Hitler discovered a powerful talent for oratory as well as giving the new Party its symbol — the swastika — and its greeting " Heil! By November Hitler was recognized as Fuhrer of a movement which had 3, members, and boosted his personal power by organizing strong- arm squads to keep order at his meetings and break up those of his opponents. Hitler focused his propaganda against the Versailles Treaty, the "November criminals," the Marxists and the visible, internal enemy No.
In the twenty-five-point programme of the NSDAP announced on 24 February , the exclusion of the Jews from the Volk community, the myth of Aryan race supremacy and extreme nationalism were combined with "socialistic" ideas of profit-sharing and nationalization inspired by ideologues like Gottfried Feder.
Hitler's first written utterance on political questions dating from this period emphasized that what he called "the anti-Semitism of reason" must lead "to the systematic combating and elimination of Jewish privileges. Its ultimate goal must implacably be the total removal of the Jews. By November Hitler was convinced that the Weimar Republic was on the verge of collapse and, together with General Ludendorff and local nationalist groups, sought to overthrow the Bavarian government in Munich.
Bursting into a beer-hall in Munich and firing his pistol into the ceiling, he shouted out that he was heading a new provisional government which would carry through a revolution against "Red Berlin. Hitler was arrested and tried on 26 February , succeeding in turning the tables on his accusers with a confident, propagandist speech which ended with the prophecy: "Pronounce us guilty a thousand times over: the goddess of the eternal court of history will smile and tear to pieces the State Prosecutor's submission and the court's verdict for she acquits us.
Subsequently the "bible" of the Nazi Party, this crude, half-baked hotchpotch of primitive Social Darwinism, racial myth, anti-Semitism and lebensraum fantasy had sold over five million copies by and been translated into eleven languages. The failure of the Beer-Hall putsch and his period of imprisonment transformed Hitler from an incompetent adventurer into a shrewd political tactician, who henceforth decided that he would never again confront the gun barrels of army and police until they were under his command.
He concluded that the road to power lay not through force alone but through legal subversion of the Weimar Constitution, the building of a mass movement and the combination of parliamentary strength with extra-parliamentary street terror and intimidation.
Helped by Goering and Goebbels he began to reassemble his followers and rebuild the movement which had disintegrated in his absence. In January the ban on the Nazi Party was removed and Hitler regained permission to speak in public. Outmaneuvering the "socialist" North German wing of the Party under Gregor Strasser, Hitler re-established himself in as the ultimate arbiter to whom all factions appealed in an ideologically and socially heterogeneous movement.
Avoiding rigid, programmatic definitions of National Socialism which would have undermined the charismatic nature of his legitimacy and his claim to absolute leadership, Hitler succeeded in extending his appeal beyond Bavaria and attracting both Right and Left to his movement. Though the Nazi Party won only twelve seats in the elections, the onset of the Great Depression with its devastating effects on the middle classes helped Hitler to win over all those strata in German society who felt their economic existence was threatened.
In addition to peasants, artisans, craftsmen, traders, small businessmen, ex-officers, students and declasse intellectuals, the Nazis in began to win over the big industrialists, nationalist conservatives and army circles.
Adolf Hitler | The Holocaust Encyclopedia
With the backing of the press tycoon, Alfred Hugenberg, Hitler received a tremendous nationwide exposure just as the effects of the world economic crisis hit Germany, producing mass unemployment, social dissolution, fear and indignation. With demagogic virtuosity, Hitler played on national resentments, feelings of revolt and the desire for strong leadership using all the most modern techniques of mass persuasion to present himself as Germany's redeemer and messianic saviour.
In the elections the Nazi vote jumped dramatically from , to 6,, Prompted by Hjalmar Schacht and Fritz Thyssen, the great industrial magnates began to contribute liberally to the coffers of the NSDAP, reassured by Hitler's performance before the Industrial Club in Dusseldorf on 27 January that they had nothing to fear from the radicals in the Party. The following month Hitler officially acquired German citizenship and decided to run for the Presidency, receiving 13,, votes in the run-off elections of 10 April as against 19,, votes for the victorious von Hindenburg , but four times the vote for the communist candidate, Ernst Thaelmann.
In the Reichstag elections of July the Nazis emerged as the largest political party in Germany, obtaining nearly fourteen million votes Although the NSDAP fell back in November to eleven million votes seats , Hitler was helped to power by a camarilla of conservative politicians led by Franz von Papen , who persuaded the reluctant von Hindenburg to nominate "the Bohemian corporal" as Reich Chancellor on 30 January Once in the saddle, Hitler moved with great speed to outmanoeuvre his rivals, virtually ousting the conservatives from any real participation in government by July , abolishing the free trade unions, eliminating the communists, Social Democrats and Jews from any role in political life and sweeping opponents into concentration camps.
The Reichstag fire of 27 February had provided him with the perfect pretext to begin consolidating the foundations of a totalitarian one-party State, and special "enabling laws" were ramrodded through the Reichstag to legalize the regime's intimidatory tactics. With support from the nationalists, Hitler gained a majority at the last "democratic" elections held in Germany on 5 March and with cynical skill he used the whole gamut of persuasion, propaganda, terror and intimidation to secure his hold on power.
The seductive notions of "National Awakening" and a "Legal Revolution" helped paralyse potential opposition and disguise the reality of autocratic power behind a facade of traditional institutions. The destruction of the radical SA leadership under Ernst Rohm in the Blood Purge of June confirmed Hitler as undisputed dictator of the Third Reich and by the beginning of August, when he united the positions of Fuhrer and Chancellor on the death of von Hindenburg, he had all the powers of State in his hands.
Avoiding any institutionalization of authority and status which could challenge his own undisputed position as supreme arbiter, Hitler allowed subordinates like Himmler , Goering and Goebbels to mark out their own domains of arbitrary power while multiplying and duplicating offices to a bewildering degree. During the next four years Hitler enjoyed a dazzling string of domestic and international successes, outwitting rival political leaders abroad just as he had defeated his opposition at home. In he abandoned the Versailles Treaty and began to build up the army by conscripting five times its permitted number.
He persuaded Great Britain to allow an increase in the naval building programme and in March he occupied the demilitarized Rhineland without meeting opposition. He began building up the Luftwaffe and supplied military aid to Francoist forces in Spain , which brought about the Spanish fascist victory in The German rearmament programme led to full employment and an unrestrained expansion of production, which reinforced by his foreign policy successes--the Rome-Berlin pact of , the Anschluss with Austria and the "liberation" of the Sudeten Germans in — brought Hitler to the zenith of his popularity.
In February he dismissed sixteen senior generals and took personal command of the armed forces, thus ensuring that he would be able to implement his aggressive designs. Hitler's saber-rattling tactics bludgeoned the British and French into the humiliating Munich agreement of and the eventual dismantlement of the Czechoslovakian State in March Most Germans kept quiet, often benefiting when Jews lost jobs and businesses.
The Berlin Olympics was a propaganda success and marked Germany's return to the world stage after the First World War. Hitler's anti-Semitic rhetoric had turned many Germans against the Jews. But a different propaganda strategy was needed for a global audience. The Summer Olympics in Berlin gave the Nazis a platform to project a crafted image to the world. Despite calls for boycotts, the games were a success. Anti-Jewish notices were removed and German spectators cheered black athlete Jesse Owens to four gold medals. Visitors saw a tolerant Reich.
This contact with many nationalities and races has made the Germans more human again. A poster advertising the exhibition 'The Eternal Jew': a landmark in anti-Semitic propaganda, which opened in Munich and toured Germany. Goebbels stepped up anti-Semitic propaganda with a traveling exhibition which cast Jews as the enemy.
Nearly half a million people attended. Some guessed worse would come. It is a horrible thing that a race of people should be attempted to be blotted out of the society in which they had been born. In March, Germany invaded Austria and by September parts of Czechoslovakia too, drawing new territories under the regime of Nazi persecution. In November, attacks erupted against Jewish businesses. At least 91 Jews died and synagogues were destroyed in a centrally coordinated plot passed off as spontaneous violence across Germany.
Thousands of Jews were sent to concentration camps and were only released if they agreed to leave the Nazi territory. Many Jews decided to flee, though options were limited. Britain agreed to house Jewish children, eventually taking in 10, minors, but refused to change its policy for Jewish adults. I believe it is peace for our time Go home and get a nice quiet sleep. Until this point, Nazi strategy had concentrated on getting Jews to leave the Reich but when war broke out in September a different plan emerged.
By the end of September, the SS had started to develop plans to deport Jews to newly invaded Poland: the first steps towards the systematic murder that would follow. In Poland itself, thousands of Poles and Jews were rounded up and shot, early indications of the systematic murder that would follow. Alongside this, Hitler approved a new programme of euthanasia to exterminate the handicapped and mentally ill. Patients considered incurable, according to the best available human judgment of their state of health, can be granted a mercy killing.
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The Warsaw Ghetto was sealed on 16 November The walls were 3m high, topped with barbed wire. Anyone trying to escape would be shot. German forces marched across Europe. Of the occupied countries, some capitulated and implemented Nazi policy immediately. Others held off for longer. For the first time, camps were created specifically for Jews. Their conditions were far worse than other camps. The Holocaust was a process that started with discrimination against Jewish people, and ended with millions of people being killed because of who they were. It was a process that became increasingly brutal over time.
From the moment they came to power in , the Nazis persecuted people who they didn't think were worthy members of society - most notably Jewish people. They introduced laws that discriminated against them and took away their rights. Jewish people were not allowed in certain places and were banned from getting certain jobs. They also began to set up concentration camps where they could send people they believed to be "enemies of the state" to be imprisoned and forced to work.
This included Jewish people and anybody who did not support them.
The first camp called Dachau was opened in March just outside of Munich. Between and , the Nazis created more than 40, camps in areas they controlled. Some were work camps , some were transit camps to process prisoners, and others - the first of which would open in - would be extermination camps, where the Nazis could kill people in great numbers.
Many people were murdered by camp guards for no reason and many more died as a result of the terrible conditions in them. The Nazis also set out to take control of everybody's lives.
In , a law called the Malicious Gossip Law was introduced, which made it a crime to tell an anti-Nazi joke. Jazz music was banned, textbooks were rewritten to contain Nazi ideas, pictures of Hitler were put up everywhere, and books were destroyed that were not written in ways that the Nazis liked. In , 1, newspapers were closed down and the ones left were only allowed to print articles approved of by the Nazis. They set up compulsory groups for young people called Hitler Youth for boys and BDM for girls , so they would become young Nazis who idolised Hitler as they grew up.
Boys were taught Nazi values and prepared for war; girls were taught skills like cookery and sewing. An important date was 9 November , when there was a night of terrible violence against Jewish people. It became known as Kristallnacht - the 'night of broken glass' - due to all of the smashed glass that covered the streets from shops that were raided. Ninety-one Jews were murdered, 30, were arrested and sent to concentration camps, and synagogues were destroyed.
Jewish people in Poland were forced to live in selected areas called ghettos where they were treated very poorly and many were murdered. Conditions in the ghettos were very bad, and many lost their lives as a result of disease and starvation. By the early s, the Nazis were looking for a way they could kill a great number people in a short amount of time in order to get rid of Europe's Jewish population. They came up with the idea of extermination camps in which they could kill lots of people.
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This is what they would call 'the final solution'. By the end of , the first extermination camp called Chelmno in Poland had been set up. There were six extermination camps in total in areas of Poland controlled by the Nazis: Auschwitz-Birkenau the largest , Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka. Camps were also established outside of Poland in Belarus, Serbia, Ukraine and Croatia by Nazis and their allies, where many hundreds of thousands more died.
Between and , people were murdered on a scale that the world had never seen before. Millions were rounded up and put on trains to the camps, where they would be forced to work or killed. We know that the victims included:. As soldiers fighting against Germany in World War Two - Britain, the US, the Soviet Union and their allies - made their way across areas of Europe controlled by the Nazis, they began to discover the camps.
As it became clear that the Nazis were going to be defeated, the Nazis tried to hide the evidence of their crimes by destroying the camps. They forced surviving prisoners in Poland to walk back to camps in Germany. Many prisoners lost their lives on these gruelling walks. The Nazis were not able to hide what they had done, though, and it wasn't long before the world learned of the extent of the Holocaust. Majdanek was the first camp to be freed in the summer of People who went in to liberate the camps have spoken of the horrific scenes that they encountered.
Many of those who were freed from the camps died even after the liberations as they were so ill from how they'd been treated.
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