be chosen.
The choice is based on the actual knowledge of Swiss geology. After dividing the wastes into SMA and HAA, some large-scale areas are to be identified according to their suitability from the geological and tectonic points of view. NAGRA's division of waste into SMA and HAA is based on calculations of the long-term safety for a broad range of different rock types and geological situations and takes the different properties of all waste types into account. The safety concept of the repository is based on passive systems using technical and natural barriers.
From the point of view of stability of the geologic underground in Switzerland, the Alps and the North-Western regions are considered to be unsuitable because of geologic faults and higher seismic activity. The eastern part of the Jura and the central sandstone region are, on the contrary, considered to be suitable and, partly, even very suitable. Because of its chemical characteristics and especially its water-tightness, Opalinus clay is the most suitable rock; but for SMA some other sediment rock types lying above the Opalinus clay can also be considered for storage.
Safety analysis and lay-out aspects of shieldings against particle radiation at the example of spallation facilities in the megawatt range; Sicherheitstechnische Analyse und Auslegungsaspekte von Abschirmungen gegen Teilchenstrahlung am Beispiel von Spallationsanlagen im Megawatt Bereich. This paper discusses the shielding of particle radiation from high current accelerators, spallation neutron sources and so called ADS-facilities Accelerator Driven Systems.
ADS-facilities are expected to gain importance in the future for transmutation of long-lived isotopes from fission reactors as well as for energy production. In this paper physical properties of the radiation as well as safety relevant requirements and corresponding shielding concepts are discussed. New concepts for the layout and design of such shielding are presented.
Focal point of this work will be the fundamental difference between conventional fission reactor shielding and the safety relevant issues of shielding from high-energy radiation. Key point of this paper is the safety assessment of shielding issues of high current accelerators, spallation targets and ADS-blanket systems as well as neutron scattering instruments at spallation neutron sources.
Safety relevant shielding requirements are presented and discussed. For the layout and design of the shielding for spallation sources computer base calculations methods are used. A discussion and comparison of the most important methods like semi-empirical, deterministic and stochastic codes are presented. Another key point within the presented paper is the discussion of shielding materials and their shielding efficiency concerning different types of radiation.
The use of recycling material, as a cost efficient solution, is discussed. Based on the conducted analysis, flowcharts for a systematic layout and design of adequate shielding for targets and accelerators have been developed and are discussed in this paper. By use of these flowcharts layout and engineering design of future ADS-facilities can be performed. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW.
Ellinger, A. The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available.
With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management.
The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed.
Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing an ageing management program for dry cask storage facilities. From the gained results and findings recommendations were derived, which are on the one hand directed to the implementation of a periodic safety review, and on the other hand addressing safety issues which could be important in case of a needed extension of the storage period.
The report comes to the conclusion that on the base of the analyses performed herein no indication on unexpected long term effects nor on insufficient justification of safety during the planned regular period of storage was found. In addition the report provides recommendations regarding the implementation of a systematic ageing management program in the frame of the planned 40 years storage period and for an extension, if this should be necessary. The inspection robot developed by Siemens KWU for BWR reactor pressure vessel inspection has a mounting plate with exchangeable parts so as to fit into the various profiles of the vertical guiding tracks at the different pressure vessels.
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The robot is a versatile device also due to its variable cinematic equipment and thus can be used for any task hitherto performed by the available manipulators. The newly developed manipulator of Siemens for inspection of the RPV nozzles can be moved to the nozzles either by manipulating arms or by a floating device, and is fixed to the nozzles by means of pneumatic suckers. Due to the modular design, probe arrays can be exchanged according to nozzle size or structural profiles to be tested. The mobile testing robot SISTAR for PWR pressure vessels consists of a floating cylinder platform that is moved under water to the target position by popellers or by ropes.
It is self-adjusting for taking horizontal position and is held in position in the center of the RPV by means of a radial arrangement of legs automatically and synchronously extending from the robot. The platform can be equipped with one or two manipulator arms, depending on the testing task. Er ist damit auch aufgrund seiner variablen Kinematik universell einsetzbar und kann saemtliche herkoemmliche Manipulatoren ersetzen. Die zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung von Stutzen im Reaktordruckbehaelter von Siedewasserreaktoren erfolgte ueblicherweise von der Aussenseite der Komponente.
Der von Siemens neu entwickelte Stutzenmanipulator kann mittels Handhabungsgestaenge oder optional durch Schwimmeinrichtung an den zu pruefenden Stutzen gefahren und dort durch pneumatische Saugteller fixiert werden. Aufgrund des modularen Aufbaus koennen unterschiedliche Pruefkopfsysteme fuer die verschiedenen Stutzengroessen und Pruefbereiche, wie z. Stutzenkanten, Stutzeninnenbereiche und Stutzeneinschweissnaehte, montiert werden.
Dort richtet sie sich selbsttaetig horizontal aus und fixiert sich im Zentrum des RDB mit Hilfe von Beinen die synchron radial ausgefahren werden. Je nach Pruefaufgabe wird die Plattform mit einem oder zwei Roboterarmen ausgeruestet. Vertiefungskurs Safety margins in nuclear power plants. Identify, quantify and extend; Vertiefungskurs zum Thema ''Sicherheitsmargen in Kernkraftwerken.
Identifizieren, quantifizieren, erweitern''. Fifteen speakers dealt with the topic safety margins in nuclear power plants from different points of view at the ''Vertiefungskurs '' of the Nuklearforum Schweiz in Olten, 4 and 5 November In the context of the ''Vertiefungskurs '' the safety margins in power plants were considered and quantified and possible extensions have been discussed.
The conference started with an in-depth introduction of the basis design of existing nuclear power plants. Thereafter speakers told about the main topics emergency preparedness, knowledge management and safety retrofit of nuclear power plants in operation.
Accident analyses in nuclear power plants following external initiating events and in the shutdown state. Final report; Unfallanalysen in Kernkraftwerken nach anlagenexternen ausloesenden Ereignissen und im Nichtleistungsbetrieb. The work which is documented here provides the methodological basis for improvement of the state of knowledge for accident sequences after plant external initiating events and for accident sequences which begin in the shutdown state.
Top objectives of the work are: - Identify relevant event sequences in order to define characteristic initial and boundary conditions - Perform accident analysis of selected sequences - Evaluate the relevance of accident sequences in a qualitative way The accident analysis is performed with the code MELCOR 1. The applied input data set has been significantly improved compared to previous analyses. The event tree method which is established in PSA level 2 has been applied for creating a structure for a unified summarization and evaluation of the results from the accident analyses.
In contrast to a PSA level 2, the branching probabilities of the event tree have not been determined with the usual accuracy, but they are given in an approximate way only. For the PWR, the analyses show a considerable protective effect of the containment also in the case of beyond design events. For the BWR, there is a rather high probability for containment failure under core melt impact, but nevertheless the release of radionuclides into the environment is very limited because of plant internal retention mechanisms.
This report concludes with remarks about existing knowledge gaps and with regard to core melt sequences, and about possible improvements of the plant safety. Studies on the reliability of fuel elements and mechanical components in nuclear power plants; Untersuchungen zur Zuverlaessigkeit von Brennelementen und mechanischen Einrichtungen in Kernkraftwerken. The general objective of the project was to elaborate the state of knowledge on the design, manufacturing and maintenance of fuel assemblies, pressure retaining components and support structures with regard to root causes of degradation during service.
Conclusions were to be drawn for German plants with respect to the reliability of these structures and the effectiveness of measures and requirements in German nuclear regulations. To meet this objective, the specific German and international operating experience was evaluated. Furthermore, the conditions for design and manufacturing as well as the inspection and monitoring measures taken during manufacturing and operation were analysed. The knowledge base KompInt conserving this knowledge was updated and extended. For fuel assemblies, the evaluation of operating experience with respect to flawed manufacturing and design shows that the significance for safety was low in all cases.
Some cases of fuel bow in PWR plants, however, had the potential for a higher relevance for safety. In general, the analyses show sufficient margins to failure of the mechanical design. But from the point of view of GRS, some shortcomings exist in connection with furnishing the proof regarding the behaviour of deformed fuel assemblies and spacers during accidents and earthquakes as well as with respect to the behaviour of fuel assemblies with high burn-up during handling events.
A significant decrease in the number of events with pressurized components was observed at the more recent plants, which is a result of the comprehensive requirements for manufacturing, inspection, and quality assurance. The low number of reportable events related to support structures does not show any specific commonalities except those events involving anchor bolts. From a general perspective, the following common conclusions can be drawn: For most cases, sufficient reliability of the aforementioned structures was obtained by an elaborated design and quality assurance measures during manufacturing.
The deteriorations found do not show up any systematic weakness in the design or gaps in the regulatory requirements. This can be stated with regard to failure-free operation as well as to the necessary precaution to prevent damage. Tests on instrumentation and control systems important to safety in nuclear power stations. Systempruefung der leittechnischen Einrichtungen des Sicherheitssystems in Kernkraftwerken. The rule applies to the reactor protection system, to the protection and state boundaries, to control devices important to safety, and to danger alarms of the classes S and I.
The system inspection of the control devices of the safety system comprises in-service testing and recurrent testing. How do young people evaluate nuclear energy at nuclear power plant sites? Eine empirische Studie. Professur fuer Humangeographie. How does the younger generation evaluate nuclear power at sites with nuclear power plants? This has been examined at four sites with different decommissioning stages, as the presence of a nuclear power plant in young people's daily life represents a potential employer as well as a potential risk factor.
The attitude of this generation will expectedly and sustainably influence the development of communities. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is currently, optimistically estimated by different energy supplying companies with a time period of 15 to 20 year. Thus the resident population will deal with this topic until the year Furthermore the decision on a repository exploration has been sighted for the year As a final repository will not be ready for operation at that time, communities will have to deal with the storage of radioactive waste in local interim-storage facilities.
The next generation has the opportunity to shape their future as well as the future of their community.
- Kingdom People Living by Kingdom Principles: A Holistic Approach to the Call of Missions.
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Nevertheless the preconditions are to stay at the side as well as the political and social engagement of these young people. Resultaten ringtest zware metalen en arseen in twee monsters zuiveringsslib in het kader van de regeling "Bemonstering en Analyse Overige Organische Meststoffen" BOOM. In The Netherlands a large quantity of domestic, agricultural and industrial organic wastes is produced. After purification or composting processes these substances can be partly re-used as organic fertilisers on the condition that this does not lead to contamination of the environment.
In the so. Allium discoloration: the precursor and formation of the red pigment in giant onion Allium giganteum Regel and some other subgenus Melanocrommyum species. Evidence for a race-specific resistance factor in some lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Previously undetected race-specific resistance to Bremia lactucae downy mildew was located in many lettuce cultivars hitherto considered to be universally susceptible to this disease.
This resistance factor s may also be widely distributed in other cultivars known to carry combinations of already recognised factors R1 to R Specific virulence to match this resistance is almost invariably present in pathogen collections. This situation may be either a relic of the evolutionary history of the B. Ambtshalve toetsing: gerechtvaardigde uitzondering of uitgeholde regel? Een rechtsgeleerd onderzoek naar de legitimering van het verbod van ambtshalve toetsing door de bestuursrechter van besluiten aan materieel recht.
Dutch administrative courts are, on the whole, not allowed to perform an ex officio judicial review of administrative decisions. The binding nature of nearly all rules of substantive administrative law and the specific characteristics of the administrative decisions involved, beg the question how.
Although the purpose of the Strategy is to stimulate investment and increase certainty, this article argues that this will be difficult to achieve. This is a result of three factors Based on the information gained by the Japanese experience the SSK recommended to plan nuclear emergencies irrespective of the calculated probability of occurrence, but according to the effects of an INES 7 event.
The SSK has recommended new planning areas for the surroundings of nuclear power plants based on a method developed by the SSK. This approach requires enlarged planning areas. Decision-making behavior of experts at nuclear power plants. Regulatory focus influence on cognitive heuristics; Entscheidungsverhalten von Experten in Kernkraftwerken. Der Einfluss des regulatorischen Fokus auf kognitive Heuristiken.
The goal of this research project was to examine factors, on the basis of regulatory focus theory and the heuristics and biases approach, that influence decision-making processes of experts at nuclear power plants. Findings show that this group applies anchoring heuristic when evaluating conjunctive and disjunctive events and that they maintain a constant regulatory focus characteristic. No influence of the experts' characteristic regulatory focus on cognitive heuristics could be established.
Theoretical and practical consequences on decision-making behavior of experts are presented. Finally, a method for measuring the use of heuristics especially in the nuclear industry is discussed. Transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. A contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem; Transmutation radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Kernkraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Verringerung der Endlagerproblematik. The brochure on transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants - a contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem covers the following issues: What is transmutation?
Generic study on the relation between contamination if primary coolants and occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants with PWR. Final report; Generische Studie zum Zusammenhang zwischen Kontamination von Primaerkreislaufmedien und beruflicher Strahlenexposition bei Kernkraftwerken mit Druckwasserreaktor. A generic model for the primary cooling system contamination in pressurized water reactors and the resulting radiological consequences has been developed. The functional capability was demonstrated by means of three examples concerning manipulation procedures during revision outages.
Activities at the main reactor coolant pumps were studied and the influence of the coolant contamination on the resulting dose rates and collective doses were calculated. The effect of a Co hot spot in a more remote area on the radiation exposure during the specific action at the reactor pumps was considered. Software for computers in the safety systems of nuclear power stations. Software fuer Rechner im Sicherheitssystem von Kernkraftwerken. The basic principles for the design of nuclear instrumentation as specifically applied to the safety systems of nuclear power plants have been interpreted in existing standards as the IAEA ''Safety Guide SG-D3'' with a view to hardwired systems.
This publication has been developed to interprete these principles for the utilization of digital systems - multiprocessor distributed systems as well as larger scale central processor systems - in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. It is important to note that this document establishes no additional functional requirements for safety systems. Areas which have been dealt with because of the unique nature of digital computer systems especially the software are: a Established hardware criterea as far as they affect the software with care taken to account for the high degree of interdependency between hardware and software.
Triggered by the Fukushima disaster, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection BfS in Germany started in March to investigate the potential radiological consequences of a ''Fukushima-like'' accident in a German nu-clear power plant and conducted appropriate simulations in Between end and end , the first study was followed by a much more detailed and comprehensive investigation comprising more than 5.
Based on these results the German Commission on Radio-logical Protection SSK has released a new recommendation in March for the extension of current emer-gency planning zones for nuclear power plants in Germany. Key results of this study are maximum distances, in which dose criteria for protective actions for the population are exceeded; all results are given for the largest source term scenario ''FKA'' INES scale 7 : - Threshold values for deterministic effects and high doses effective doses higher than 1.
Influence of heat transfer on walls due to aerosol decomposition rate in the containment building of nuclear power plants during heavy incidents; Einfluss des Waermeuebergangs an Waenden auf die Aerosolabbaurate im Sicherheitsbehaelter von Kernkraftwerken bei schweren Stoerfaellen. Today, German nuclear power plants are leading in safety standards worldwide. Increasing potentials arise continuously along with improvements in technology. One of these potentials is the best-estimate simulation of fission product transport in case of a severe accident.
A main part of the fission products is allocated on aerosols.
Therefore, the aerosol behavior before containment leakage is important for the radioactive source term to the environment. Having a good knowledge about the main aerosol phenomena, it is possible to simulate them numerically. This enables to develop and test safety measures to limit damages before accidents occur. Within this study, the main aerosol phenomena have been ascertained and accordingly classified into formation, transport and reduction.
Due to an overprediction of the computed volume condensation rate, the results showed an overestimation of the reduction rate of insoluble aerosols. The reason was found to be the underestimation of the wall condensation rate. Based on an additional plain thermal hydraulic multi compartment experiment, these uncertainties in the wall heat transfer correlations were investigated in detail. The results show a strong dependency between the wall condensation rate and the convective heat transfer, resp. In case of mainly forced convection, correct values for the characteristic length led to an underestimation of the calculated heat transfer coefficients.
The analysis of the heat transfer models show an inconsistency in the coupling of free and forced convection. Therefore, an improved and consistent convection model has been developed and implemented.
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Both models have been tested on different experiments. Although the new model shows only minor improvements, it could be proven that the influence for forced convection is significant. Based on the findings, a further improvement of the wall heat transfer models and therefore the aerosol reduction rates of insoluble aerosols can be realized only, if the geometry and flow information are considered and handled more easily e.
Reliability analysis and computation of computer-based safety instrumentation and control used in German nuclear power plant. Final report; Zuverlaessigkeitsuntersuchung und -berechnung rechnerbasierter Sicherheitsleittechnik zum Einsatz in deutschen Kernkraftwerken. The trend of technological advancement in the field of safety instrumentation and control I and C leads to increasingly frequent use of computer-based digital control systems which consisting of distributed, connected bus communications computers and their functionalities are freely programmable by qualified software.
The advantages of the new I and C system over the old I and C system with hard-wired technology are e. On the other hand, skeptics see the new technology with the computer-based I and C a higher potential by influences of common cause failures CCF , and the easier manipulation by sabotage IT Security. In this joint research project funded by the Federal Ministry for Economical Affaires and Energy BMWi , FJZ the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences are therefore trying to develop suitable methods for the demonstration of the reliability of the new instrumentation and control systems with the focus on the investigation of CCF.
This expertise of both houses shall be extended to this area and a scientific contribution to the sound reliability judgments of the digital safety I and C in domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. First, the state of science and technology will be worked out through the study of national and international standards in the field of functional safety of electrical and I and C systems and accompanying literature. On the basis of the existing nuclear Standards the deterministic requirements on the structure of the new digital I and C system will be determined.
The possible methods of reliability modeling will be analyzed and compared. A suitable method called multi class binomial failure rate MCFBR which was successfully used in safety valve applications will be extended according to cope with special needs of the digital safety I and C system. The new modelling method based on fault tree analysis FTA combined with MCBFR model is provided and validated by a real example system from an industrial partner.
The reliability data are taken from a platform specific data base of the industrial partner and an international generic data base.
The results demonstrate the applicability of the new approach although the modelling quality is strongly dependent on the observed failure cases from the plant operation. Therefore more failure data of safety I and C should be collected in the future. This report is the final project report. Development and application of analytical methods for the assessment of software-based IC components in German nuclear power plants; Entwicklung und Einsatz von Analysemethoden zur Beurteilung softwarebasierter leittechnischer Einrichtungen in deutschen Kernkraftwerken.
In this report, results and data from examinations concerning software-based I and C components are evaluated. As failure modes of software-based components and failure causes differ fundamentally from non-software-based components, an evaluation of the operating experience of such components was carried out.
The state of the art and science was gathered and is described for the national as well as the international situation. The software-based components used in the NPPs are identified and their operating experience is analyzed in order to identify relevant failure modes and to establish a knowledge base for future failure rating. Availability of safety relevant specialists for operation and supervision of nuclear power plants in the new EU member states; Verfuegbarkeit sicherheitsrelevanter Fachkraefte fuer Betrieb und Aufsicht von Kernkraftwerken in den EU-Mitgliedslaendern.
On behalf of the European commission the availability of safety relevant specialists for operation and supervision of nuclear power plants in the new EU member states was investigated. Based on information of the NPP operators and the authorities in the EU member states the authors studied the age distribution of the skilled personnel, the possibilities for long-term availability of an adequate number of experts, securing of qualification and the contribution of universities for competence preservation. Recommendations concern the cooperation of universities and NOO operators in the fields of education, training and systematic programs at the key players training on the job.
Studies on the effectiveness of measures to maintain the integrity of pressurized components in German nuclear power plants. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Wirksamkeit von Massnahmen zur Sicherstellung der Integritaet druckfuehrender Komponenten in deutschen Kernkraftwerken. The overall objective of the project was to investigate the effectiveness of measures to maintain the as-built quality of the pressure-retaining components in German nuclear power plants.
In particular, investigations were performed on the application of the break preclusion concept, existing monitoring systems and the significance of the pressure test as part of the inspection concept. Moreover, the KompInt knowledge base has been updated. Break preclusion for pipes was applied in all German plants already during planning or after commissioning to a varying extent. Die Anrede "Meine Damen und Herren" ist mindestens seit dem Das habe ich alles zur Kenntnis genommen und mich damit abgefunden - aber was ist jetzt mit Teil zwei - also der Trampel?
In den vergangenen Jahren gabs die Dinger allerdings so gut wie immer. Habe ich eine Miesmuschelkrise in diesem Winter nicht mitbekommen? Da mir diese Kategorisierung unbekannt war, habe ich ein bisschen recherchiert. Nicht der Theologe, sondern der Journalist. Auch wieder so ein Fall der Vor-Internetzeit, trotz seiner Meriten finde ich bisher nichts wirklich brauchbares zu seiner Biographie, hat jemand nen Ansatz? Das passt eher zu einem neuzeitlichen und theologisch unbeleckten Assisi-Mythos.
Aber wissen tu ichs nicht Frau v. Das Geschlecht hat doch, denke ich mal, keinen Einfluss auf die genetische Vielfalt, oder doch? Naturschutzgebieten Bild siehe Naturschutzgebiet Deutschland. Guten Abend. Hallo, ich hab gerade bzw. Woher hatten die meine Nummer und was bedeutet das? Hat das hier abgebildete Gefahrzeichen einen besonderen Namen? Wie hoch sind die Dinger typischerweise? Es geht hier um den Hexenstein Lindau. Griechenland muss aber, nach den Artikeln in Onlinemedien frisches Geld bekommen um Schulden und Zinsen zu bezahlen.
Was passiert aber, wenn die einfach die Zinsen und Schulden nicht bezahlen? Also was passiert nun, wenn die Schulden und Zinsen nicht bezahlt werden? Wie sieht es aus, wenn ich ein Bahnticket inkl. Gibt es keinen Anspruch auf Erstattung der Reservierung, obwohl ggf. Entweder im Serviccenter oder unter www.
Ich habe es hier vor mir liegen: Zugfahrt am 5. Ist sie geeignet und sinnvoll? Die einzige Vereinfachung, die ich mir in dem Schaltplan erlaubt habe, ist die getrennte Darstellung der Signalerden; mir ist klar, dass ich eine gemeinsame Erde brauche. Ein Monoflop selbst bauen kann ich nicht, weil ich von Elektronik keine Ahnung habe. Ein Monoflop selber bauen kann ich nicht Ist doch keine Magie, die da drin ist.
Also gut. Erster Schmitt-Trigger dient als Impulsformer, kann man weglassen, wenn man einen Rechteckpuls hat und mit der Invertierung des zweiten Schmitt-Trigger-Inverters leben kann. Eine positive Flanke am Eingang wird in eine negative am linken Ende der Diode verwandelt. Die Diode schaltet in diesem Fall durch und R ist unwirksam. Vielleicht sollte man die Frage besser in einer Apotheke stellen, aber was passiert eigentlich mit den teilweise doch sehr originellen Kuscheltieren, die in vielen Apotheken zu Werbezwecken benutzt werden, nach ihren meist kurzen Schaufensterauftritten?
Aber wie funktioniert das? Unterscheiden sich die Schokoladenpuddinge in ihrer Haltbarkeit? Das kurzzeitige Aufkochen der Milch und der Puddingspeise lt. Die "Haltbarkeit" also auch bei beiden identisch kurz. Darum ist auch die Belastung mit Pseudomonas zu beachten. Was genau haben die beiden Einheitenangabenn zu bedeuten, also worauf beziehen sie sich? Keinen Hinweis auf Ansprechperson vorhanden. Wert ca. Was ist hier mit "heidnisch-romanischer Nationalismus" und "Deutsches Spiel" gemeint? Hallo, ich suche den Namen eines amerikanischen Musikers, der im 2. Wer kann mir helfen, den Namen rauszufinden.
Die Webseite des Museums war bei der Beantwortung der Frage nicht sehr hilfreich. Welche Schreibweise ist mit Bezug auf den Zimmermeister F. Genauer: Wird der Familienname in diesem Zusammenhang durchgekoppelt, oder nicht? Ich habe mit verschiedenen Namen und Textfetzen schon herumgegoogelt, auch in Googe Books, auch bei Amazon gesucht, und bin auch auf den Karlsruher Virtuellen Katalog gegangen, habe aber nirgends ein passendes Buch gefunden.
Es ist Teil einer Reihe von Bildern, die u. Seit dem Weiss jemand was es damit auf sich hat? Wird sie auf dem rechten Oberarm getragen, befindet sich das Sternenfeld rechts, also ebenfalls nach vorn weisend. Gab es das auch im Ausland und wie wurden sie dort genannt? Da kommt ein doppeltes everybody vor Songtext. Dein Text passt dazu m. Dann wurde er vielleicht von einer Boygroup gecovert. Aber, das meiste ist schon gesagt, das ist eine schlechte Kartendarstellung. Pflegekosten zu sichern?
Zwei real existierende Personen mit jeweils gleichem Vor- und Nachnamen Realnamen, wie sie in der Geburtsurkunde stehen; beide keinen Zweitvornamen in gleicher Schreibweise. Beide sind etwa gleich alt. Hallo, ich habe hier einen Briefausschnitt von Klasse" so nicht gefunden habe. Ich kann mir aber nicht denken, dass der Briefschreiber gesponnen hat. Fingalo Diskussion ,
Related Schengen. Der Weg zum freien Personenverkehr in Europa (German Edition)
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