Divine Unity (Tawheed) (Islam Questions And Answers Book 7)

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Articles of Faith

Tawhid (Unity)

Yasir al-Wakeel 54, 1. Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari 28, 1. Muhammad Legenhausen 22, 0. Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi 19, 0. Hatem Abu Shahba 19, 0. Yasin T. Al-Jibouri 15, 0. Al-Mui'izz, Al'Mudhill. A short text explaining the fundamental Islamic principle of belief in single, unique God. Allamah Sayyid Sa'eed Akhtar Rizvi 12, 0. Allamah Sayyid Sa'eed Akhtar Rizvi 11, 0. Ayatullah Ibrahim Amini 9, 0. Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari 9, 0.

Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi 8, 0. Oneness of God as a World outlook, outlook of human existence and as a social approach. Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamene'i 8, 0. Perfection of faith, seeking God, God and reason, acceptance of the unseen, and materialism. Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari 7, 0. Ayatullah Ibrahim Amini 7, 0. Reza Berenjkar 6, 0. Ayatullah Naser Makarem Shirazi 5, 0.

Ghulam Husayn Adeel 5, 0. Mohammad Ali Shomali 5, 0. Mohammad Ali Shomali , Mahnaz Heydarpoor 5, 0. Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari 4, 0. Sheikh Hassan Muhammad Makki al-Amili 3, 0.


Karim Aghili 3, 0. Shaykh Dr. Muhammad Saeed Bahmanpour 3, 0. PART 1. Muhammad Ladak 3, 0. Ayatullah Naser Makarem Shirazi 2, 0. SCENE 1. Muhammad Ladak 2, 0. Allama Husayn Ansariyan 2, 0. Nayerreh Tavassoli 2, 0. Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Al-Asifi 2, 0. Mohammad Ali Shomali 2, 0. Mohammad Ali Shomali 1, 0. This part studies divine mercy as illustrated in the way God rewards.

Fatemah Meghji 1, 0. Tawus Raja 1, 0. The present work is a thesis written based on the subject of the existence of God. Teleology is the supposition that there is a purpose or directive principle in the works and processes of nature. Another argument which is used frequently by theologians is Reductio ad absurdum. They use it instead of positive arguments as a more efficient way to reject the ideas of opponents. Against the polytheism of pre-Islamic Arabia , the Qur'an argues that the knowledge of God as the creator of everything rules out the possibility of lesser gods since these beings must be themselves created.

For the Qur'an, God is an immanent and transcendent deity who actively creates, maintains and destroys the universe. The reality of God as the ultimate cause of things is the belief that God is veiled from human understanding because of the secondary causes and contingent realities of things in the world. The Qur'an states that God's signals are so near and yet so far, demanding that its students listen to what it has to say with humility Sura , Sura The Qur'an draws attention to certain observable facts, to present them as "reminders" of God instead of providing lengthy "theological" proofs for the existence and unity of God.

Ash'ari theologians rejected cause and effect in essence, but accepted it as something that facilitates humankind's investigation and comprehension of natural processes. These medieval scholars argued that nature was composed of uniform atoms that were "re-created" at every instant by God. The laws of nature were only the customary sequence of apparent causes customs of God , the ultimate cause of each accident being God himself.

An ontological argument for the existence of God was first proposed by Avicenna in the Metaphysics section of The Book of Healing [28] [29] Other forms of the argument also appear in Avicenna's other works, and this argument became known as the Proof of the Truthful. Avicenna initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being , in which he distinguished between essence Mahiat and existence Wujud. He argued that the fact of existence can not be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things.

Existence must, therefore, be due to an agent-cause that necessitates, imparts, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect. This was the first attempt at using the method of a priori proof , which utilizes intuition and reason alone.

Avicenna's proof of God's existence is unique in that it can be classified as both a cosmological argument and an ontological argument. The proof is also "cosmological insofar as most of it is taken up with arguing that contingent existents cannot stand alone and must end up in a Necessary Existent". According to Avicenna, the universe consists of a chain of actual beings, each giving existence to the one below it and responsible for the existence of the rest of the chain below.

Because an actual infinite is deemed impossible by Avicenna, this chain as a whole must terminate in a being that is wholly simple and one, whose essence is its very existence, and therefore is self-sufficient and not in need of something else to give it existence. Because its existence is not contingent on or necessitated by something else but is necessary and eternal in itself, it satisfies the condition of being the necessitating cause of the entire chain that constitutes the eternal world of contingent existing things.

There is a gradual multiplication of beings through a timeless emanation from God as a result of his self-knowledge. The Qur'an argues that there can be no multiple sources of divine sovereignty since "behold, each god would have taken away what [each] had created, And some would have Lorded it over others! The Qur'an in verse states: "If there were numerous gods instead of one, [the heavens and the earth] would be in a sorry state".

Later Muslim theologians elaborated on this verse saying that the existence of at least two gods would inevitably arise between them, at one time or another, a conflict of wills. Since two contrary wills could not possibly be realized at the same time, one of them must admit himself powerless in that particular instance. On the other hand, a powerless being can not by definition be a god. Therefore, the possibility of having more than one god is ruled out. The Qur'an argues that human beings have an instinctive distaste for polytheism : At times of crisis, for example, even the idolaters forget the false deities and call upon the one true God for help.

As soon as they are relieved from the danger, they however start associating other beings with God. Next, the Qur'an argues that polytheism takes away from human dignity: God has honored human beings and given them charge of the physical world, and yet they disgrace their position in the world by worshipping what they carve out with their own hands. Lastly, the Qur'an argues that monotheism is not a later discovery made by the human race, but rather there is the combined evidence of the prophetic call for monotheism throughout human history starting from Adam.

The Qur'an suggests several causes for deviation from monotheism to polytheism: Great temporal power, regarded by the holder and his subjects as 'absolute' — may lead the holder to think that he is God-like; such claims were commonly forced upon, and accepted by, those who were subject to the ruler. Also, certain natural phenomena such as the sun, the moon and the stars inspire feelings of awe, wonder or admiration that could lead some to regard these celestial bodies as deities. Another reason for deviation from monotheism is when one becomes a slave to his or her base desires and passions.

In seeking to always satisfy the desires, he or she may commit a kind of polytheism. Understanding of the meaning of Tawhid is one of the most controversial issues among Muslims. Islamic scholars have different approaches toward understanding it, comprising textualistic approach , theological approach , philosophical approach and Sufism and Irfani approach. These different approaches lead to different and in some cases opposite understanding of the issue.

The Textualistists by reason of their conception of the divine Attributes, came to represent the divinity as a complex of names and qualifications alongside the divine essence itself. The Athari methodology of textual interpretation is to avoid delving into extensive theological speculation. Certain theologians use the term Tawhid in a much broader meaning to denote the totality of discussion of God, his existence and his various attributes. Others go yet further and use the term to ultimately represent the totality of the "principles of religion".

In its current usage, the expressions "Tawhid" or "knowledge of Tawhid" are sometimes used as an equivalent for the whole Kalam, the Islamic theology. According to Sunni Islam, the orthodox understanding of theology is taken directly from the teachings of Muhammad with the understanding and methodology of his companions, sourced directly from the revealed scripture the Qur'an ; being the main information source for understanding the oneness of God in Islam.

All Muslim authorities maintain that a true understanding of God is impossible unless He introduces Himself due to the fact that God is beyond the range of human vision and senses. According to this view, the fundamental message of all of the prophets is: "There is no god worthy of worship except Allah avoiding the false gods as stated in Surah hud.

This is also evident on the hadith of Miraj described in the Quran as well! The Mu'tazilis liked to call themselves the men of the tawhid ahl al-tawhid. God is unique, nothing is like him; he is neither body, nor individual, nor substance, nor accident. He is beyond time. He cannot dwell in a place or within a being; he is not the object of any creatural attribute or qualification. He is neither conditioned nor determined, neither engendered nor engendering.

He is beyond the perception of the senses. The eyes cannot see him, observation cannot attain him, the imagination cannot comprehend him. He is a thing, but he is not like other things; he is omniscient, all-powerful, but his omniscience and his all-mightiness cannot be compared to anything created. He created the world without any pre-established archetype and without an auxiliary. According to Henry Corbin , the result of this interpretation is the negation of the divine attributes, the affirmation of the created Quran, and the denial of all possibility of the vision of God in the world beyond.

The solution proposed by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari to solve the problems of tashbih and ta'til concedes that the divine Being possesses in a real sense the Attributes and Names mentioned in the Qur'an. Insofar as these Names and Attributes have a positive reality, they are distinct from the essence, but nevertheless they do not have either existence or reality apart from it.

The inspiration of al-Ash'ari in this matter was on the one hand to distinguish essence and attribute as concepts, and on the other hand to see that the duality between essence and attribute should be situated not on the quantitative but on the qualitative level—something which Mu'tazilis thinking had failed to grasp. Ash'ari theology, which dominated Sunni Islam from the tenth to the nineteenth century, insists on ultimate divine transcendence and holds that divine unity is not accessible to human reason. Ash'arism teaches that human knowledge regarding it is limited to what was has been revealed through the prophets, and on such questions as God's creation of evil and the apparent anthropomorphism of God's attributes, revelation has to accepted bila kayfa without [asking] how.

Twelvers theology is based on the Hadith which have been narrated from the Islamic prophet Muhammad , the first , fifth , sixth , seventh and eighth Imams and compiled by Shia scholars such as Al-Shaykh al-Saduq in al-Tawhid. Any suggestion of these attributes and names being conceived of as separate is thought to entail polytheism. It would be even incorrect to say God knows by his knowledge which is in his essence but God knows by his knowledge which is his essence.

Also God has no physical form and he is insensible. Twelvers believe God is alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies.

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The totality of being therefore is he, through him, comes from him, and returns to him. God is not a being next to or above other beings, his creatures; he is being, the absolute act of being wujud mutlaq. For, if there were being other than he i. Every supernatural action of the prophets is by God's permission as Quran points to it. The border between the Tawhid and Shirk in practice is to assume something as an end in itself, independent from God, not as a road to God to Him-ness.

Al-Farabi , Al-Razi and especially Avicenna put forward an interpretation of Tawhid in light of reason, with the Qur'an and Hadith serving as a basis. Before Avicenna the discussions among Muslim philosophers were about the unity of God as divine creator and his relationship with the world as creation. The earlier philosophers were profoundly affected by the emphasis of Plotinus on Divine simplicity.

In Islamic mysticism Sufism and Irfan , Tawhid is not only the affirmation in speech of God's unity, but also as importantly a practical and existential realization of that unity. This is done by rejecting the concepts tied to the world of multiplicity, to isolate the eternal from the temporal in a practical way. The ideal is a radical purification from all worldliness.


Cornall, it is possible to draw up a monist image of God see Sufi metaphysics by describing the reality as a unified whole, with God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things: "He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things. For Muslim mystics sufis , the affirmation in speech of God's unity is only the first step of Tawhid.

Further steps involve a spiritual experience for the existential realization of that unity. Categorizations of different steps of Tawhid could be found in the works of Muslims Sufis like Junayd Baghdadi and al-Ghazali.

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It involves a practical rejection of the concepts tied to the world of multiplicity. According to the concept of Fana, Annihilation and Subsistence, "Man's existence, or ego, or self-hood All of man's character traits and habits, everything that pertains to his individual existence must become completely naughted and "obliterated" mahw. Then God will give back to him his character traits and everything positive he ever possessed. But at this stage, he will know consciously and actually - not just theoretically - and with a through spiritual realization, that everything he is derives absolutely from God.

He is nothing but a ray of God's Attributes manifesting the Hidden Treasure. The first detailed formulation of "Unity of Existence" wahdat al-wujud is closely associated to Ibn Arabi. Ibn Arabi himself didn't use the term "Unity of Existence" and similar statements had been made by those before him. For example, according to al-Ghazali "There is nothing in wujud [existence] except God Wujud [Existence] only belongs to the Real One". Ghazali explains that the fruit of spiritual ascent of the Sufi is to "witness that there is no existence in the world save God and that 'All things are perishing except his face' Qur'an " [56] [57].

Many authors consider being or existence to be the proper designation for the reality of God. While all Muslims believe the reality of God to be one, critics hold that the term "existence" wujud is also used for the existence of things in this world and that the doctrine blurs the distinction between the existence of the creator and that of the creation. Defenders argued that Ibn Arabi and his followers are offering a "subtle metaphysics following the line of the Asharite formula: "The attributes are neither God nor other than God. Understood correctly, wahdat al-wujud elucidates the delicate balance that needs to be maintained between these two perspectives.

The Islamic doctrine of Tawhid puts forth a God whose rule, will or law are comprehensive and extend to all creatures and to all aspects of the human life. Early Muslims understood religion to thus cover the domains of state, law and society.

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  • According to the Qur'an, one consequence of properly conceived relationship between God and man as the served and servant, is the proper relationship among humans. In order to achieve the former, the Qur'an consistently "reminds" men of two points: 1. That God is one; everything except God including the entirety of nature is contingent upon God.

    With all His might and glory, God is essentially the all-merciful God. According to the Qur'an, Allah is the progenitor of all things, both good and evil. According to the Qur'an, Satan deviated from the oneness of Allah in the story of creation of man by permitting his own hierarchical value system to supersede Allah's will: Allah asked the angels to bow to Adam, who he had created from clay.

    Satan refused, saying that "I am better than him; you created me from fire and created him from clay". The Medieval Muslim scholar , Al-Ghazali pointing out that the only legitimate "preference principle" in the sight of Allah is piety, writes: "Every time a rich man believes that he is better than a poor one, or a white man believes that he is better than a black one, then he is being arrogant. He is adopting the same hierarchical principles adopted by Iblis [Satan] in his jahl [ignorance], and thus falling into shirk [opposite of Tawhid].

    In many jurisdictions of the world, the laws and the general attitude of the population hold that the sphere of public life should be secular , and that belief in and practice of religion should remain in the sphere of private life. One motive for adopting this stance has been to reduce the effects of conflict between followers of different religions or between adherents of secularism and those of a religion.

    In public life, this view insists that the authority of the state prevails over any religious authorities. For some Islamic thinkers, these propositions infringe the doctrine of Tawhid, and are therefore anathema. If the cosmos is a unified and harmonious whole, centered around the omnipotent and omnipresent God, they hold that recognising any other authority as superior is wrong. According to one writer: "Traditionally, a Muslim is not a nationalist, or citizen of a nation-state; he has no political identity, only a religious membership in the Umma.

    For a traditional Muslim, Islam is the sole and sufficient identification tag and nationalism and nation-states are obstacles". In practice, nearly all Muslims live their daily lives under some national jurisdiction and accept at least part of the constraints this involves. The desire to preserve the unity and transcendence of God led to the prohibition of Muslims from creating representation or visual depictions of God, or of any Prophet including Muhammad. Representations in art of the human form are a disputed matter in fiqh. The key concern is that the use of statues or images may lead to idolatry.

    The dominant forms of expression in the Islamic art, thus, became calligraphy and arabesque. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Pharoah Sanders album, see Tauhid album.

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