The wolves didn't stop but continued on their way, disappearing over an eskerine ridge. It was a long while before the elk settled and resumed feeding, and their vigilance level remained high for hours. Their earlier restlessness made perfect sense. Aldo Leopold was among the first to observe the behavioral effects of lack of predation on his own land. In he bought an abandoned farm in southwesternWisconsin, to use as a hunting reserve.
He subsequently dubbed the farm "the shack. The Leopold family spent every weekend there, restoring the land. Between and , in his shack journals Leopold noted the effects of deer herbivory on herbaceous plants plants whose leaves and stems die down to soil level at the end of the growing season and trees he had planted on his land, which included oaks Quercus spp. He commented that some species were being nipped down to eighteen inches in height. In a game survey he also documented how humans had by then eliminated wolves from much of Wisconsin.
Deer had exploded in northern Wisconsin, from several hundred in to at least ,, causing game managers to formally acknowledge the problem. Although things were not this bad at the shack, Leopold noted ongoing plant damage caused by deer, which in the absence of wolves calmly stood their ground and browsed young saplings down to nothing.
There is a saying that the more things change, the more they stay the same. And an older Romanian proverb from the Karpaten states that where wolves go around, the forest grows. Both pieces of folk wisdom came to mind when I visited the shack to see whether the current aspen growth pattern and deer behavior would fit Leopold's historical observations. It was mid-April as I drove along the rural road that runs through the Leopold Memorial Reserve, noting small herds of deer standing around with their heads down, eating shrubs.
I spent the next few days examining the amount of browsing on aspen sprouts. Her chocolate Labrador retriever, Maggie, ran glad circles around us as we examined the aspens around the shack for evidence of deer herbivory. Almost all the aspens below browse height the height a deer can reach to eat featured chisel-pointed ends where deer had bitten off the apical stem, the dominant growth bud. Many had zigzagging trunks, where they had been browsed and had healed, and then had grown in a different direction. I held my measuring rod to an aspen less than three feet tall and counted its browse wounds—eight in all, each marked by a crook in its trunk.
I showed Nina how telltale signs on the aspen allowed us to distinguish browsing from disease, because the latter made the trees' growth tips atrophy. All aspens can sustain moderate browsing, but these bonsai aspens looked stunted and shrublike. With chronic herbivory they would eventually die. Indeed, we found many that had succumbed in this manner. Nina and I reflected on how little things had changed at the shack since her dad's era. As we continued to walk she recalled his observations about the effect of wolf removal on deer behavior, and how deeply this awareness affected him.
But he couldn't convince managers of that. He was even unable to convince some of his best friends. He had found stacks of dead deer as big as a house in northern Wisconsin, and his colleagues would not vote for a doe-hunting season. I think we have the same problem today. I do not think that people, even at the highest level, quite understand the interdependence of all of these issues. We still have too many deer, we still have hunters thinking we don't have enough deer, and we still have no wolves here. So how do these relationships work? Let's say you are a white-tailed deer foraging on the Leopold reserve.
There are no large predators in the forest that could threaten you. So you feed steadily on shrubs and grasses, looking up only to interact with others of your kind or search for food. Now let's say you are a white-tailed deer foraging in the North Fork. You take a bite and look up, sacrificing food for safety, highly vigilant. You are living in a landscape of fear, where your ability to survive depends on your ability to detect and escape predators as well as obtain food.
The resulting stealth and fear dynamics—and the relationship between top predators and their prey—have profound ecological implications. Risky Business: Predation and Resource Selection Predator-prey interactions have two components: predators killing prey and predators scaring prey. While the lethal effects of predation are well documented, nonlethal effects may have equally strong consequences.
Joel Berger tested this by tossing snowballs imbued with predator scents, such as wolf urine and grizzly bear feces, at ungulates. In addition to pungent snowballs, he experimented with tape recordings of predator sounds lion roars and wolf howls and neutral sounds water and monkeys. Where wolves had been absent for decades, such as in Rocky Mountain National Park, elk responded to the snowballs or predator sounds with some curiosity, but none became alarmed or ran. In Denali National Park and Preserve, where wolves had been present for many years, ungulates responded by becoming hypervigilant.
Berger and colleagues continued this work on a circumpolar scale, working in Greenland and Siberia, where predators had long been present, and finding similar results with moose and caribou Rangifer tarandus. Beyond individual responses, Berger wanted to know how prey animals acquire knowledge, how fear is transmitted, and how current behavior can help unravel the ambiguity of past extinctions and contribute to future conservation.
Ultimately his work will help shed light on how predators shape prey behavior and landscapes. Research about predation risk has the potential to inform human choices about which landscapes can be allowed to harbor dangerous animals. Berger and colleagues found that in Wyoming moose increased vigilance behavior in the presence of grizzly bears, keeping their heads up longer and staying on the move to avoid predation. This reduced browsing on willows, enabling the willows to flourish, thus improving habitat for songbirds and increasing biodiversity.
Awareness of these landscape-scale effects can be used to make management decisions about grizzly bears, perhaps allowing them to expand their ranges. Predation is the main driver of fear in prey because it can lead to death. Fear of predation involves a response to predation risk, whereby prey react to predator presence—or even to the mere threat of it. Fear causes the adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline, a short-acting substance that prepares the muscles and brain for flight. It also produces cortisol as part of an animal's long-term response to chronic stress.
An elk uses all its senses to evaluate the threat of predation. Its ability to assess and control its risk of being preyed upon strongly influences habitat selection and feeding decisions. Prey animals establish an optimal baseline level of vigilance in the absence of direct evidence of predator presence. Individuals who successfully balance the benefits of risk avoidance against energy costs missed opportunities to eat have a greater chance of survival.
This response is not limited to large mammals. Working with animals at the opposite end of the size spectrum, Oswald Schmitz found a behavioral trophic cascade consisting of spiders and grasshoppers. The top predator he studied, the nursery web spider Pisaurina mira , preferentially preys on the grasshopper Melanoplus femurrubrum. In the absence of spiders, grasshoppers selected a diet composed almost entirely of grass rather than forbs flowering plants that are not grasses. In this famed experiment Schmitz glued spiders' mouths shut to render them unable to prey on grasshoppers.
In the presence of spiders with glued mouths, grasshoppers nevertheless reduced their feeding time and preferentially ate forbs, which provide greater cover and safety from predation. This shift resulted in a trophic cascade. Behavioral adaptations are complex and variable and show an evolutionary relationship to landscapes. In large mammals, behavior that evolved over thousands of years underlies trophic cascades mechanisms. Elk originated in Asia, on high grassland steppes.
They colonized North America about 10, years ago, crossing the Bering land bridge. Lacking competition from other elk species in North America, they spread widely across many habitat types, from Pacific Northwest rain forests to sagebrush deserts. Long-legged cursors, elk run with their heads up and a straight-legged gait as opposed to bounding. They escape predators via rapid and sustained flight, an adaptation found in ungulates from open plains with low flight impediments. On landscapes with both open and closed habitat structure, they may use a combined strategy of hiding in forest cover to lower predator encounter rates and seeking open terrain, such as grasslands, where predation risk may be reduced.
Recent studies have examined factors that can render prey more vulnerable, such as differences in ungulate grouping behavior and terrain features. In Banff National Park, landscape ecologist Mark Hebblewhite found predation risk lowest in small groups of elk, with groups larger than twenty-five having the highest probability of being preyed upon by wolves, possibly because they are more likely to contain weak or sick individuals and are easier for predators to detect.
In Yellowstone, ecologist William Ripple developed his predation risk hypothesis while sitting on a high terrace in the Lamar Valley, where he noticed patchy willow growth. Out in the open, willows were browsed down, but where there were visual or terrain obstacles, willows flourished. He and a student, Joshua Halofsky, proceeded to measure elk behavior and found heightened vigilance in areas with escape impediments. Elk spent more time with their heads up, scanning for predators, in these areas, behaving more skittishly than when they were assured of a clear escape route.
According to Douglas Smith, leader of the Yellowstone Gray Wolf Restoration Project, the concept of predation risk eludes easy definition. For example, an area where wolves take down prey after a long chase may not necessarily be the site of greatest predation risk. That may actually be the site where prey first encounter predators.
Additionally, Smith notes that most wolf kills occur between dusk and dawn. Because elk and other ungulates have poor vision, obstacles to their viewshed may not play a significant role in the dynamics of predation risk. Wildlife biologist Kyran Kunkel found that avoidance of one species, such as the cougar, which hunts by stealth, makes prey more vulnerable to another, such as the wolf, which runs down its prey.
Elk have a sophisticated response to predation risk that includes gathering in larger groups in open areas. Landscape ecologist Matthew Kauffman and colleagues found that open areas enable wolves to detect prey more easily and thus present greater predation risk. Wildlife ecologists Stewart Liley and Scott Creel found that elk adjust their vigilance in response to the size of their group and the type of immediate threat they face from wolf presence, with environmental variables such as obstacles having a secondary influence on vigilance.
Some researchers recommend that trophic cascades studies incorporate radio-collar data to measure behavioral predation risk i. According to Smith, the complexity of these interactions merits deeper investigation. I ended up putting in miles of track transects in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem and doing focal animal observations. In doing this work I found compelling evidence of a trophic cascade. Where wolf density was high, elk avoided areas with debris and other escape impediments. Most carcasses and the greatest amount of wolf sign, such as tracks and scat, occurred in thick forests, debris, ravines, and riverbanks, which I had characterized as high predation risk sites.
My focal animal observations suggested that the more wolves there are in a landscape, the more wary elk become. This response may be triggering cascading effects in this ecosystem, enabling aspens to grow above browse height. Indeed, the ecology of fear may be behind the changes at my home, where shrubs and trees have reclaimed the meadow after wolves returned and deer, to stay alive, have had to act more like deer and less like livestock.
These pervasive effects influence even small, nonkeystone predators, as we shall see. Mesopredator Release It was late May in Waterton Lakes National Park and the snow had just melted, the matted grasses still a winter-killed brown. My field crew and I were putting transects into an expansive rolling grassland dotted with aspen stands. My field technician Blake Lowrey was on point that day, doing dead reckoning with a compass and pulling the transect tape due east through a copse of stunted aspens, making good progress.
All at once he stopped and said, "What's that smell? At the head of the transect line I found a dead coyote on a well-used game trail. This relatively fresh coyote carcass had been there for maybe one or two days. It lay on its back, limbs outspread and neck outstretched. Its throat had been ripped out and it had been eviscerated. No other flesh had been removed. All around it lay evidence of the perpetrator of this carnage: wolf feces and tracks. The coyote appeared to have been a young adult male in relatively good health that had perished because it had had the misfortune to come upon a wolf.
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In most systems wolves make it their business to kill coyotes. This particular carcass had been left on a primary game trail as a grisly marker and warning to other coyotes that wolves rule this system—they are the apex predator. Two weeks later, in Glacier National Park, we found another coyote in the same position, also on a game trail, its throat and guts ripped out, no other flesh missing, wolf scats and tracks all around. By now my crew had become sufficiently accustomed to carcasses to find this fascinating.
We took a break and discussed the possible pattern here—the powerful signature wolves were leaving on this landscape. Wolf-coyote enmity is not new. Wolves recolonized Isle Royale National Park in the early s. Within two years they had wiped out the resident coyote population. When wolves were functionally extirpated from Yellowstone, wildlife biologist Adolph Murie noted a corresponding steep rise in coyote numbers, which began to formlarger packs and hunt deer.
Smith considers what happened next to Yellowstone's coyotes one of the best stories to emerge from the mids wolf reintroduction. After the wolf 's return, coyote numbers dropped by as much as 50 percent overall and by 90 percent in core wolf pack territories. To survive, they formed smaller groups and spent more time in the interstices between wolf territories and nearby roads. There Smith found coyotes killed by wolves in a similar manner as I'd observed. Most of the pre-wolf coyote population had occurred in packs. Since wolves, half the coyote population has consisted of what Smith calls "floaters," unaffiliated coyotes with higher survival rates.
Breeding coyotes have the highest mortality because they are easiest for wolves to find and kill, since their behavior is more predictable and they live in territories. One of the most powerful indirect effects of predation involves mesopredator release. Defined as medium-sized predators, mesopredators are controlled by top predators—often by direct mortality, as we have seen, but also via competition for shared resources.
Humans commonly remove keystone species to protect economically valuable big game from predation. For example, upon removal of the wolf fromthe Endangered Species List in the northern Rockies, the state of Idaho proposed to eliminate 40 percent or more of its wolves to help create more elk for humans to hunt.
This type of action causes mesopredators, such as coyotes, to increase and puts abnormal pressure on smaller species, such as game birds, which decline and can become extinct. In the mids David Wilcove investigated the effects of human land use on songbirds. He studied small woodlots in rural and suburban sites in Maryland and larger forest patches in Tennessee in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The biggest tract of virgin forest in the eastern United States, this park retained forest-dwelling mammals and birds long extinct in central Maryland.
Wilcove wanted to test the effect of mesopredator release on songbird nest predation—what can be thought of as the empty nest hypothesis. To do this he filled experimental wicker nests with Japanese quail Coturnix japonica eggs and placed them in forest locations ranging from the midcanopy to the understory, to reflect native birds' nesting habits. One week later he measured the percentage of experimental nests raided by mesopredators.
He found higher rates of nest predation in small woodlots near human communities because these areas had higher populations of raccoons Procyon lotor and squirrels Sciurus spp. This led Wilcove to link nest predation to mesopredator release. His sister is pretty. Her name is Kate Harrison. She is eight.
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Her address is Bill: Hello, Kim. Kim: How are you, Bill? Bill: Fine, thank you. Come and see our new house.
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Bill: OK. London They can read. Look at the pictures and say what the children can do. Sam: Is your friend from France still in Moldova? Stacy: Yes, she is. Kate: You are lucky, Stacy, you can speak French and English. Stacy: Sam can speak French too. I can only say one or two things. Kate: Stacy can teach you more. Jemmy can play. You can make a. I can walk a. Ted can draw a. Angela can jump the rope. Father can drive a.
I can plant a. My brother can ride a. Describe each house. Say what they can do. Say what you can do. How many words can you make? Do the crossword. Ice on the lake, snow on the ground, Time to ski and skate all around. Can she skate? Say what you can do in summer and in winter. Danny: Hi, Jemmy. The days are warm and sunny. I have a lot of fun. I sunbathe and swim every day. And how are you, Danny? Danny: Yes, it is.
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Beautiful snowflakes are falling. Everybody is happy. Jemmy: Can you ski and skate? Jemmy: Is it snowing now? A: Can you swim? B: Yes, I can. Form new words. Example: frost — frosty. But she can make salad. Ask and answer questions about winter activities. A: Can you play hockey? I am not skating. He is running. He is not sitting. They are playing. They are not reading. Say why winter is fun. Example: Nick is skiing. Nick is not skiing. He is riding on a sledge. Kate is riding on a sledge. Nick and John are throwing snowballs. Alex is making a snowman. Stacy and Andy are skating. Mike is playing hockey.
Kate and Alex are making a snowman. Write sentences about what the children in the picture on p. Yes, I am. Is she cooking? Yes, she is. Are they singing? Yes, they are. The children are dancing. Mother is cooking breakfast. Father is writing Christmas cards. Grandmother is decorating the Christmas tree. Jane is singing carols. A: Is Tommy Cat making decorations? He is not making decorations.
He is reading a book. Speak about Christmas. Christmas is coming. Busy mothers are making cookies. Children are helping with the decorations. It is such fun to decorate a Christmas tree with tinsel and merry lights. Here comes Father Christmas! He has lots of surprises for children. He fills the stockings with presents. Take a sheet of paper with a fir tree contour on it. Colour the tree green. Cut out the tree.
Decorate it. Write Merry Christmas on it. Give it to your parents. Use the word combinations: make cookies, make decorations, decorate the Christmas tree, make Christmas cards, send Christmas cards, learn Christmas carols. With a hat and a stick And a red nose to blow. We Wish You W hatholidayiscoming? Why do you li keChristmas? What do children d o atChristm as?
Look and answer. Father Christmas. Who is giving Christmas presents? Who is singing Christmas carols? Who is decorating the Christmas tree? Who is making Christmas cards? Who is making cookies? Example: Does he like parrots? Can he play hockey? Example: Pinky Pig is happy. I am tired.
I am shy. I am happy. I am sad. I am proud. I am thirsty. It is Christmas time. They are on vacation. Christie and George have a lot of fun. Every day they ride on their sledge, ski and skate. Sometimes they are cold and hungry. They are happy to play winter games. They throw snowballs, make snowmen and play hockey. They are proud when they win a game. Show it to the class and speak.
When are you tired? When are you sad? We jump and skip, and sing, and dance, And have some tasty things for tea. Who is happy? Petty is. Who is thirsty? Hoppy is. Who is hungry? Ruddy is. Who is shy? Doggy is. Who is sad? Jemmy is. Who is tired? Tommy is. Who is proud? Pinky is. When are you happy? When are you thirsty? When are you hungry? When are you shy?
Where are the birds? Who feels sorry for the birds? What do the birds need? What is Tim thinking about? When do children make bird tables? I am inside. I am outside. Say how you help birds in winter. There is no food For birds to eat. A plate of crumbs Is all they need. They are outside now. Tim and Angela are going to the garden. Tim is making a bird table.
His sister Angela is helping him. The birds are eating the crumbs. They are not hungry now. The children are happy. The bird table is ready. Tim is in the tree. He is fixing the bird table. Round Up Why is Tim sad? Yes, it can. Is it a fish? Yes, it is Can it swim? Kate Bill TimStacy The is falling, The is blowing, The ground is All and all. Complete the poem. What words make a Christmas holiday? What are they doing? Sing a Christmas carol. What are the people doing? Meet my family. This is my mother, Laura. She is a teacher.
She is young and pretty. She likes reading books and talking over the phone. This is my father, Boris. He is young, but he is older than my mother. He is tall and strong. He is a manager in a bank. He comes home late. Sometimes he is tired, but he likes to play chess with my brother in the evening. He is eight. Our grandparents live with us. They are older than our parents.
I like talking to them and listening to their stories. We have a cat and a dog. The cat is fatter than the dog, but the dog is bigger than the cat. Example: A: Nick is tall. B: Dan is taller than Nick. Look, read, and complete. His father is stronger. Irina is young. Dan is younger. Kate is thin. Helen is thinner. Danny Rabbit is fat. Pinky Pig is. Jemmy Duck is small. Hoppy Frog is. Tommy Cat is big. Doggy Dog is. Paul is old than John. John Paul Petty Mouse is strong. Tommy Cat is.
Dan: Happy birthday, dear Grandma! Grandmother: Thank you, dear. Dan: I have a present for you. Grandmother: What is it? Grandmother: Wow! What a surprise. Angela: I have a surprise for you too. Grandmother: Do you? What is it? Angela: Open the box and see. Example: A: Are you taller than your cousin?
B: Yes, I am. I am taller than my cousin. But he is stronger. That one! Dolly Sue Look at the picture and say what the people in it are wearing. Father: Kate, whose jacket is this? My jacket is cleaner. Father: Well, why is it here? Father: And whose boots are these? Are these your boots, Alex?
Alex: My boots are not red. And my boots are clean. Kate: My boots are in the hall. They are the cleanest. Alex: Perhaps they are your boots, Dad. Ask and answer. Choose different clothes each time. A: Whose trainers are the newest? A: Whose jeans are the longest? Examples: A: When is the longest night? A: Which is the biggest animal? The long night is in December.
The short day is in December. February is the short month. The long day is in June. What is the shortest month of the year? What is the coldest season of the year? What is the longest river in Moldova? What is the largest city in Moldova? What is the biggest forest in Moldova? The elephant is the big animal. The lion is the strong animal.
He is going to school now. Then I dress, have breakfast, and go to school. At school I greet my teacher and classmates. I am always glad to see them. I put my books, exercise books and pencil box on my desk. Now I am ready to work. Lessons begin at eight thirty and finish at twelve.
Every day we have four or five lessons. We read, write, speak and do sums. We draw, sing and do physical exercises too. A: When do you get up? B: I get up at six thirty. What do children usually do in winter? What are they doing now? The children in the yard every day. Father chess now. Tim his bed every day. Angela fruit salad now. Mother usually early. Grandpa sometimes in the morning. Granny a pie now. Example: Get up early. Do you get up early?
Eat healthy food. Brush your teeth.
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Eat carrots. Drink milk. Example: It is good to wash with cold water. Do your morning exercises. Run in the morning. Go to bed early. The Kingdom of Healthy Children Say what jobs we do at home. Jobs at Home Saturday is cleaning day. We all have jobs to do at home. Use the clues. Examples: 1. A: Do you make your bed? B: Yes, I make my bed and tidy my room.
Dad cleans the with a. I put away my and and take the out. Angela waters the and washes the. A: Do you clean the carpet? But I put my books away. Round Up Say what Ann is doing. My sister wants to go for a walk. But it is cold outside. Tell her what to put on. I want to tidy it up. Can you tell me how to do it? They were at the library last week. Example: Tim was at a snack bar yesterday. He was at home. Mother was at the supermarket last Sunday. Uncle Bob was in England last year.
Ann was in the village last Saturday. Julia was in San-Francisco last month. My friends were at school yesterday morning. Say where he was. The snow was deep and thick. The trees were bare. They were not green. It is warm in spring. The snow melts. They are green. Look and read. He was in the house.
He was in the living-room. Angela was at the circus. Example: I think he was at the stadium. He goes there every day. She was happy. The mother was in the kitchen. Last night in my dream, I was at the sweet shop near my house. The sweets were larger than my Mum and Dad, And the shop assistant was a mouse! Were they at the concert last Sunday? Last night in my dream, I was in the toy shop near the park. The toys were smaller than a bee, And the shop assistant was a duck! Last night in my dream, I was in the shoe shop near the zoo.
Then fill in the following summary, using an appropriate word or expression. In this scene, Alfred Doolittle, a His manner is that of a man who is He seems quite used to saying what he thinks and feels. Having heard that his daughter Liza has come to live with Higgins, he has decided to try to use the situation to At first, he tries to Higgins replies by insisting that Doolittle must The Professor rings for his housekeeper and tells her to let Doolittle take Liza away. It is clear he thinks Higgins wants Liza for purposes that have little to do with language training! Doolittle says Higgins can keep Liza if he When Higgins is shocked, Doolittle says he is not a moral person because All he wants is When Higgins offers him twice the sum requested, however, Doolittle refuses, saying too much money is In the end, Higgins gives in and Worksheet 7 Summary comparison The teacher writes two summaries of a section to be read at home.
Students must choose the best one, justifying their choice. At the simplest level, one of the summaries omits certain key points; at a more difficult level, both summaries are fairly accurate but me may contain incorrect inference or interpretation. Two different types of summary comparisons are illustrated for Lord of the Flies see Worksheets 22 and Key points for summaries From a section read at home, students are asked to list the five key points which would form the basis for a continuously written summary. Key points can be related to events or to character development.
Since the latter type, especially, calls for interpretation, it is useful to compare choice of key points in class, perhaps asking each group to produce a common list, by negotiation. The teacher supplies his or her own list for comparison and discussion. Alternatively, the teacher provides the class with a list of key points for a section they are about to read at home, and asks them to tick each one off as they read. Then they have to supply one missing point, or delete one irrelevant point.
The latter can be checked by self-access answer sheets. All they have to do is find the right order or sequence. There is a puzzle element to them which appeals, and extra elements of challenge can be added. In its simplest form, the student is given a jumbled list of a certain number of events that occur in the home-reading passage, and asked to place them in their correct sequence. A few incorrect events can be included which must be spotted and discarded; or one or two key events may be left out, to be supplied by the reader.
An example of a jumbled list including some false choices is given for Lord of the Flies see Worksheet Continuous summaries may be used instead of a list of happenings. There are examples in both the novel and play chapters. They can be asked to sort these into order of importance, choose the one nearest to their own ideas, or write their own interpretation, selecting if they wish elements from those given. An example is given for Lord of the Flies see Worksheet There are times, however, when a teacher will want the students to go beyond basic comprehension and consider some of the moral or aesthetic issues raised by a particular text.
A worksheet to accompany home reading can do much to pave the way for fruitful class discussion-it is a means of drawing attention to the special areas the teacher might wish to highlight. Worksheet 8 is based upon the scene in Pygmalion for which we have already provided a gapped summary Worksheet 7. Except in advanced classes where it would not be needed, Worksheet 7 can be used as a preparatory exercise, so that the teacher can ensure that everyone has understood the basics of what happens in this part of the play. But the bare summary of events does not begin to pin down everything that is actually happening on stage.
The scene is a crucial one for plot and characterisation. Dramatically, it presents an amusing but very powerful conflict in wit and will between two men who, despite the contrast in their social position, are equally clever, confident, ruthless, and determined to get their own way. These are some of the areas Worksheet 8 encourages students to explore. They are asked to respond to a set of statements by grouping them in order of importance or preference, as they read the scene at home. In class, choices are compared, discussed, justified.
This is best done in groups, with each group being asked to establish an overall profile of the attitudes expressed by the priorities most of them have chosen. The general class discussion which follows can be quite wide-ranging and illuminating. Then study the following sets of statements. From each set, choose the three statements which seem to you most appropriate, and put them in order of importance: first, second and third.
Be prepared to justify your choice by reference to the scene. Henry Higgins a Higgins is an example of upper-class morality: totally self-centred, caring for no one else but himself. The morality that emerges from this scene a If you are clever enough you can get away with anything.
Write your own. This often serves to underline the ambiguity of the work of art. An example is given for Lord of the Flies see Figure Students usually come up with better ideas if they have time to mull over the question, and if they are given something to spark their interest and get them started. A worksheet to be done at home while they read the last section of the text, with results compared in the next lesson, often generates better discussion.
Wells in Selected. Short Stories. A simplified version is available for intermediate-level students in Outstanding Short Stories by G. Then choose the moral which you think most appropriate. If none seems suitable to you, write one of your own. Be prepared to justify your choice. The moral of this short story is: 1.
In all cases, this kind of worksheet depends very much on the actual text, its level of difficulty, its particular stylistic qualities, and so on. It is quite difficult to give any general rules, or to illustrate out of context. We therefore give a brief list of various types, with page references to indicate illustrations given within the context of the discussion of complete works of literature in later chapters. MATCHING The simplest way to help students with texts that have difficult words, expressions, or structures is to give them simple definitions for problem words, or simplified rephrased sentences, which they are asked to match with the more complex original.
A visual means of indicating different categories of words is the star diagram given for Lord of the Flies, which can be used as a class or home reading activity see Figures 9A and 9B. Examples can he found in Chapter 8 see Figure 16 and Worksheets 47 and The advantage of the literary text is that it provides a context for language work. Exercises can be quite open-ended, so that in addition to language improvement, they incorporate student response. Examples can be found in Worksheets 31 A and 31 B.
Snowball activities These are activities which continue, and are added to progressively, as students read through a long work. They help to maintain an overview of the entire book, provide a valuable aid to memory, and reduce a lengthy text to manageable proportions. Retelling the story Valuable oral practice for classes can be provided by retelling the story so far as a chain activity. Large classes can be divided into story-telling groups so that each student gets a turn. The activity can be combined with vocabulary work, as in the example in Lord of the Flies or with work on character portrayal see p.
Wall charts and other visual displays Visual prompts are extremely helpful to learners working their way through a long, and sometimes complex, work. One way of minimising tedium is to make the activity into a shared one for the whole class. The representation of events is done on a large wall chart or, if circumstances make this difficult, in one notebook which is available for all members of the class to consult, and copy into their own books if they wish.
The class is divided into teams, each assigned responsibility for the creation of one or more sections of the chart. An example involving a three-fold summary of events, themes, and the reactions of characters, is given for Lord of the Flies see Figure Magazine pictures, drawings, photographs, suitable pieces of creative writing or extracts from critical works, quotations, character sketches that have been drawn or written by the students can all be added gradually.
Here are some examples: — Representations of the development of the plot. If the teacher plans to section the reading of a long text into ten parts, for instance, the chart would consist of ten divisions, each one exemplifying in some concrete way what happens in that part of the book. Each part can be encapsulated in a symbolic shape which reminds the reader of some particular feature of that section of the work. An example is shown for Romeo and Juliet see Figure These could be in the form of a large class grid, on which new information is jotted down as reading progresses.
Once again, an imaginative variation on a standard linear form can often prove more interesting for learners to create, and easier for them to remember. The star diagram used to describe the setting in Lord of the Flies, for example see Figures 9A and 9B could be repeated at various points in books where there is a change of setting, thus providing a snowball variant. Wall charts or diagrams can be class-based, with groups given responsibility for one planned sequence in the overall diagram. Different responses are seen to be possible and fruitful.
Reassessing An overview can be maintained by simply redoing a particular exercise at various points in a book. For example, a grid used to crystallise a first insight into motivation and personality see Worksheet 15 can be collected and kept by the teacher. Several chapters later, learners are given a second copy of the same grid to fill out again, drawing now on their expanded knowledge of the character. Comparison of earlier and later views is often instructive! This fosters momentum, and it can take the form of oral work, with the teacher or, better still, one of the learners asking appropriate questions: What is going to happen?
What is likely to be the fate of X. Choices could be offered: Here are three possibilities. Which do you think is the most likely? A variation which our students have found interesting is the following: after reading the first section of the book, students are asked to complete a series of statements in writing. Here is an example for Lord of the Flies: I think Piggy will I think the greatest danger they face is I think they will succeed in I think they will fail in I think they will find it easiest to I think they will find it hardest to These are pinned up and reviewed after a few lessons.
Are early predictions still valid? How would they need to be changed in the light of our new knowledge? A variation of the preceding exercise also provides training in making inferences from given data, a skill which is an important element in reading comprehension. From a set of facts, learners are asked to deduce likely consequences. From this we can foresee that This may lead to The stress laid on facts in this version trains learners to be attentive to the possible consequences of events in the story they are reading. Having done this once, students could initiate the process themselves for the next section of a long text.
That is, working in groups, they extract from a passage which they have just read, the facts upon which inferences can be made. Decision points At certain points in reading a book, learners are asked to write a sentence or paragraph in answer to a question of the type: Why did X make this decision? The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Why does Liza decide to stay with Higgins when he is so rude to her?
He or she then writes or types out a selection of the answers, chosen to illustrate the widest range of reasons the rather tedious recopying is to ensure anonymity and allow some unobtrusive language correction by the teacher, if need be. Later on, when students have read further, the selection is either pinned up for all to see or, if it is possible to duplicate it, distributed to the students.
It is now easier for learners to assess whether additional information gained since writing their answers can affect their ideas about the question asked, what new answers would now have to be given, why certain answers were fuller, closer to the mark than others, and so on. With more advanced groups, this activity can be used for quite useful language work: the sentences or paragraphs, instead of being corrected, are rewritten or typed with either all errors left in, or with one specific type left in for example, omission of articles, verb tenses, etc.
Students, working in groups, see how many of the errors they can spot and correct. This kind of work is usually enjoyable for them — but it is probably best to use it sparingly: after such intense scrutiny of the way ideas have been expressed, it is quite often difficult to go on to a discussion of what the sentences formulate. In this as in so many other activities, it is important to try to vary and balance the kind of work learners are doing. This ensures a range of diaries written from different perspectives. It is important to provide some opportunity for students to compare diaries, and discuss them, at the end of the book.
An exhibition of diaries could be organised. The teacher divides the long text into a number of sections equal to the number of students in the class. Each learner draws a number and is then responsible for writing a commentary on the part of the book corresponding to the number. These could be put on a wall chart, or in a decorated book kept especially for this purpose and containing one section per student.
The binders now available, into which sheets of paper can be slotted between protective plastic, seem ideal for this activity. Other writing tasks can be similarly added to snowball wall charts or notebooks as reading progresses. Language projects An activity to be done in groups, each group being assigned one specific language aspect to study as the class reads through a text. Sec Worksheet 42 for an example using Romeo and Juliet. These activities will further encourage the students to explore and express their own response to the literary work.
The activities described in this chapter are ideas or templates which can be modified or adapted according to the particular literary work being read and the type and level of students involved. Once again, we emphasise that they can be used at different points in the text. Although the majority of the activities are grouped under skill headings, many of them integrate several language skills and reflect our wish to use literature as a stimulus to oral work, especially in groups.
Writing activities Literary works provide a wealth of contexts for interesting writing activities in the classroom. We group here a variety of activities that have a writing component, though many lead naturally into game, discussion or drama follow-ups and thus develop into multi-skill exercises. The progression in this section is from more controlled writing activities to more creative ones. In the next class lesson, they are asked, in pairs, to write a summary of this section, using each of the connectors in the list appropriately. The teacher gives them a maximum number of words. There is comparison and discussion of the results.
As a follow-up in the next lesson, the same connectors are written on slips of paper and put into a box. Students have been set a further home-reading passage. Each student now chooses a slip of paper with a connector. In groups, they relate the events of the new passage read, in turn, using the connector chosen. If it is not possible for them to use it, they are allowed to substitute a totally different connector, which they write on a slip of paper to add to the stock. Repetition of connectors is not allowed! Summarising the summary One novel way of carrying out summary work is to make it progressive.
Students are divided into three groups. Each writes a summary of the section read, with a maximum number of words, for example, They then pass on their summary to the next group, which must reduce it to half its length, that is, to 35 words. This is now passed on to the: third group, which halves the length again, to 17 words. Each group is thus involved in reducing all three summaries. Final versions are read out and changes discussed. Creative conversation writing Writing dialogues is a good way for students to explore their view of a character or fictional situation.
The exchanges are kept simple so that they remain effective even if learners have not yet achieved perfect control of the target language. For example, a character arrives on the scene, having just been with someone else: students are asked to write the previous conversation, which is not in the literary work itself. Poems also provide excellent contexts for conversation writing, and several examples are given in Chapter In Lord of the Flies, for example, students are asked to write a monologue see p. In all these cases, the dialogues written can be the basis for excellent role play or dramatisation.
Students usually enjoy performing their own works! The teacher having set the scene, each student writes the first utterance, imagining that they are character A. They then pass their slip of paper to their right-hand neighbour. Everyone now reads the utterance they have received, and, imagining they are now character B, write a reply to it on the paper before them. They then pass the paper back to their left-hand neighbour, that is, the learner who originally wrote the first exchange. At the end of the activity, each learner will have helped build up two dialogues, one in which they have consistently been character A, the other in which they have been character B.
This technique often makes dialogue writing more enjoyable because it contains an element of surprise: each learner must react to the part of the conversation written by another student. It also has the advantage of being suitable for any size of class. An illustration can be found in the imagined dialogue between Romeo and Old Capulet in Romeo and Juliet see p.
He or she will want them to notice, too, that readers can be given a varying set of clues about these worlds: sometimes the readers are told only what a character does or says, at other times they are also told what the character thinks; sometimes there is comment from a narrator, at other times not. There are assumptions which every reader has to make to interpret the clues given and to create, in a sense, a new world that is merely pointed to, in the text.
The following task helps students make these assumptions explicit. In so doing they will, it is hoped, gain a fuller understanding both of the imaginary world itself, and also of the narrative or dramatic codes by which an author creates, and a reader re-creates, this complex world of the imagination. The cartoon is not, however, an essential feature. In Worksheet 10, designed for a highlight scene in The Talented Mr Ripley by Patricia Highsmith, the spoken dialogue is given on the left, and students are asked to write the accompanying thought dialogue on the right.
In this case, the attention of students is drawn to the fact that some clues are given in the narrative for example, the author says that Tom is embarrassed at the beginning of the scene and that these must be taken into account in establishing the parallel inner script. Cries for help It is often the case that a highlight scene in a literary work presents one of the characters, or several, in some dire predicament. Students are asked to write the note or short letter that such a character dashes off as a plea for help.
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In a state of peril or anguish, obviously, communication is paramount: no one is going to worry unduly about the odd spelling or syntax mistake as long as it does not impede possible comprehension of the message. The context can therefore be a liberating one for learners who are not too confident of their mastery of the written mode. The dialogue on the left is what they say to each other. On the right is what each of them is thinking. With your partner, write what each character really thinks.
The first two parts have been done, but you can change these if they do not represent what you consider each character to be thinking. Remember the novelist has given some clues in the passage! How dare you come into my room secretly and sneak into my clothes! Tom: Oh — just amusing myself. What Shall I do? Where can I hide? Oh, my God, he knows! I hate him! Tom: Sorry, Dickie. Shoes too? Are you crazy? Tom: No. Did you make it up with Marge? Dickie: Marge an I are fine. Another thing I want to say, but clearly.
Tom: Queer? I never thought you were queer. Dickie: Well, Marge thinks you are. Tom: Why? Why should she? The aim is to crystallise a personal, felt response to a literary situation. Formal limitations, on the other hand, can be quite rewarding. Poems with a set number of syllables, as in the various Japanese models, or whose first letters in each line spell a name, are also popular. Examples are given in the poetry chapter, and in Lord of the Flies see p.
They must then write a very brief account of one particular scene of their work, as though for that publication. This could also be used as an ongoing snowball activity. Students are shown examples of genuine newspaper articles, if possible from more than one type of publication. They are asked to write about the events in the literary work as though for one of these newspapers. They can be given a headline as a prompt, and a maximum number of words.
In each case, it may be necessary to familiarise students with the conventions of report writing by studying examples with them beforehand. Once again, it is best if examples can be provided see Figure 5. This is an excellent pretext for a very brief appreciation of a character, and one that seems to be always very popular with students see Worksheet Students are shown an example of such a poster see Figure 6 , then asked to write one for a character who has gone missing, for example: — Simon, in Lord of the Flies see p.
If cassettes or records of the work are available, these can be helpful, as can video recordings. Non-native teachers sometimes feel unduly reticent about reading aloud to their students: they can be extremely effective if they do so, because the creation of atmosphere, and the communication of meaning and drama are both much more important than perfect pronunciation or stress patterns.
The students can sometimes be told just to listen for the pleasure of it, if this is appropriate to the classroom situation and to the particular group: many learners enjoy this. It does help them create their fantasy response to the text and become involved in it. Occasionally, learners like listening with their eyes shut; at other times, this makes them feel too self-conscious. Obviously, it is important to adapt activities to particular groups, and to vary them.
Straightforward listening can be followed in the next lesson by listening with worksheets for specific purposes. Listening After a suitable warm-up, students listen to an entire short work, or a section of a longer one, before reading the printed version. This works well with both poems and short stories, and examples are given in the chapters on these genres. Listening to a section can be enriching and interesting, even if some of the class have already read the text. The experience of hearing the section always brings some new detail to the fore. Some personal response can be encouraged in the form of jottings or doodlings, as in Lord of the Flies see pp.
Activities to accompany reading or listening These are grouped together because many of the worksheets devised to help with reading can also be used profitably when students listen to a text. Different groups are given either different texts or different recordings, and by consultation with each other, must reconstitute a complete narrative. In either case, it also provides valuable oral practice. Studying what a particular utterance can actually mean in different circumstances is an activity that can accompany either reading or listening.
Worksheet 34 in the chapter on Lord of the Flies could be used with the printed page, or with a cassette recording of this particular section. Finally, some of the listening tasks outlined in the next chapter can also be adapted to be used with highlights of a book, as well as with the entire work once it has been read by the class. Parallel reading Many literary works make statements or pose questions about larger issues or themes which the teacher would like the students to think about and discuss.
These can be set as reading assignments either whole or in extract form and comparisons, contrasts or parallels drawn out in class discussion. The same theme appears in other works, like the well-known novels The Coral Island by R. Ballantyne or Treasure Island by R. Stevenson, the play The Admirable Crichton by J. Examples of extracts from The Coral Island used to complement discussion of certain aspects of Lord of the Flies are given in that chapter see pp.
Examples of other parallel texts are discussed in the chapters on short stories or plays. To further habits of extensive reading, different groups in a class could be given different parallel texts to read. When this has been done, new groups are constituted, each member of which has read a different text. Each learner tells their story and describes their conclusions about it to others in their group. Results are pinned up for the class to compare and discuss.
This is because so many of our activities incorporate an oral component, whatever other skills they also aim to foster. The great majority of our classroom activities, for example, are based on group work, which stimulates oral practice. The warm-up sessions which lead into more detailed examination of literary works are similarly designed to elicit spoken response; many of the worksheets used to accompany home reading give rise to oral feedback and discussion in the next class lesson.
Most of these are amply illustrated later in the book, within the context of whole works, and especially in the chapter on Lord of the Flies. The entire range cannot of course be used with any one work: they are offered as ideas from which to choose, in order to link reading a text with improving mastery of the spoken language. This section progresses from two activities with a phonological emphasis, through structured discussion to more creative activities. Mini-reading aloud This activity aims to develop student awareness of intonation, rhythm, stress and other features of spoken language.
Its starting point is the selection of a dramatic piece of dialogue from a known part of the literary work. Thereafter the activity can take various forms. One approach is to put students into groups of three and ask each group to study a different section of the extract. Pauses after sense units or for special emphasis are also discussed. The teacher is available to give help where required but does not actually model the extract.
After rehearsals, there is a public performance by each group in the correct sequence. For more detailed examples with poems, see pp. LIZA [snatching up the slippers, and hurling them at him one after the other with all her force] There are your slippers.
And there. Get up. Anything wrong? LIZA [breathless] Nothing wrong — with you. You won my bet! Presumptuous insect! I won it. What did you throw those slippers at me for? Because I wanted to smash your face. Why didnt you leave me where you picked me out of — in the gutter? Claws in, you cat. How dare you shew your temper to me? Sit down and be quiet. LIZA [crushed by superior strength and weight] Whats to become of me?
Whats to become of me? How the devil do I know whats to become of you? What does it matter what becomes of you? You dont care. I know you dont care. You wouldnt care if I was dead. LIZA [with bitter submission] Those slippers. I didnt think it made any difference now. In a simple variation, two or three individuals are asked to record on cassette a summary of the section read at home. A time limit is set for each summary. The class listens to all three, jotting down any points of divergence between them, or omissions.
Choose the statement This is the first of a series of activities based on the idea of sparking discussion by means of a concrete task. The technique is particularly fruitful when applied to discussion of literary texts. It is, in essence, discussion based upon an open-ended multiple choice. Students are provided with a list of statements about a character, an event, a theme, etc. They are then asked, individually or in groups, to choose the one which is closest to their own view.
The class is given the following statements: 1. The man captures the girl because he is sexually attracted to her. The man captures the girl because he has very little self-confidence. The man captures the girl because he is mentally disturbed. The man captures the girl because he wants to possess her totally. The man captures the girl because he wants to kill her. When they have chosen, individuals or groups are invited to explain the reasons behind their choice. This often provokes more talk about alternative possible choices. Discussions based on questionnaires Questionnaires are usually very helpful in sparking discussion.
These can be prepared to be filled in at home, with follow-up in the next lesson; alternatively, they can be completed during class time. Students are then asked to discuss their choices with fellow students, either in pairs or in groups. Other examples are given in later chapters: for example, Worksheet 27 in Lord of the Flies and Worksheets 46 and 52 in Romeo and Juliet.
Tick the appropriate box. Agree Disagree Not sure 1. The Bokanovsky process is an acceptable alternative to natural childbirth because you grow up knowing where you are. Staying younger for longer is an attractive aspect of life in Brave New World. The control of individual emotions is an effective way of preventing time-wasting and loss of productive energy. Frequent, brief relationships are a realistic alternative to the pressures of married life. Many of the worksheets or grids used to build up familiarity with various characters and chart the development of their personality as the literary work unfolds, incorporate an element of controversy and can thus be useful in promoting discussion.
Continuum At a certain point in their reading, students are asked to express their reaction to aspects in the book by choosing a point on a continuous line drawn between two opposing views, or two extreme characteristics. This can be done in the following ways: — On paper. Another example is given in Lord of the Flies see Worksheet One corner represents one extreme, the other its opposite. Students go and stand at the point against the wall which represents their judgment of the opinion expressed.
As differences of opinion are thus vividly revealed, this activity often produces spontaneous discussion of the element of the book that is being highlighted. Examples are given for a poem see p. Sometimes these codes have the overt quality of laws or rules, in other cases they are expectations to be inferred from a set of given data. The following activities are variations, designed to help learners articulate explicitly and discuss the often implicit set of constraints which give a book its internal tension. They either imagine that they are in that setting and decide on their own rules, or they can try to decide what rules seem to be implied within the context of the book itself.
An example from Lord of the Flies is given in Worksheet Instead of rules, students are asked to formulate advice on coping with the social situation they find in the literary work. This allows for considerable variation. Illustrations might include: 1.
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