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D ". Largo - Allegro vivace", "Symphony No. Presto vivace". Andante", "Symphony No. Adagio - Allegro vivace", "Symphony No. Allegro vivace", "Symphony No. Presto vivace", "Symphony No. Adagio molto - Allegro vivace". Posth Trout". No 3 in G flat major D". Adagio ". Opus Andantino D. Allegro moderato" - uncredited.
Allegro moderato - uncredited. Entr'acte", "Rosamunde von Cypern, op. Nr 3, B-dur". The first of every measure in all kinds of metre receives the strongest accent. Each succeeding note which corresponds to the denominator also receives an accent. In common metre the third quarter note falls upon an equal division of the measure and receives an accent somewhat more pronounced than the second and fourth quarters. Therefore, as the first quarter is accented the loudest, it becomes necessary to use two other degrees of accent — making in all three.
These have been recommended by Von Biilow and should be more generally used and understood. See Ex. No note of less value than a quarter in these examples is to be accented, except it fall upon one of the accented parts, or metrical divisions of a measure. Thus, we might recognize the diflference between four eighths in I metre and four quarters in I metre, both being performed at the same rate of speed. Reverse the examples and repeat them until the class can recognize the differ- ence between I and t metre.
The class. A few short pieces. Choose for the present only I, I, and I metre and allow the question, metre, to be a general one. The class may also endeavor to beat with the notes indicated by the metrical signature. In this case their beats must correspond to the accented parts of the measure. The first pieces. The waltzes and marches of Schubert are good for tl' is purpose. Selections from the works of Loschhorn, Tours, Low, Kirchner, or Heller will prove interesting and instructive. Chapter IV. The latter definition is more applicable to our first lessons in rhythm, as we wish to indicate by that word the peculiar division or arrangement of the notes in a measure in comparison to the metrical division.
For in. The metre should be ascertained first and the example repeated until all realize that it is. Then call for the rhythm of the accom- paniment. The answer should be three qtiarters. The rhythm of the theme first two measures comes next. The answer is, a dotted eighth, sixteenth, and tzvo quarters. In the third measure they have but to recognize the four notes to a beat in order to answer tzvelve sixteenths three times four.
This instance is not simple to an elementary class; therefore it should be played moderately, with strong accents as indicated. In the following example the class should name the rhythm valuation of every measure. Explain to them that the exercise is in I metre throughout, and that the beats are to continue at the same rate of speed — moderate movement. Indicate the four metrical beats audibly while the examples are being played. If they recog- nize two notes to a beat they say "eighths," if they hear three to a beat they say "triplets," and if four to a beat the answer is "six- teenths," and so on: Ex.
Each member of a class of six might have a ques- tion, as indicated by the figures above the notes. Finally vary the order as here : I, 3, 2, 4, 6, I, 5, 3, etc. The author's experience is that pupils at the present time are de- ficient in practical arithmetical knowledge, which is sacrificed by our schools and seminaries for less useful branches of study. The exercises in rhythm which are merely musical fractions should, therefore, be often repeated and long continued. Such exercises, properly conducted, sharpen the mental faculties, and the class should pursue the matter until they can recognize any characteristic rhythm instantly.
The Etudes of Lemoine, Op. Pratt, Nos. Chapter V. In this the student must not be influenced by the rapidity of the unaccented notes, but by the movement of the accented metrical beats. A quick movement may contain notes of long duration, and a slow movement may con- tain rapid notes. Endeavor to ascertain, first, the metre, by count- ing regularly a given number of metrical accents in each measure.
The movement may then be determined by the manner in which these regular accents follow each other — whether fast, moderate, or slow. The word " time " has unfortunately been applied indis- criminately to metre, rhythm, and movement. The following ex- ample would be recognized as a slow movement: Ex. We will now present an example of rapid notes in a slow move- ment: Ex. In the first measure we recognize an Andante movement on account In the second measure the move- of the slow metrical beats I J J ment remains the same, though the right hand executes eight notes to a beat.
Only the first note of each group of thirty-seconds is ac- cented, and this shows that the regular beats i and 2 move slowly One more similar example will be presented : Ex. At b the beats and the movement remain unaltered, because the groups of thirty-seconds are recognized as accessory, or passing tones, in form of a Cadenza. Eight thirty- seconds being equal to a quarter, only the first of each group is accented, as the group merely represents a quarter note, or one beat. The fact is to be considered, however, that these quick notes are melodic ones, and not in the nature of variations or mere rapid parenthetical groups such as frequently occur in an Andante or Adagio.
The matter ought to be well understood, otherwise there will ever be a mis- understanding as to the movements of certain compositions. The quick notes in the Bolero are melodic, and consequently all receive sufficient accent to make them prominent. But in Ex. The move- ment is indicated by Italian terms such as Allegro, quick ; Modcrato, neither slow nor fast ; Andante, slow, etc. Six-eighth metre should be indicated in reference to the movement by an eighth or dotted quarter. It would be well for the class to learn to distinguish the three common movements first, as already indicated.
In the following selections the teacher should observe a difference of about twenty degrees between the Allegro and the Moderato, and also between the Modetato and the Atidanie, in order to make the matter plain to the class. These may be selected from any of the Suites.
One or two periods from La Chasse, by Heller, Op. Alternate slow and fast movements. Adagio, Op. Such measures as the second after the Coda begins are to be executed with but three accents in a measure — one to the first of each group. The exceptions to this rule occur not in the paren- thetical passages, but in the melodic notes. The following ques- tions should be given out separately: i. Rhythm of the Melody. Rhythm of the accompaniment. If the class is large give the same question to several members, and such difiicult questions as rhythm to the greater number.
Con- tinue the illustrations and distribute the questions difierently, until they are answered promptly and correctly. Before concluding Part I the author would call attention to several common errors, principally in the nomenclature of music. The expression "? Nor is it proper to say we increase or retard the "time. Better to say we increase or retard the movement. The mensural divisions of music are indicated by perpendicular lines called bars, which constitute equal measures. The word bar, when used in this sense, has no real meaning, though it is under- stood to refer to a certain measure.
Here, for example, is a measure included between the two bars: The substitution of bar for measure is, therefore, both incorrect and indefinite. The word "accidental" is also employed incorrectly in refer- ing to a foreign tone not contained in the scale in which a compo- sition is written. We often hear that a certain note is ''sharped'' or "JIatted" yet both words are grammatically incorrect. When the pitch is raised or lowered by means of a chromatic alteration it may be said to have been sharpened oz Jlattened.
The first, third, and fifth natural degrees of any major scale will constitute a major concord ; the same degrees of any minor scale will comprise a minor concord. All concords, whether major or minor, have a per- fect fifth.
If the third be large, as a to r-. Sound several major and minor concords in their first position fifth uppermost and ask which are major and which minor. If the class has studied that all-important subject, Harmony, they can pass rapidly over this and the two following chapters ; the auricular exercises are, however, of importance to all students. Repeat such exercises as Ex. Explain that when the fifth is at the top and the root at the bottom the chord is in its first or original position, having originated in this way.
When the root of a chord is at the top it is in its. The last three paragraphs should be committed to memory, a. This must not be confused with inver- sion, in which the bass has some other tone than the root. The figures show the position and the capiliil letters give the location of the root. Every one in the cla. If cor- rect, play the different positions as here : Ex. Then play an example in second position : Finally play example of chords in their third position : Ex. A few exercises like the following should be played, the cla. Repeat the examples with the root of each chord in the bass.
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If any chord is named incorrectly, either with regard to it. Continue such example as 28 until the answers are generally correct. The next step is this: Play in whole notes, Moderaio, certain natural chord progressions in four parts, and require class to name root note and mode of each. Similar exercises may be improvised by the teacher until their object has been accomplished. As illustrations of this chapter, play the first two periods of the Sarabande in D minor, by Handel among the tu-elve easy pieces by Handel.
Also the first two periods of the Chorale in Schumann's Opus 68, No. There are a few discords in both selections, but most of the chords can be named, and without stopping the performance. Chapter VII. This is accomplished by introducing some tone which belongs to the new key and does not belong to the old one. This is founded upon the fifth degree of the scale and contains a major third and perfect fifth. This dominant chord contains the leading-tone to the key we may wish to establish, and in five cases out of six this leading-tone will be a chromatically altered tone.
After naming the first chord and its position, the questions are : What is the fol- lowing chord, its position and root? Then play the D minor chord and ask if any transition has been made. The chords marked are the ones which change the tonality from what it was before that chord was played. The example may be played through without the pauses in order to detect the transitions. The substance of this chapter may be brought out by the -ner- formance of a few pieces, such as the No.
Si A transition occurs in the fifth, sixth, and seventh measures of the first period. These transitions to dominant and back to tonic are repeated. At 14 there is a temporary transition to subdominant and back to tonic. The strain in F is not to be considered as transition. The term is borrowed from musical theory, where it is used to distinguish four-part harmony, as well as counterpoint, from a mere chord accompaniment, or adventitious harmony. In this example: Ex. But in the next example there is only one voice-part: tx.
This is done in piano and orga:. The technical names applied to the different degrees of the scale should also be understood. The first note of a scale is called Tonic, i. The second, Supertonic, the next degree above the tonic. The third, Mediant, midway between tonic and dominant. The fourth, Subdominant, beneath the dominant. The fifth, Domi- nant, that is, the dominating or controlling tone in harmony. The sixth, Submediant, being the same distance below the tonic that the mediant is above the tonic.
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The seventh, lyeading-tone, being a minor second below the tonic its natural resolution when forming part of the Dominant harmony is up to the kej'-tone. A related concord is formed upon each of the first six degrees of every major scale, and these concords are generally called by that name which indicates their root note. If we say the transition is to the Mediant from a-flat, C minor would be indicated. The triad founded upon the seventh of a major scale is not a concord, and so the word leading-tone is seldom used to denote a chord' or a key, but merely the half-step below any tonic.
The names apply to both modes, as may be seen below: Ex. If rhe. In its general application this refers to our entire eighty-eight chromatic tones; to the twelve major scales; the several forms of the minor scale ; to our system of related and unrelated keys ; and the science of Harmony. But the application in this book is to our impression of the key at any particular point, and the relation- ship between the new and old fundamental. A few examples will set this forth in plainer light: Ex. At b the tonality is recognized as that of D minor, even before the resolu- tion on the third beat.
The discord at e establishes the tonality as that of G. So soon as the C major chord is sounded the ear comprehends the entire series of natural tones in the scale of C. In the second measure the entire minor scale of D is comprehended ; and in the third measure we can readily appreciate the tones which belong to G major. The difference between these related scales is very slight, as may be seen from this : Ex.
Aside from these. That is the transfer of the base of operations to a higher or lower plane. These transfers or changes of base have an important bearing upon Form in music, aside from the variety of tone-color which they impart. It is rather the change in the foundation of tones, or the transfer of the base of operations to a different location — a higher or a lower plane — from which we are enabled to see objects which were invisible from the first standpoint.
The chromatic alteration is merely the means of arriving at the new key or location ; the viexv from the new location is the end to be arrived at. Every chromatic alteration does not necessitate a change of key. The diminished seventh chord is used as a mere passing harmony, and the key of C still remains. In the next example we modu- late at a.
At h we pa. Handel, twelve easy pieces, Minuet I and II. Bach, Gavotte and Musette in D. Bach, Gavotte and Musette in G. Durand, Pomponnette, Op. Durand, Valse, Op. Distinction should be made between these selections. In the Minuets from Handel there is a prevailing key-tone, with but few temporan. In the selections from Bach the mode is altered from major to minor, and minor to major, but the key-tone remains the same.
Therefore, the bass or fundamental is not altered so much as the order of the scale intervals and the tone-color. The first period of the Pomponnette is in A major; then the scene is shifted to the plane of E major. This is a change of base. It consists of a major third, perfect fifth the major fifth of Marx and Weitzmann , and a minor seventh from the root. In modulating from tonic to subdominant the minor seventh performs the transition, as it represents the difference between the two keys, thus : In modulating by fourths we might pro- ceed in the same manner by means of the fifth above: regular order up and down ; then change order and ask num- ber of each position.
Other dominant sevenths should be played, and the cla. Only a superficial knowledge of this subject can be gathered here, but even this will be of much assistance in our future work. This is produced by raising the root of an essential seventh chord one chromatic step, the third, fifth, and seventh remaining stationary: Ex. I The second chord contains componently, three minor thirds; or, fundamentally, a minor third, imperfect fifth, and dimini.
The dififerent positions of this chord are obtained in the same manner as with the dominant. The positions are numbered from i to 4. The class should re-arrange this diminished seventh chord in its three other close positions, by placing the lowest note an Ex. There are but three essentially different diminished seventh chords, and yet as a chord of this kind is found upon the leading-tone of every minor scale, it follows that each of the three dimini.
This chord, for example, can represent K minor, G minor, B-flat minor or D-flat minor — depending upon the notation : Ex. The two discords with which we have become familiar should be played alternately, and inter- spersed with concords, until the class can recognize and qualify the difference between them. Give to each pupil a question. The an- swers are : Ex. In connection with the dominant and diminished seventh chords the student may cultivate at least a passing acquaintance with the secondary- discords.
The No. But it is weak and very often appears as a secondary discord. The principal discords are: the Dominant seventh, founded upon the fifth of the scale; the Diminished. The Secondary discords serve as connecting links in the harmonic chain, and by their dissonant character prepare the ear for the more important principal discords which follow. Those marked 5 are ex- tremely harsh, being a product of suspen- sion. Those numbered 4 are less harsh; No.
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This is a better effect than to employ. Where the harsher discords are used they will be found to resolve them. After this di. Name the Key-tone; 2. Name the Mode or Modes; 3. Metre; 4. Rhythm; 5. Number of Dominant Seventh Chords; 6. Number of Dimini. Was the last chord major or minor? Its position. If other questions are required include number of Periods, Form, Species, etc.
Play the la. The diminished seventh chord in arpeggio should be recognized, also the essential seventh in the next measure. The chord in the middle of the Cadenza had better be played : that the class may recognize the domi- nant seventh with its fifth above. The la. This contains discords i, 2, 3, and 4. Kirchner, Op. Contains principal discords i and 2 , and Secondary discords in measures 7 and In the second, fourth, and sixth measures the d above is to be considered as a sus- pension ; therefore the class could not at present analyze such ex- amples, except by omitting the upper tone.
Introduction to the Pavan by H. Discords i, 2, and 4. Chapter IX. THE definition of Cadence in music is, close or ending. This is applicable to most of the above, but in respect to the avoided cadence it must be understood to refer to the harmonic progression, as no close is accomplished in such case. The effect of the half cadence is incomplete wherever it may occur.
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The last measure is a half cadence and leads us to expect something else. Hence it is most appropriate in the middle of a period as just illustrated. In the classical sonatas it was customary to introduce a half cadence before the second subject. This cadence may also occur at the natural close of a period, in which case it results in an extended period, as shown in the previous chapter. The applica- tion is similar in the minor mode, as here: In transitional passages the student must know what is the tonic for the time being in order to recognize the last chord as dominant.
Autheyitic Cadence. This is a regular terminal cadence and consists of the principal resolution of any transition chord to that key to which it naturally belongs. Following are examples of au- thentic cadence: Ex. They bring the music to an harmonic close, and their best effect is at the end of a period or isolated phrase. Plagal Cadeyice. This is also known as the Amen cadence, and embraces the harmonies of the subdominant and tonic ; in other words, the chords of the fourth and first degrees.
This is true of both modes. The plagal cadence is frequently used in the Episcopal and Catholic services to the word "Amen," which occurs at the end of chants and anthems. It was likewise known as the Ecclesiastical cadence in the time of Palestrina, when it was employed in certain "modes" which contained no dominant for the authentic close. It is really an after, or sub-cadence, and comes after a full cadence ; in which case it is the foundation of a short coda, as the mensural pro- portion is generally complete before the plagal cadence is introduced.
It is more mild and less decided than any of the others, having in reality very little transitional strength : m Ex. The Complete Cadence. This embraces the three principal har- monies in any major or minor key, following in their natural order : Ex. This is the most complete and final of all the harmonic cadences' The reason for this is, that in either mode it comprises every tone ii the scale.
The chords i, 4. The complete or perfect cadence has the best effect at the end of a terminal period, where completeness is to be expressed. The perfect cadence may also be written in the following ways Ex. It would be well to play these in the other two close positions and then transpose them. These are all terminal cadences. Avoided Cadence. This takes place when a transition chord is followed by any other chord than that to which the discord naturally resolves. The ordinary effect of an avoided cadence is to extend the period beyond its natural duration.
The object of the composer may be to express disappointment or vain striving, or to keep the interest from subsiding, but the practical effect is to extend the limits of a period by postponing the terminal cadence, or to avoid the effect of a perfect cadence. An instance of this kind may be observed in the Op. Another instance may be mentioned in which the effect is differ- lent: The avoided cadence takes place on the first half of the four- teenth full measure in the Rondo from Beethoven's Op. The period contains nine measures; but the extension results from the after cadence in the sixteenth measure, not from the avoided cadence in the fourteenth measure.
However, the effect of the avoided ca- Tie " The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth resolutions of the dominant scyenih chord con- stitute avoided cadences. The various harmonic cadences just described play an important irt in the construction, division, and effect of musical compositions.
The teacher is therefore advised to perform the L'xamples again, in different order. Iusic" from which this chapter is abridged between deceptive and avoided cadeu-ces. But this distinction need not enter here. Renunciation, W. Avoided cadence in second measure of the Coda. The last cadence is authentic. Heller, Op. Last eight measures of the Arabesque. Last ten measures. Plagal cadences at the close of each. The last measure of Bertini's Seventeenth Etude, Op. Measures i and 2, 7 and 8 of the first movement of Beethoven's Op Sia, are examples of the esthetic effect of an avoided cadence.
See "L,ebe wohl" written over the notes in the reprint of the Stutt- gart edition. Chapter X. THE analytical terms, Phrase. Section, and Period, are retained in this book to designate the constructional parts of a musical composition. The period, therefore, contains two sections, four phrases and eight or sixteen measures.
These terms are generally understood in this sense, and, what is more important, they are perfectly proper and suggestive. We will make a still farther distinction, or subdivision, in this system. There are many instances in which the phrases are sub- divided by the composer into two equal parts, and these are not to be ignored. Following is a practical example of the phrase and semi-phrase : Pabbt. These usually go in pairs; the first is a brief question, the second is the answer.
This phrase, like the other included in the brackets, naturally divides itself into semi-phrases. The second part of the Rondo from which the last extract is taken contains the same feature as regards the division of the phrases. We will now consider the phrase in its entirety. A phrase may contain two, three, or four measures; though two measures is the rule, and this being the simplest, naturally comes first. This merely refers to the mensural proportion, or the length of the phrase.
In addition to the proportion of the phrase it has two characteri. Melody we will illustrate by means of a negative statement: This is not melody. Yet if the example at a were played upon a trumpet or kettle-drum it would constitute a phrase. The melodic feature of a phrase therefore consists of the tones comprised in the phrase, and the distance between each of these tones as they follow one another successively.
In this phrase. This is a diatonic phrase and contains more of the melodic than the rhythmic element. In the following phra. The intervals are an ascending fifth and two descending thirds, con- stituting what we call a chord motive, being composed of the inter- vals of a common chord. The next example is principally rhythmical : Ex. J which is continued throughout the piece. In such cases the rhythm becomes a means of uniting the entire piece into a consistent whole, and accordingly, an element of construction.
The introductory phrast from "Norma" is more serious, but not so characteristic. However, as the rhythm is more prominent than the melody, the former enters more into the con- struction and connection of the period than does the latter. Following is an example that is both melodious and rhythmical : Low. This contains some diatonic degrees ; but it is principally a chord motive. The rhythm is also peculiar, and the ear will seize upon this almost as readily as upon the melodic features.
Indeed, rhythm exercises a more important influence upon music than is commonly supposed. The principal vi'orks of Bach, Beethoven, Berlioz, and Schumann illustrate this fact. We will now present a few examples of four-measure phrases. Three-measure phrases, being exceptional, are explained in a sepa- rate chapter.
Phrases of four measures usually occur in i or f metre, and in a quick movement. Here is an illustration from a Galop : Ex. This is a diatonic phrase, ascending from the dominant to the tonic and descending back to the dominant. The next example is in f metre, and also contains four measures: Enke. This is not materially different in mensural proportion from the other phrases. The four measures naturally belong together and are necessary to the completion of the sense of the phrase. The next example contains a short and a long phrase for com- parison : Ex.
The period beginning at a will contain eight measures; but in the next example the period will contain sixteen. This will be more readily comprehended when we come to Period. The text upon which a musical work is written is called Motive. The motive is the seed from which the trunk, branches, leaves, etc. From this definition it is apparent that no exact mensural proportion can be prescribed for the motive. Here is a lengthy text: "The Future of Republicanism in France.
Some motives are so terse and significant that when we hear them the effect is like reading the heading of an editorial on Animal Magnetism. They suggest the general nature of the composition and give us a clew as to thoughts and emotions which are set forth. This is especially so where we analyze the motive first, or ponder upon a text before reading the article.
In fact, the motive is the germ from which the composition grows and develops, and to which its various ramifications may be referred and compared. Haydn was in the habit of asking his friends for a motive, and if they gave him merely this: Ex. How he developed this semi-phrase we shall see. In the majority of cases the first phrase of the principal period is the motive. These exceptional cases will be presented after the rule has been first established.
A variety of motives are contained in the following examples, which should be examined attentively, and then performed: Ex. Mozart Symphony. Onslow Sonata. Schumann Quintette. Each of these motives constitutes the first phrase, with exception of Nos.
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The remainder of this phrase 3. The first semi-phrase, however, is a complete motive. The fermata placed by the composer over the fourth note is proof of this. In each of the nine motives we have a complete text. What follows after these is the continuation of the motive, or melodic development —in other words, the antithesis. As a rule the motive will consist of two long, or four short measures, and must be sufficiently signifi- cant or suggestive to form a text. These portentous intervals run like a thread throughout the entire Oratorio.
The quotation Xo. This motive, the text upon which Mr. Goldbeck wrote his Petite Etude, contains but one short measure, which is exceptional. The notes are taken from the. The motives in Wagner's music dramas contain any amount of measures that may be required to typify a certain person or senti- ment. This is a wider application than our present one and cannot be considered here. Grateful Tasks, Gurlitt, Op. I, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 13, 14 and Enke, Op. Dussek, Rondo. To do this the metre and movement must first be ascertained. The semi-phrases are also to be specified.
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