Charles Darwin initially shared the belief that nature was perfect and harmonious:  after graduating as a student at the University of Cambridge in , he was convinced by William Paley 's Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity which saw adaptation as purposeful design and presented population pressure optimistically; "it is a happy world after all". When the second volume of Lyell's Principles of Geology was delivered to the Beagle that November, Darwin accepted its argument that the "struggle for existence" disproved transmutation of species.
He was reminded of Malthusianism when his sisters sent him out pamphlets by Harriet Martineau. Early in John Gould in London revealed that the mockingbirds were separate species: Darwin was spurred into intensive research and the inception of his theory to find the mechanism introducing species.
Unconventionally, he sought information from animal breeders. We ought to be far from wondering of changes in numbers of species, from small changes in nature of locality.
struggle for existence
Even the energetic language of Malthus Decandolle does not convey the warring of the species as inference from Malthus. Population is increase at geometrical ratio in far shorter time than 25 years — yet until the one sentence of Malthus no one clearly perceived the great check amongst men . That sentence is on page 6 of the first volume of Malthus' Essay , 6th edition: "It may safely be pronounced, therefore, that the population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio.
In his sketch expanding his theory, Darwin wrote that "De Candolle's war of nature,—seeing contented face of nature,—may be well at first doubted", but "considering the enormous geometrical power of increase in every organism" countries "must be fully stocked" referring to "Malthus on man": later in the sketch he used the phrase "struggle of nature", and on the back of one sheet "struggle of existence". In his Essay Darwin began his section on Natural Means of Selection with "De Candolle, in an eloquent passage, has declared that all nature is at war, one organism with another, or with external nature", and described this "war" as "the doctrine of Malthus applied in most cases with ten-fold force.
On 3 March he wrote chapter 5 of his "big book" on his theory, initially headed "On Natural Selection".
The relevant section, titled " Struggle of Nature " had as an alternative title " War of Nature ". At a later date he changed the chapter heading to "The Struggle For Existence As Bearing On Natural Selection" and made the section title " The Struggle for existence ", making this his main theme to allow a broader interpretation than one of war between organisms: he used the phrase "in a very large sense" to include mutual dependency and the physical environmental as when "a plant on the edge of a desert is often said to struggle for existence" due to its need for moisture.
In his " Abstract " of his book, quickly written and published as On the Origin of Species in , Darwin made his third chapter "Struggle for Existence". After "a few preliminary remarks" relating it to natural selection, and acknowledgement that the "elder De Candolle and Lyell have largely and philosophically shown that all organic beings are exposed to severe competition",  he wrote that:. A struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high rate at which all organic beings tend to increase [so that] on the principle of geometrical increase, its numbers would quickly become so inordinately great that no country could support the product.
Hence, as more individuals are produced than can possibly survive, there must in every case be a struggle for existence, either one individual with another of the same species, or with the individuals of distinct species, or with the physical conditions of life. It is the doctrine of Malthus applied with manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms".
Darwin gradually included the idea that adaptations were not from birth, but rather from external pressures. In relation to the struggle for existence, Darwin explains in Origin of Species that "forms that are successful in the struggle for existence are deemed to be slightly better adapted than those with which they have had to compete for their places in the economy of nature". Huxley , commonly known as Darwin's Bulldog, clearly explains the struggle for existence in terms of natural selection. Huxley explains that the struggle for existence is concluded based on the fact that populations grow geometrically if unchecked but populations tend to stay constant in number over time.
Alfred Wallace and Darwin independently arrived at the theory of evolution by natural selection. Wallace combined the idea of the struggle for existence with variation to argue for the idea of "survival of the fittest.
Struggle for Existence
In Russia , the idea of "mutual aid" was used to explain evolution rather than the struggle for existence. During the s in the United States, a shift in scientific perception caused scientists to lean away from the use of the struggle for existence to explain Darwin's ideas, and more toward the idea of cooperation for mutual benefit.
At the Chicago School scientists studied the cooperation and competition between organisms—findings included that competition worked "as both a cooperative and a disoperative force" at a population level. Warder Clyde Allee , famous for the Allee effect , also supported this idea that cooperation in addition to the struggle for existence drove evolution. Finally, Alfred E. Emerson supported similar claims around this time period.
Emerson saw a struggle for existence on the individual level, but he saw the struggle necessary on a population level for keeping the ecosystem in order. The main opposition to the struggle for existence came from natural theologists who believed in perfect harmony and perfection. Additionally, critics said that Malthus "never cleared his mind entirely of the dismal theory which he began. Today, the struggle for existence is a widely accepted idea that helps to explain and justify the theory of natural selection.
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However, K. Bennett argues that the struggle for existence is only present on geographically small scales. He notes that "As climates fluctuate on Milankovitch time-scales, the tendency for populations to increase exponentially is realised, distributions increase enormously, and any struggle for existence is relaxed or eliminated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Natural selection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Thus, where competition is greatest the results for evolution are nil; where the results are greatest competition is absent. Reprints and Permissions.
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By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subscribe Search My Account Login. Abstract DARWIN attributed organic evolution chiefly to the combined action of variation and the struggle for existence, primarily the competitive struggle.
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