The Chavacano languages in the Philippines are creoles based on Mexican Spanish and possibly, Portuguese. In some Chavacano languages, most words are common with Andalusian Spanish , but there are many words borrowed from Nahuatl , a language native to Central Mexico, which are not to be found in Andalusian Spanish. Although the vocabulary is largely Mexican, its grammar is mostly based on other Philippine languages , primarily Ilonggo , Tagalog and Cebuano.
By way of Spanish, its vocabulary also has influences from the Native American languages Nahuatl , Taino , Quechua , etc. The highest number of Chavacano speakers are found in Zamboanga City and in the island province of Basilan. A significant number of Chavacano speakers are found in Cavite City and Ternate. According to the official Philippine census, there were altogether , Chavacano speakers in the Philippines in that same year. The exact figure could be higher as the population of Zamboanga City, whose main language is Chavacano, far exceeded that census figure. Also, the figure does not include Chavacano speakers of the Filipino diaspora.
Chavacano speakers are possibly found elsewhere in Sabah as Sabah was under partial Spanish sovereignty and via Filipino refugees who escaped from Zamboanga Peninsula and predominantly Muslim areas of Mindanao like Sulu Archipelago. A small number of Zamboanga's indigenous peoples and of Basilan, such as the Tausugs , the Samals , and the Yakans , majority of those people are Sunni Muslims , also speak the language.
In the close provinces of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi areas, there are Muslim speakers of the Chavacano de Zamboanga , all of them are neighbors of Christians. Chavacano has been primarily and practically a spoken language. In the past, its use in literature was limited and chiefly local to the geographical location where the particular variety of the language was spoken.
Its use as a spoken language far exceeds its use in literary work in comparison to the use of Spanish in the Philippines which was more successful as a written language than a spoken language. In recent years, there have been efforts to encourage the use of Chavacano as a written language, but the attempts were mostly minor attempts in folklore and religious literature and few pieces of written materials by the print media.
As Chavacano is spoken by Muslims as second language not only in Zamboanga City and Basilan but even in Sulu and Tawi-tawi, a number of Qur'an books are published in Chavacano. It serves as a medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3 and as a separate subject Mother Tongue from grades 1 to 3. For the initiated speakers, Chavacano can be intelligible to some Spanish speakers, and while most Spanish words can easily be understood by Chavacano speakers, many would struggle to understand a complete Spanish sentence.
The term Chavacano or Chabacano originated from the Spanish word chabacano which literally means "poor taste", "vulgar", "common", "of low quality", or "coarse". Chavacano has since evolved into a word of its own in different spellings with no negative connotation, but to simply being the name of the language itself.
During the Spanish colonial period, what is today called Chavacano was also called by the Spanish-speaking population as the " lenguaje de la calle ", " lenguaje de parian " language of the street , or " lenguaje de cocina " kitchen Spanish to refer to the Chabacano spoken by the people of Manila, particularly in Ermita to distinguish it from the Spanish language spoken by those of the upper class, which consisted of Spaniards and educated Natives. The varieties of the language are geographically related. Language speakers in Ternate also use the term Bahra to refer to their language and their city.
Chavacano varieties usually have their area name attached to the language. In Zamboanga City, most people are using the V in spelling the language as Chavacano. In the three-day Chavacano Orthography Congress held on Nov , , wherein it included the presentation by researchers on Chavacano, mostly results from surveys conducted among selected respondents in the city, the newly organized Chavacano Orthography Council met with the officials of the Department of Education and agreed among others that the language is to be spelled with the V.
There is no definite conclusion on the precise history of how these different varieties of Chavacano developed. Prior to the formation of what is today the Philippines, what existed were a collection of various islands and different ethnolinguistic groups inhabiting them. The Spanish colonisation of the Philippine islands had led to the presence of the Spanish language in the islands. Though Spanish was the language of the government, the various languages originating and found in the islands remained the mother tongue of the various inhabitants.
Instead of using Spanish to spread Christianity, Spanish missionaries preferred to learn the various local languages. With over years of Spanish colonial rule, the Spanish language came to influence the various Philippine languages to varying degrees by way of aspects like new loanwords and expressions. Creole languages such as French-based creoles have formed at various points in time around the world due to colonialism. As a result of contact between speakers of two mutually non-intelligible languages, creole languages have evolved in some cases to facilitate communication.
This usually involves taking the vocabulary of another language and grammatical features of the native language. In contrast to the numerous French-based creole languages, only three creole languages have been found to be Spanish-based or heavily influenced: Papiamento , Palenquero , and Chavacano. However, the kind of vernacular referred to by these terms are imprecise and these terms may refer to a fully fledged creole or to a Spanish-pidgin spoken by Chinese and Filipino merchants.
The manner of formation of this type of speech found in a number of communities around the Philippines remains unclear today. In the work of German linguist Hugo Schuchardt Uber das Malaiospanische der Philippinen , he presents fragments of texts and comments of what he calls "Malayo-Spanish". However, the first to give a general study and investigation of the varieties of Chavacano as a group was by Keith Whinnom in his work The Spanish Contact Vernaculars in the Philippine Islands.
In it, he also postulated his monogenetic theory on the origin of these vernaculars. Linguists are unsettled on how these vernaculars formed and how they connect to one another, if any. There are many theories but the two main theories of the origin of Chavacano are: Whinnom's "monogenetic theory" and a "parallel-development" theory proposed by Frake in According to the Monogentic theory or one-way theory advanced by Whinnom, all varieties of Chavacano result from a single source and that varieties are related to each other.
The parallel development theory or two-way theory as advocated by Frake in , the variants found in Luzon and Mindanao had evolved autonomously from each other. Bombardment and harassment from pirates and raiders of the sultans of Mindanao and Jolo and the determination to spread Christianity further south as Zamboanga was a crucial strategic location of the Philippines forced the Spanish missionary friars to request reinforcements from the colonial government.
The military authorities decided to import labour from Luzon and the Visayas. Thus, the construction workforce eventually consisted of Spanish, Mexican and Peruvian soldiers, masons from Cavite who comprised the majority , sacadas from Cebu and Iloilo, and those from the various local tribes of Zamboanga like the Samals and Subanons. Language differences made it difficult for one ethnic group to communicate with another. To add to this, work instructions were issued in Spanish. The majority of the workers were unschooled and therefore did not understand Spanish but needed to communicate with each other and the Spaniards.
When the Sultanate of Sulu gave up its territories in Sulu Archipelago to Spain within late s Sulu Sultanate gave up Basilan to Spain in , while Sulu and Tawi-tawi were not given up by sultanate because the Sulu Sultanate only recognised partial Spanish sovereignty to Sulu and Tawi-tawi , Spanish settlers and soldiers brought the language to the region until Spain, Germany , and United Kingdom signed an agreement named the Madrid Protocol of that recognised Spanish rule of Sulu Archipelago. From then on, constant Spanish military reinforcements as well as increased presence of Spanish religious and educational institutions have fostered the Spanish creole.
The Merdicas also spelled Mardicas or Mardikas were Catholic natives of the islands of Ternate and Tidore of the Moluccas in the vicinity of the island of Papua, converted during the Portuguese occupation of the islands by Jesuit missionaries. The islands were later captured by the Spanish who vied for their control with the Dutch. In , the Spanish garrison in Ternate were forced to pull out to defend Manila against an impending invasion by the Chinese pirate Koxinga sacrificing the Moluccas to the Dutch in doing so.
A number of Merdicas volunteered to help, eventually being resettled in a sandbar near the mouth of the Maragondon river known as the Barra de Maragondon and Tanza, Cavite , Manila. The invasion did not occur as Koxinga fell ill and died. The Merdicas community eventually integrated into the local population. El viento no mas el que ta alborota, el viento y el pecho de Felisa que ta lleno de sampaguitas na fuera y lleno de suspiros na dentro This variety is considered to be virtually extinct.
Ansina ya ba numa? Entonces, no nos olvidemos de ellos. We can say what great sacrifices our heroes have done to achieve our independence. We should therefore not forget them. Is it like this? We should do things to let it be known that we appreciate the heroes; that we are prepared to make sacrifices for our people. Broadly speaking, the formal register is closer to Spanish, and the colloquial register to the local Austronesian languages.
The common or familiar register is used ordinarily when conversing with people of equal or lower status in society. It is also used more commonly in the family, with friends and acquaintances. Its use is of general acceptance and usage. The formal register is used especially when conversing with people of higher status in society. It is also used when conversing with elders especially in the family and with older relatives and those in authority.
It is the form used in speeches, education, media, and writing. The formal register used in conversation is sometimes mixed with some degree of colloquial register. The following examples show a contrast between the usage of formal words and common or familiar words in Chavacano:. Nation- building went hand in hand with the final victory of the Castilian language. Although Latin was still taught it lost the charm and appeal it had during the colonial period. Finally, Castilian was a language to be taught and used in writing the memories of the new national territories. Another historical paradox: the grammar which Nebrija had intended to serve the expansion of the Spanish empire in fact served as a helpful tool to build the nations which would arise from the liberation of the Spanish colonization.
Madrid, Consejo Superior, 2 vol. TheNahua View of Colonial Mexico. Berkeley, University of California Press. The New Mestiza. Ascencio, Eugenio. Atti del Convegno internationale di studdi. Padova, Editrice Antenore. Brathwaite, Edward. London, New Beacon. Manuscrito Azteca de Bern, A. Francke AG Verlag. Paris, Gallimard. Paris, Le Seuil. Valencia, Fernando Torres. Foucault, Michel. Galvan Rivera, Mariano. Madrid, Alhambra. London, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Seminario de Historia de las Mentalidades.
Princeton, Princeton University Press: Collier, R. Wirth, eds. New York, Academic Press: Laws of Burgos of The Royal ordinances for the good government and treatment of the Indians. Translated by L. Byrd Simpson. New York, John Howell. The Hague, Mouton. An Indian Woman in Guatemala. Edited and introduced by Elisabeth Burgos-Debray. Translated by Ann Wright. London, Verso.
Madrid, Austral. Publicado en J. Ortega y M.
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- Amiga, deja de disculparte [Girl, Stop Apologizing].
Forsters, eds. Providence, John Carter Brown Library.
Forthcoming, Conference Proceedings. Spadaccini, eds. Symposium on The colonization of languages: Verbaland Visual. Minneapolis, The University of. Molina, Alonso de Arte de la lengua Mexicana y Castellana. Gnosis, Philosophy and the Order of Knowledge. Bloomington, Indiana University Press: Jerusalem, Magnes Press, Hebrew University. Introductiones in latinam grammaticam Granada,.
London, Oxford. University Press. London, Oxford University Press. Rafael, Vicente L. Spanish Rule. Ithaca, Cornell University Press.
Ricard, Robert. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca. Its Theory and History. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Said, Edward. New York, Vintage Books. Scaglioni, Aldo. Amsterdam, John Benjamins Publishing Company. An empirical, evolutionary perspective on individual and small group territorial cognitions, behaviors and consequences.
Hamburg, Helmut Buske Verlag: Milano, Mondadori. Barcelona, Seix Barrai. Last but not least, to Noel Fallows who not only translated all quotations from Spanish into English but who also carefully read the manuscript and made very valuable editorial recommendations. It should be kept in mind that the question of the letter during the Renaissance exceeds the strict relationship between spoken language and alphabetic writing.
For instance, the question of the letter related to caligraphic writing was compelling in the context of education and civility. Even if producing and exchanging potatoes is similar to exchanging sound-words or written signs, they differ in the context of interactions in which they function. For a more detailed exploration see Mignolo The members of a culture without letters tell or narrate what they see written on a solid surface, although it does not necessarily read in the sense we attribute to this word today.
Grammars of the Castilian language aimed at those who speak other languages, began to be published— under the influence of Nebrija— toward Lope Blanch The Castilian Crown accepted the Tridentine Ruling about the need to use native languages in the process of christianization. The Jesuits have also been concerned with teaching Spanish to the Amerindians Osorio Romero However, their efforts to achieve this goals did not reach the same splendor that their achievements in higher education. The thesis advanced by Erasmus in his De recta Graeci et Latini sermonis pronunciatione illustrates this situation.
Ursus, for instance, departs from the fact that the Latin word to designate speech is sermo. This Renaissance meaning is in striking contrast with the analogy between writing and plowing Curtius , which underlines the physical aspect of scratching solid surfaces in the act of writing rather than the relationship between the voice and the letter Mignolo From the perspective of the tensions between an idiomatically defined Hispanic-America and a culturally conceived Latin-America, it is helpful to remember the three main stages of Castilian languages from the colonial period to the present.
Plan 1. Introduction [link] 2. Letters, languages and territories [link] 3. The colonization of native languages grammars : and vocabularies, law for the hispanicization of the indies and the teaching of latin [link] 4. Languages and territories : multilingual and pluricultural realities in the new world colonies [link] Conclusion [link] Bibliography [link]. Introduction 1. Atti del Convegno internationale di studdi umanistici. Derrida, Jacques De la Grammatologie.
Di Camillo, Ottavio El Humanismo castellano del siglo xv. Lope Blanch, Juan M.
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Wilson Genes, Mind, and Culture. Mignolo, Walter D. Minneapolis, The University of Minnesota Press. Morel Fatio, A. A dominoes game to practise weather phrases in the present tense. This is a PowerPoint interactive Blockbuster-style game. This pair work task will test recall of vocabulary and spellings. A great ice breaker activity for new year 7 classes in September.
Hispania. Volume 78, Number 4, December 1995
Useful as a getting to know you activity in a first lesson. A bingo game to practise vocabulary. A starter or plenary to practise basic personal identification. Five inference grids with images connected to holidays. A lovely resource on the seasons.
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Related SPANISH For Beginners PARA EL PRIMER NIVEL: En letra grande (16) (Spanish Edition)
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