Objective: The aim of this paper was to identify the appropriate power setting and operation time required to achieve optimal efficiency in calculus debridement while preventing excessive cementum loss. Method and Materials: The study included 30 extracted molars with heavy deposits of calculus, visible to the the naked eye. The teeth were cut cross-sectionally and randomly allocated into three groups: low, medium, and high power settings. A magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler with Dentsply slimline plain insert was used with light force at 0-degree tip angulation for a 10 second interval.
Results: Mean time required for dental calculus removal was 70, 50, and 30 seconds for low, medium, and high power settings, respectively. Root calculus removal rates for low, medium, and high power settings were 4. Later on, to minimize cementum loss, the low power setting should be used for less than 30 seconds to balance between rapid calculus removal and a potential risk of cementum loss resulting in dental sensitivity. Ultrasonic scaling using the high power setting in the first 30 seconds, followed by continuous scaling for less than 30 seconds, using the low power setting, is recommended for roots with heavy calculus.
Keywords: cementum removal, dental scaling, lipopolysaccharide, periodontitis, root planing, ultrasonic debridement. Objective: To assess and compare the clinical and radiographic success rates of biodentine and formocresol for pulpotomy in human primary teeth. Method and Materials: A randomized, split-mouth, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 37 healthy 4- to 8-year-old children with 56 pairs teeth of contralateral primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. In both groups, the teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically at 3 and 6 months by two blinded, standardized, and calibrated examiners.
The data were analyzed using chi-square and McNemar tests with a P value of Results: At both the 3- and 6-month follow-ups, all the 37 children with treated teeth were evaluated. Conclusion: Both pulpotomy techniques showed favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes at 3 and 6 months posttreatment without any significant difference. Hence, biodentine has the potential to become a substitute for formocresol in primary molar pulpotomies. Keywords: biodentine, formocresol, primary molars, pulpotomy. Objective: Functional sensory recovery from microsurgical intervention for inferior alveolar nerve IAN injuries resulting from endodontic treatment were evaluated using a retrospective chart review.
Other variables assessed included time from injury to surgery as well as other factors which improved functional neurosensory recovery FSR. Method and Materials: This case series of seven patients evaluated the outcome of IAN microsurgery following endodontic-related nerve injuries. All patients were referred, evaluated, and operated on by the primary investigator VBZ. Preoperative and postoperative sensory levels were recorded and FSR was assessed using the Medical Research Council scale. Results: Seven subjects with a mean age of Six women and one man were included in this population.
The majority of subjects presented with an initial chief complaint of dysesthesia and hypoesthesia. The mean interval between nerve injury and surgical treatment was 15 weeks range 1 to 40 weeks. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that trigeminal nerve microsurgery for the surgical treatment of endodontic injuries to the IAN can improve neurosensory function. Surgical intervention in this study was beneficial to alleviate neurosensory deficits and symptoms for those injuries to the IAN caused by endodontic treatment.
Keywords: endodontic injuries, external neurolysis, inferior alveolar nerve repair, internal neurolysis. Objectives: Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of using local compression to reduce postoperative pain after third molar surgery. They collected the ads that appeared next to each email and used them to annotate the original text, page by page.
What remains is American Psycho , told through its chapter titles and annotated relational Google ads only. We will see how it turns out, but one could think about inline ads, like product placements in movies etc. Those mechanisms could change literary content itself and not only their containers.
Les Liens Invisibles, an Italian collective of net artists have assembled their own, called Unhappening, not here not now Les Liens Invisibles. The catalogue, indeed, looks and feels plausible enough, and only those who read it very carefully can have doubts about its authenticity. They are the result of guided processes and are printed as a very original if not unique static repository, more akin to an archive of calculated elements produced in limited or even single copies than to a classic book, and so confirming their particular status.
The dynamic nature of publishing can be less and less extensively defined in terms of the classically produced static printed page. And this computational characteristic may well lead to new types of publications, embedded at the proper level. It can help hybrid publications function as both: able to maintain their own role as publications as well as eventually being able to be the most updated static picture of a phenomenon in a single or a few copies, like a tangible limited edition.
Under those terms it will be possible for the final definitive digitalisation of print to produce very original and still partially unpredictable results. Borsuk, Amaranth and Brad Bouse. Between Page and Screen. Los Angeles: Siglio, Bridle, James. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Fuchs, Martin and Peter Bichsel. Written Images. Kirschbaum, Connor. Digital activist gained access through MIT network drops. Ludovico, Alessandro. Eindhoven: Onomatopee, Raspet, Sean.
Quintessence:The Veracity of the Digital World
Shatzkin, Mike. Soulellis, Paul. Wolf, Michael. Environments are invisible. The artistic project stemming from research and public events through the project creates a media-archaeological site-survey, revealing data and depth of the present moment of an art and technology festival, in the Haus der Kulture der Welt, in Berlin, on Earth.
Post-digitality smudges across the many real and re-imagined tendencies and nostalgias, regularities and inconsistencies that lie in the wake of a dampened digital euphoria. The result, in our current moment, seems to favour a very tight cybernetic loop, as we re-visit, re-wire, re-create, re-source, re-new, and re-surface the dreams and nightmares of 20 years of somehow anticlimactic technological emissions. What matters that is, presents itself with all its material agency is technical-trash, overfilled an archives, dendritic digital distensions—the bursting at the seams of attentional and intentional gutters.
Our contributions to the geological record over the course of this era will primarily show the effects of technical media: the electrification, then wiring, then wirelessing, of the globe. How might we perform a core-drill of media and its technical systems? The discontinuities are not between system and person, or technology and organisation, but rather between contexts. Star and Ruhleder The mercurial character of technical infrastructure is what renders it critical in two ways. These constellations of technologies are by definition ceaseless and foundational, in the way that the U.
Looking at the post-digital as infra-digital below-digital, sub-digital , outlines a superorganism. It is an image of the technical that intends to take account of specific contexts and micro-relations of both creation and use. A post-digital minerality, or elementally shows the desire, the need, to bring the digital euphoria that erupted twenty years ago down to size, down to protocol, down to implementation, down to its gritty, grimy details.
The depth of the problems created and solved with technical media might require an engagement with them that is unseductive, respectful, humble—even boring. Contemporary creative practices give account of the resurgence of these purportedly boring things, having renewed resonance and interest. Online culture and art making that we identify as post-digital overflow with concern for the mundane object, the muted image, simple interactions. Technical media is composed of embarrassingly simple and commonplace, repeated elements the micro-switching of a WiFi router, the ordinary hand-to-mouse gestures of a film editor, etc.
Infrastructures are:. The infrastructures of media-technics, is a lively area for cultural and artistic activities, and realist, non-idealized approaches to creative work. Thus we [should] ask, when—not what—is an infrastructure… infrastructure occurs when local practices are afforded by a larger-scale technology, which can then be used in a natural, ready-to-hand fashion.
A fascination for infrastructure in art making can serve to point out the links between institutional, economic and political structures, and commonplace and material systems. These banal systems are what we are not supposed to care about, not supposed to notice, while awestruck and immersed, blown-away by the spectacle, the narrative, the classically aesthetic. What lies beneath? And if we do notice these underlying systems, then something has gone, often terribly, wrong. When something works—really works—it becomes infrastructure. We give this name to something we are not enough aware enough normally to name at all.
These dynamics of appearance and disappearance, of visibility and invisibility are perhaps somewhat fundamental to what is to be technological. But there are other ways and reasons that technologies disappear, and some of are motivated by the worrying real-politik of knowledge and access, as well as social relations incumbent of late capitalism.
There are significant impediments to understanding large and complex technologies, and one mode of invisibility is here brought about through a purposeful projection of tedium. Like frigid February elections in Chicago, these fat volumes dissuade all but the most faithful. This cognitive camouflage marks everything technological that is intended to be uniformly dull and uninteresting.
Networks can no longer be conceived of as intrinsically utopian. On the contrary, they are now the third terrain alongside nations and markets on which the bitter competition for wealth and power are undertaken… they retain, in layers, older formations — network security, network discipline, and network sovereign power over life and death. Cubitt The practices of institutions create and sustain infrastructures, and, reciprocally, institutions require the channels and stratifications scaffolded by them. If infrastructures order and delimit a kind of imperceptibly-opaque, fragile, material-technological hyperobject Morton , institutions do the same kind of work for social, political and even personal life.
Infrastructures and institutions may not be so different, beneath their commonplace surfaces:. Fuller And this is where a tension between impressions and realities, a politics of knowledge, at individual and community scales, becomes highly pronounced. Bureaucracies and institutions express a set of techniques that are also present in the design and development of technical infrastructure: abstraction, compartmentalisation, classification, oblivious interiorities — the list of tendentious strategies spins round and round, centrifuging imbalances of both knowledge and power.
Histories and studies of science and technology in the industrial age are witness to multifarious accounts of dangerous and productive complicities like this Eisenhower famously terming the U. Black is here speaking of a fearsome impedance matching sometimes achieved by institutions and infrastructures. Godspeed You Black Emperor!
So, nobody gets to know everything.
Technologies, when they become infrastructural, are never fully understood by any one. Try asking a car mechanic to fix household plumbing, a supercomputer programmer to reconfigure a Microsoft Windows network, or a WordPress php coder to build a robot. And these contradictorily interdependent-autonomies manifest themselves all the way down. The telecommuting MacBook Pro graphic designer and the resident of a developing-world megacity are different in every way, save this: each is subject to the imposed vulnerability and inflicted impotence of institutional, technical infrastructures.
As these infrastructural systems ascend from our physical, then from perceptual, then our conscious realities, we are called upon to think about them less and less, and the consequences get more and more gnarly. It get to the point that even when we would like to find out where the pipes are going, and what is going through them. Bennett Globally, the scaffolding of institutional and governmental power through technological artefacts, often taking the form of territorialisation through instrumental measurement, has long been part of the infrastructural bargain.
German and British geographers, map makers and natural scientists certainly thought themselves to be doing a great, inherent service to the world. The tools they employ often involve a surprisingly potent mix of simple statistical techniques, aesthetic schemes, and data massaging. But the whole endeavour reveals a quintessential epistemic irony of our data-age: Data is collected in order to characterise the truth of an object or event. But, having collected too much data, of a kind that is impossible to comprehend directly, we elaborate a whole literature of symbols, infographics, explanations and visualisations.
As far as they represent the world, they are like maps; instruments for orientation in the world. As far as they interpose themselves between man and the world, they are like screens, like coverings of the world. And here again is why geological thinking is more than an inter-disciplinary conceit.
We find ourselves inventing a new tectonics of the database, an elaborate succession of measurements and multiple-working-hypotheses, that we hope will bring us closer to the realities we seek to characterise. But, there is much to be said for the insights wrought by perspectivally looking at the data.
Infrastructures, networks of materials and people, piping and protocols, seem a favorable source for ever more data, to be distilled and visualised. Operating at the dashboard — via interfaces that try to convey new understandings via illustration — we can decide to engineer awareness in almost innumerable ways.
It would seem that withdrawn technological entities call us toward then, inevitably in this way:. Thus what is a mere procedure of mind in the translation of sense-awareness into discursive knowledge has been transmuted into a fundamental character of nature.
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In this way matter has emerged as being the metaphysical substratum of its properties, and the course of nature is interpreted as the history of matter. Whitehead 16; qtd. Technology slips from the invisible to the visible in a number of ways, some already outlined, and some more intentional and performative than others. The most obvious is perhaps through internal or external failure.
It is a medium without a message. More interesting than breakdowns are instances where infrastructural performers and human actors do a more explicit double-act. Hearsay about the Super Flush is an important mechanism for rendering of infrastructure in the minds of we who would use it unwittingly. Schultz did no less than to render the infrastructure of plumbing and sewage visible, in the consciousness of millions of people. Along with breakdowns hoaxed or otherwise , we could add a further mode to the ways in which infrastructures move from the mysterious to the manifest.
Correlation, a process known to statisticians and scientists that serves to establish links between data derived from individual processes, can further serve to elucidate infrastructures. The perennial quest for involvement, fill-in, takes many forms. Whenever a particularly popular drama or sport programme on the BBC ends, the entire viewing public gets up from their television and makes tea. During these mass-brew events, millions of electric kettles are turned on all at once, just prior to which the national electrical grid system goes into mini-emergency mode. BBC The post-episode power load by megawatts and the population of the UK at this time was Wikipedia United Kingdom Census Television Pickup is a correlation between media, behaviour and electrical supply—and it is this correlation, revealing unexpected infrastructural causalities, that allows for an awareness of subsystems, and how they interrelate.
The performance of infrastructures, as the rendering present of unwitting, unwanted or unthought of systems, has its place and prelude in artist practice. Institutional Critique, serves as perforative and performative interrogation into the value and support structures of the museum, gallery, catalogue and official welcome. One thing that makes the work interesting is that it may not matter if what Fraser is saying is wholly accurate of factual. A narrated dataset of factoids and excerpts, the work presents an appropriately incoherent and unlocatable constellation of information and messaging some lifted from official museum publications , that the audience is left to interpolate between and within.
This is infrastructural theatre of the superorganism of the art museum, and the art world, all strings attached. Holmes, Extradisciplinary Investigations. Holmes, Extradisciplinary Investigations A critically infrastructural study as artwork, as whatever might appropriate from the grey media of engineering, instrumentation, and technical disciplines, creating less of an artistic gesture and more of an articulation of live research.
How might such infrastructural data be presented in public, such that we are prompted or called to draw an appropriate panoply of individual, evolving conclusions? There are no truths to be evoked, but relationships and resonances can be modelled and estimated, meanings evoked, tendencies charted: further attempts at living in a world we seek to understand. Work cited The Jogging. Adams, Douglas. Attributed to Bram. British Broadcasting Corporation. Britain From Above. Brookfield, Michael E. Principles of Stratigraphy. Burns, Red. Address to the incoming Interactive Telecommunications Programme, Coupland, Douglas.
Extraordinary Canadians Marshall McLuhan. London: Penguin Group, Cubitt, Sean. Eisenhower, Dwight. Espeland, Wendy Nelson. Chicago: Chicago University Press, In Zielinski, Siegfried ed. Minneapolis: Univocal Publishing, , Fraser, Andrea. Fuller, Mathew. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Heidegger, Martin. London: Routledge, — Hertz, Garnet and Jussi Parikka. Holmes, Brian. Towards a New Critique of Institutions Eipcp.
Homeland Security. McLuhan, Marshall and Quentin, Fiore. Hamburg: Gingko Press GmbH, . McLuhan, Marshall et al. Letters of Marshall McLuhan. Microsoft Corporation. Morton, Timothy. The Ecological Thought. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. National Public Radio. Critical Engineering Manifesto. Ronnel, Avital. Star, Susan Leigh. Star, Susan Leigh, and Karen Ruhleder. Whitehead, Alfred North. The Concept of Nature. New York: Cosimo, Inc. The interest for lost media practices and materials appears intrinsic to contemporary popular and maker culture — a post-digital culture that through vinyl, cassette tapes, print, chemical photography, etc.
How are we to perceive this re-investment in history and old technologies? It is obvious to regard this as nostalgia and a trendy taste for lo-fi. However, the aim of this article is to develop an understanding of how these practices also express a critique of contemporary digital culture. This critique feeds on two competing perspectives on the materiality of media technologies: historical materialism and speculative realism, and hence also two perspectives on artistic media practice as a form of research.
First of all, following the perspective of a historical materialist, we ask how to perceive history? Cassette tapes are deeply associated with our childhood memories of recording voices, listening to music and creating mixtapes. As such, they express our past memories, as well as recollections of poor signals and incompatible noise reduction. However, the desire for the old is not merely nostalgia for a lost aesthetics; rather, it implies an alternative view on history — the memory of the past itself. In this perspective, excavating the past is an attempt to challenge the techno-social constructions of contemporary interface culture.
Inquiring lost media technologies establishes imaginary correspondences with past practices and production modes that only exist in our memory. Secondly, following the perspective of the speculative realist, we ask whose memory? On the one hand, vinyl records, cassette tapes, floppy disks and so forth are media that contain human memories as texts, sounds and images.
However, on the other hand, following an inquiry into the poetics of materials and how our memories are stored through for instance phonography and magnetism, the technologies also seem to remember the humans. Both the perspective of the historical materialist and that of the speculative realist seem to provide an explanation of a post-digital and critical investment in Jurassic technologies.
But, to what extend are the two perspectives compatible? Can the historical materialist understand the perspective of the material? Can the perspective of the material reveal a critique of history? Following this, we are interested in establishing a dialogue between two cassette tapes, between material and culture, and explore when and how the two communicate.
The dialogue between the two cassette tapes is based on fragile timing mechanisms — not linear, nor compatible with digital clock frequencies — and as such, they may get out of sync. By posing the question of how the tape recorder represents and understands the world, we have the possibility to get closer to the actual physical operational technology itself, as an exposition of length, time and magnetism and its way of representing reality.
For the scientist, the tape recorder was traditionally used to document and record the sounds of the world, which then could be brought back to the lab for further analysis. These analyses focused on the spoken or auditory content of the tape — as opposed to how the sound of the tape itself understands its surroundings. Later, digital technology made the tape recorder obsolete, but the analysis still focuses solely on the content, making the medium somewhat unimportant.
What is it that the tape records? What does it show us when brought to the workshop? It seems clear that Benjamin criticizes historicism. We cannot seize hold of the past merely by describing a level that pre-determines a logical course of events. In his theses, Benjamin explicitly addresses historical materialism, and in continuation of this, we propose to explore the revival of cassette tapes as a material history pointing beyond a simple revelation of material and technological determination.
This implies that it is not merely the productive forces our tools, instruments, technology, knowledge, etc. Technology, and the processing of magnetic signals did not make history and did not define our language and social relations in new ways, nor did any other technology. The technology and material production levels are always met with specific cultural interpretations and practices.
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Likewise, cassette tapes are used through a myriad of practices that still carry potentials. As a philosophical lab equipment carpentry becomes a perspective on creative work that poses philosophical questions This happens because writing is dangerous for philosophy. Writing is only one form of being that exemplifies the assumption that we relate to the world only through language Bogost At the core of carpentry lies an understanding of philosophy as a practice just as much as a theory: the philosophical practice of constructing artefacts The term extends the ordinary sense of woodcraft, to include any material.
This enables not only theory in practice, but moreover; practice as theory The term carpentry is unfolded within a larger context of object-oriented ontology or philosophy, which originates from the speculative realism of Graham Harman, Ray Brassier, Quentin Meillassoux and Iain Hamilton Grant.
As an example, Bogost refers to Heidegger who claims that objects can exist outside human consciousness, but only become meaningful in human understanding 4. Ultimately, this means that when removing humans from the centre of the equation, more focus is directed towards the various objects that the world consists of for instance, Bogost investigates what it is like to be a pixel within a computer game. Rather than beginning by discussing whether to prioritize the auditory signs of the recorded voices what the sounds on the magnetic tape mean , or the signals embedded in the materiality of tapes what it means to be a magnetic tape , we suggest enlightening the relation between the sign and the signal see Andersen and Pold Interface Criticism.
What is a magnetic cassette tape from this perspective? Along with other productive forces and technologies, cassette tapes must be seen as part of the same realm as language, in the sense that also language is material as on a cassette tape , and this material is in itself a speech act at the workshop people talked about sending their voices to their loved ones across the Atlantic and about the investment and gesture of recording and giving away a mixtape. A qualitative separation of material signal processing and the media representation is therefore futile.
In every way, the material of the cassette tape the playback head, the noise reduction system, etc. This ambiguous double-nature allows for a critique of the social and political reality of the technology. Each complete crystal element contains a certain number of molecules, depending on the material. For instance, ferric oxide which forms the basis of the coating of Fe tape has eight molecules per element. The crystal elements can be regarded as domains of randomly oriented magnetic fields. When the material gets magnetised, the domains are swung from their random distributed positions, and then line up.
The strength of the resulting magnet is determined by the number of domains in alignment. In other words, it is incapable of accepting further magnetism or producing a greater magnetic field Earl To capture and record auditory content, the tape recorder is installed with three tape heads: erase, record and playback. Each head contains an electromagnet that can convert an electrical signal into a magnetic force.
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This force can be stored on the passing magnetic tape, and subsequently convert the magnetic content of the tape into electrical current. Techno-cultural discourse leads to the belief that technology represents a history of increased efficiency, and that the conditions of present digital technologies producing, sharing, mixing, etc. The return to old media holds no essence but expresses awareness of how our material technologies are also signs, and our signs technological, and of how the coupling of signs and material by digital technology leads to a form of control.
Following this, techno-cultural constructs cannot be understood as a pure material condition signals , but nor can they be understood as pure discursive constructs signs : they are both related to the technologies, but also to the cultures around their use. The post-digital material turn as seen in CASSETTE MEMORIES as well as other practices exemplifies — not how materials are more real then signs — but how also our technologies are signs, and our signs technological, and how the coupling of signs and material in technology also incorporates a form of control.
In other words, the material turn is a response that seeks to reconfigure the relations between signals and signs — of the material processes of computation, and their social and political realm; of material and social procedures and protocols. Each new recording involves a process of erasing old magnetic matter. To erase the content of the tape, a high frequency approximately 80 to kHz , high amplitude audio signal is sent from the erase head. This signal randomises the magnetic particles on the tape.
Music varies in frequency and amplitude, and so does the magnetic field from the record head that imprints the magnetic picture of the audio signal on the tape. When recorded, tape scrolls under the playback head, and the moving magnetic fields induce a varying current in the head. This voltage produces an electrical representation of the magnetic signal on the tape. Subsequently, the signal is passed through an equalisation and amplification circuit that makes recorded music audible in the connected speakers.
It establishes an imaginary correspondence to another historical moment. This is partly a yearning for the bygone, and there is no radical power in looping and cutting up tapes today. However, the imaginary construction also represents another way of experiencing producing, sharing, mixing, etc. This shows the true personality of the recording medium and its attempt to capture the complex pulsating sound waves of humans talking, walking, playing music, etc. The recorded sounds gradually gets more and more saturated, forcing the magnetic domains in the same direction, but still leaves room to listen to the contours of the previously recorded material, while new recordings get layered up.
He regards it as his task to brush history against the grain. Time is a crucial factor. This method challenges the notion of documented time seconds, hours, days, years. Time gets transferred into complex states of recorded time, real time, machine time, past time, tape time which is the execution of tape length , and creates a compound of different conceptualisations of time that exists as layers on top of each other. Our own childhood memories of cassette tapes date back to the seventies and eighties.
Those were the heydays of compact cassettes, but also a time when cassette culture was gradually supplemented by digital technologies. Cassettes were the material for recording and sharing audio, and with early home computing this was extended to software e. In many ways, the cassette tape and the promise of a digital revolution express similar desires, but also tensions. To advertise the Macintosh in , Apple released a famous commercial video directed by Ridley Scott. It will no longer be an interface for conformity that absorbs the worker, but an interface for individual expression and cultural taste.
No doubt, the Macintosh played a central role in a history where computers redefined cultural consumption, communication and the arts. The computer, and not least the smart phone and tablet, has grown to become a primary medium for cultural consumption. In this this sense the digital revolution has out-conquered the cassette. However, the conditions for this success are based on metaphorical interface design, and the control of access to the materiality of the computer.
With this, the relations between signal and signs technology and language become displaced: What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get, but you never realize the conditions and consequences. However, cassette tapes may also be seen in line with another digital revolution at the time. It was not only Apple that believed in a digital revolution. When Apple believed that the digital revolution would happen through user-friendly design and aesthetical and perceptually pleasing hardware and software, hackers turned to the poetics of hardware and software, foregrounding the constructing elements.
This involved both an inquiry into programming and circuit bending, and an inquiry into the social institutions that follow technologies. Following this, the re-investment in cassettes is not just an inquiry into the perceptually pleasing experience of the lo-fi from our childhood. The aesthetics of cassettes, in relation to both audio and digital culture, has always also been associated with the poetics of materials and a critical reflection on the social constructions that follow media technologies the relations between signs and signals.
Layers of sound becomes superimposed upon each other; and furthermore, various notions of recorded time gets superimposed upon each other, making the sound on sound loop tape difficult to analyse in a traditional textual manner, forcing us to shift our analytical perspective towards the actual recording technology itself. These philosophical questions posed by carpentry reveal an alternative reality of the operational tape recorder.
This reality is — following the thoughts of Wolfgang Ernst — somewhat a-historical, meaning that the specific function of the machine is outside history and human discourse. However, it is not outside the discourse of cassette tape itself. From a media archaeological point of view, it is only technical media that are able to register physical real signals. The cassette tape not only preserves the memory of human cultural language, but also the knowledge of how the cassette recorder stores and operates the magnetic domains of the running tape and its ferrous coating.
In addition, such perspectives reflect the use of our current digital technologies for documenting our sounding reality, by stressing the importance of paying attention to the media archaeological moment of the operational machine. Three decades after the introduction of the Mac computer in, the table is turning. According to a leaked NSA presentation it is now Apple who is Big Brother, and enthusiastic iPhone customers who are the zombies living in a surveillance state Rosenbach et al.
In other words, the promise of a digital revolution also implies a reaction where dominant actors remain faithful to the institutions of intellectual property, as Stuart Moulthrop predicted already in The computer, which was originally developed as a military technology but redefined as emancipatory and revolutionary by Apple and others, is now back again where it began: as a military intelligence technology. Products such as Portastudio for iPad Tascam , Tape Focusrite and Virtual Tape Machines Slate Digital all promise a shrink-wrapped sound and feel of classic tape machines within the convenience of favourite digital workstation.
However, the fascination of the obsolete can also be of a different kind than the pure perceptual and digitally simulated aesthetics of the analogue. Contrary to Portastudio for iPad and similar products which arguably fascinate , the material engagement with old technologies themselves originates in a different poetics and different ethics.
The fascination of vinyl records, floppy disks, and other historical and lost materials and platforms is in this sense a reaction to the ways cultural use is packaged within hardware and software interfaces, and an exploration of alternatives. Type I Ferric oxide. However, if current materialist practices with bygone media aim to be more than a parenthesis in the reconfiguration of our interface culture more than a trendy, hipster purely perceptual revival of the old which could just as well be subsumed in trendy new apps for the iPhone , they need to question their notion of material and materialism in a way that embraces a potential for criticism.
From the perspective of the historical materialist, speculative realism appears as an all-encompassing metaphysics whose engagement with objects and materiality risks displacing their discursive, cultural and political contexts: how compact cassettes are embedded in linguistic and social constructs. From the perspective of the speculative realist, historical materialism risks not seeing the ontology and perspectives of objects — the essence in them. But how do the two theories relate to one another?
There does not seem to be an easy answer to this, and no possibility to assemble a meta-theory. Following speculative realism: to capture their relations as objects, one can only access their appearance, and through practice carpentry explore the relations. Following historical materialism: such explorations reveal allegories on the relations between culture and the materiality of media. The third advantage is that it provides an historical and educational document of the machine hardware that is impervious to wear and tear.
A real consideration for if this concept prototype were to become an actual emulation system is the workload involved in sourcing and producing 3d models. Emulation software relies on community effort for the continued updating of the source code, as well as the procurement of the less legal items such a rom files, game artwork, instruction manuals.
For a 3d arcade cabinet emulator to succeed, it would need an open format that allows the community to create their own 3d cabinets, complete with exterior artwork and interior game wiring and PCBs. It uses the open source 3d engine and game creation tool Blender, along with the Oculus Rift virtual reality headset. Blender allows the use of VNC sessions as textures. VNC stands for Virtual Network Client, and is a system that allows a user to view a computer desktop remotely through another system. All input commands sent to the interaction built in blender are rerouted to the MAME system, which broadcast all audio visual feedback back to the user through the virtual screen running VNC session texture.
In an exhibition setting, the VRAME installation consists of a minimal pedestal containing a harness for the VR headset along with a control panel using physical game controls. Visually appears as an arcade cabinet that has been significantly minimalised. A square outline on the ground is used to reflect the immaterial object now built in virtual space.
When the user steps up to the pedestal, they don the VR headset, and find themselves standing in front a full arcade cabinet. The second option is to remove the controls, instead using a wireless gesture capturing system to match the players hand movements to a 3d representation of their hands in 3d space, registering collisions with the digital renderings of the control panel. Both options have their pros and cons. The gesture based version keeps the physicality of the emulated control system purely digital, in a maleable, etherial digital state.
On the other hand, the tangible controller adds a grounded, solid, yet distant link between the playing human and the cyber arcade cabinet. Galloway, Alexander R. Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture. Minneapolis [u. McCormack, Jamie. Arcade Mania! If the interest in the post-digital seems to point at anything, it is that the usefulness of the digital as a discursive element in analyzing the impact and place of technology in society and culture is waning.
Digital technologies on the other hand only grow and proliferate. This raises the question: why do we need or want to discuss matters in terms of a post-digital condition if digital media do not seem to loose ground by far? I look at this issue in the context of art. Here, the digital realm tends to be perceived as screen-based. This tendency is validated by popular approaches in media art, most notably that of Lev Manovich. One could argue however that the screen is not the most important part of a digital computer, and thus also not of digital media. Paul E. Ceruzzi states in his History of Computing that the computer can be defined in various ways.
Another is that it is a social construct Ceruzzi 4. This means the definition and shape of a computer is flexible, both technologically and socio-culturally. The development of a post-digital media theory possibly helps us break away from a dominant screen-based analyses of art in the context of digital media.
The issue here is not one of medium specificity though. The aim is to develop a more comprehensive view of specific works and practices to depart from in criticism, theory, and education. Not only does the screen get overvalued. What is not directly visible is also less likely to get noticed. Additional problems for art in the context of digital media seem to be the visual impermeability or the spatial dispersion of specific works and practices. Spatial dispersion on the other hand points to works in which the various elements of a work are out of reach physically, hiding them in another way.
In the case of networked installation art or performance they are either in another space, in another town, in another country Malpas ; Shanken The shape of the works described above asks for a perspective that reaches not only beyond the screen, but which also takes into account the instability and interdisciplinary basis of the works in question. The enduring prevalence of the visual arts in contemporary art institutions and exhibitions seems to suggest developing a view beyond the screen however asks for an alternative visual approach, rather than a predominantly conceptual, or actor network approach.
The work of Rudolph Arnheim offers a possible basis for an overarching theory for a new visuality in his book Visual Thinking Arnheim describes how a non-retinal way of seeing exists in science, where the knowledge of the existence of events, structures and objects often precedes or even constitutes their visibility.
It potentially connects conceptual and scientific approaches, such as also the still relevant methodologies based on Systems Aesthetics and ANT, to the visual domain. At the same time there is of course a level of abstraction in all art, including the examples used here, which cannot be described in terms of a visualization derived from scientific knowledge or insight alone.
What is needed is an elaboration of the notion of the expanded image towards forms of imagination that combine the actual and the immeasurable, or the poetic. By including conceptual visualizations of actual or virtual i. An understanding of how material dimensions of a work of art expand, exist, or behave beyond the line of sight, and in the case of digital art beyond the screen, need be no more prescriptive concerning interpretation or appreciation than seeing a painting or a sculpture.
A revaluation of the material dimensions of art and culture seems at hand, and it seems most urgent than in the fast growing digital domain. The perceptional model borrowed from Arnheim needs to be understood in all its variability if it is to be used for art. Refinements from specific fields and sub-fields of media theory, contemporary philosophy, the media art field and the contemporary art field are necessary to complete any picture of art after the collapse of the digital screen: the post-digital sphere.
The manner in which it is described is almost always negative. This superficial view of the computer and digital media in general is supported or at least barely countered by influential writers from the media art field. Even the chapter called The Operations, after a chapter on screens, solely focuses on image editing and image sequencing Galloway takes his criticism of this approach further by connecting it to another popular approach, that of remediation The theory of remediation draws a straight line from medieval illustrated manuscripts to linear perspective painting to cinema to television and lastly to digital media Bolter, Grusin In terms of art practice this means that digital media remediate art as is, with all its complexities and contradictions.
Digital media however do so from their own form of Dasein, which comes to be through their design and application. The focus on the screen therefore is not a problem produced by digital technologies per se. To find a possible cause and solution for this problem it seems more appropriate to approach it as a continuation and amplification of issues in art criticism and cultural theory at large.
Edward Shanken notes how after the heydays of modern art historians stopped describing technological developments in art In this period especially digital technologies have prospered exponentially. This change in art historical method seems to have created a lack of analytical tools to grasp the realities of art in the age of digital media. What the ongoing screen-based analysis of digital media shows is that this causes the consistent variability of the digital in art to go largely unnoticed.
The illusionary malleability and disappearance of digital media in the remediation of being Galloway describes, should not be interpreted as digital technologies having no form. A certain amount of institutionalization slips into the deepest layers of life and practice through everyday tools for expression, production, and recollection.
We run our economical, cultural, social, and military environments increasingly in collaboration with machines, rather than that we simply use those machines. For art this means we have bypassed the stage of the medium almost completely. Art exists within an ecosystem of humans and machines, whereby the latter reproduce their design in the way in which they compose an outcome.
Though digital technologies are human-made and can be subjected to a huge variety of possible applications and couplings, their underlying structures are created with and from a mathematical efficiency that is highly rigid. Galloway illustrates this quite literally by discussing the way the Internet itself is visualized through various digital imaging software.
Galloway implicitly criticizes screen-based analysis of digital media technologies when he reveals how all visualizations of the Internet look more or less the same Analyses and views of art and culture today based on images and imaging alone miss the point. The difficulty to represent events, shapes, and practices within the digital realm is however not limited to those of violence.
Of the many events and practices that escape simple imaging in digital media environments the highly varied field of art practices is one. The merging of machine space and, in this case, art practice asks for a visualization method that is simultaneously applicable to both. Within a context that is deeply connected to the scientific realm applying a form of visualization common in science seems fitting. In his book Visual Thinking the psychologist and art theorist Rudolph Arnheim describes various forms of visualization, one of which is that of scientific speculation and knowledge.
It is not a form of imaginative mental construction of unreal events or phenomena. He describes examples of how such models appear in nature sciences and geometry. Even if he uses examples from the hard sciences, his approach of scientific visualizations is largely psychological In other words, these visualizations are as much subjective as they are objective views of events, phenomena, or objects that exist beyond the reach of the human eye.
As an illustration: Gallileo not only had to battle church dogmas. He also had to constantly challenge his own, learned modes of perception, and in the end he did not completely succeed. Gallileo refused to accept planets rotated around the sun in ellipses rather than in circles. A method of visualization based on that of science therefore is not prescriptive, but flexible and even dynamic. Works of art can still be explored from different perspectives, for the development of which intuition, theory and physical experience are combined.
The shapes he refers to do not need to be physical.
The likes of Brother Cream Cat
Pictures, models, or visualizations developed from interpreting these patterns of forces depend on former experiences and intellectual, cultural, or emotional preconceptions of the beholder. One sees a copy and editing tool, the other a change of what images represent. Different positions and different levels of knowledge can produce subtle differences in experience.
Yet also a highly informed viewing of, say, a network installation piece, may still evoke a variety of interpretations and readings. Artistic practice is at least as varied as that of science. Not just any model for theory will fit every individual work. Which specialism to approach an individual work from depends on obvious indications or pretheoretical intuitions about the disciplinary realm this work most clearly seems based in. When an artist presents his own software as a work the obvious choice could be to approach this work from computer linguistics and literary theory, as well as from art.
When the emphasis in a work is on achieving some kind of political or social effect the obvious choice might be to include a tactical media perspective, in which a political and a technological analysis of media technologies is mixed, in an interpretation.
I concentrate on these, while being aware of the interdisciplinary character of each work in these areas, and of the physical and conceptual overlaps between them. What all have in common is of course a connection to the digital field. This means all include some form of application of, or reference to, executable code.
Various authors have described the deep entrenchment of code in culture and society, and its defining role in new systems of power Galloway, Thacker 30; Galloway 54; Wark . Others have emphasized the generative aspect of code, and its prominence outside institutional realms Arns ; Goriunova, Shulgin 6. Some even go as far as describing code art as a virus, or as an antibody against a sick culture Blais, Ippolito What is clear from all descriptions of code art is that it cannot be represented on a retinal plane in its entirety, or in its full capacity. Code as a written text, deep within a computer or presented on screen or paper, encompasses a potential activity that cannot be grasped from a literal reading or retinal observation alone.
Code is perceived through textual representation, as screen-based results of software, through its effects within a physical environment, or through all of these. Visualizing the work in full force would entail movement through time and space, however minimal in the machine or subject it runs on, as well as its relation to cultural, social, and political realms. When seeing it displayed as text, like it was painted on a wall at Transmediale , we could admire the beauty of the string of signs. Awareness of it being a piece of executable code of a very specific kind, a fork bomb virus, however leads us beyond this relatively simple visible dimension.
We could wait to see how much time it takes for the computer to crash, placing it in both the media archeological domain and the new materialism described by Jussi Parikka We could also see a computer failing at being a productive machine in terms of expectations of what its purpose is in ways Galloway describes I already mentioned this paper is not a call for a renewed medium specificity per se. What I describe is explicitly also not the splitting of the work into a collection of elements or aspects.
In a criticism of influential and limiting art theoretical models Garry L. Isolating physical traits of a work into separate elements or aspects facilitates an equally isolated, narrow path of interpretation. An interpretation of Forkbomb purely from the angle of visual poetry effectively would block the wide reach of the work from view, as does an approach of it as a virus alone. What I describe however is a pattern of forces, some of which are stronger than others and pull the work in a certain direction, i.
The reason I call particular practices conceptualist is that they largely manifest themselves in some form outside of digital media, yet these media do inform their shape. The technology seemingly disappears in them.
Works range from performance and activist art to sculpture, painting, video, and prints Holmes 47; Olson Works in this highly diverse group of practices seem to have three things in common: they use the Internet as an information or material resource; they use the Internet as a community space; and they use digital media for publication purposes Bazzichelli 28; Goriunova 29; Holmes 66; Hand The visualization of digital networks in art requires an explicit visualization of hardware as well as of information flows. In network art installations hardware is essential, and most of it is far beyond sight.
Any Internet connection quite easily runs halfway around the world Terranova It runs across different national borders in ways largely beyond our control. Internet connections therefore are not neutral, straightforward couplings of machines. Yet Internet connections in works of art are mostly discussed in terms of technology, virtual spaces, and telepresence, and seldom in terms of visualization of the mixed physical and techno-political essence of the network Goldberg 3; Popper ; Shanken 32; Paul I think this is a strange oversight.
By making an Internet connection part of a decentralized installation or performance, an artist creates an installation that involves the temporary application of a shared, semi-public infrastructure. Arnheim has been accused of having a highly formalist approach to art Fox, NY Times.
The chapter Models for Theory in Visual Thinking however describes a visualization method that leaves more room for subjectivity and interpretation than one would expect. Arnheim extensively describes the subjective development of scientific models He describes them as changing over time and being open-ended.
There is never final outcome, since any visualization in this context concerns phenomenal events that largely escape the eye, and will undergo constant re-assessment. I propose to take the concept of a scientific visualization, and adapt it to art that involves structures, systems, or processes that are too large, too dispersed, or too small to see with the naked eye. Arns, Inke. Frieling, Rudolf, Daniels, Dieter. Vienna: Springer. Bazzichelli, Tatiana. Networking, The Net as Artwork. Barrett, Estelle, Bolt, Barbara. London: I. Tauris, Bolter, Jay David, Grusin, Richard. Remediation, Understanding New Media.
Cambridge, Mass. Anti-Media, Ephemera on Speculative Arts. Rotterdam: NAi10 Publishers. Rotterdam: Piet Zwart online publication, Daston, Lorraine. New York: Zone Books, Dolphijn, Rick, van der Tuin, Iris. Michigan: Open Humanities Press, Jameson, Fredric. London: Verso.
Galloway, Alexander, Thacker, Eugene. The Exploit, A Theory of Networks. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Goldberg, Ken. Ken Goldberg. Goriunova, Olga, Shulgin, Alexei. Graham, Beryl, Cook, Sarah. Rethinking Curating, Art after New Media. Hagberg, Garry L. Paul Smith and Carolyn Wilde. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Hand, Autumn. Holmes, Brain. Escape the Overcode.
Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum Public Research. Kranenburg, van, Rob. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures. Lichty, Patrick. Mahoney, Michael S. Malpas, Jef. Olson, Marisa. Parikka, Jussi. March Print and Web. Paul, Christiane. Digital Art. Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Thames and Hudson. Shanken, Edward. Oliver Grau. Stallabrass, Julian. London: Tate Publishers. Terranova, Tiziana. Network Culture — Politics of the Information Age.
London: Pluto Press. Netzkunst, ihre Systematisierung und Auslegung anhand von Einzelbeispielen. He explains how the term is characteristic of our time in that shifts of information technology can no longer be understood to occur synchronously — and gives examples across electronic music, book and newspaper publishing, electronic poetry, contemporary visual arts and so on.
These examples demonstrate that the ruptures produced are neither absolute nor synchronous, but instead operate as asynchronous processes, occurring at different speeds and over different periods and are culturally diverse in each affected context. In this short essay I want to try to explore the connection of this line of thinking to the notion of the post-digital to speculate on what is being displaced and why this might be the case. It is not so much a critique of the post-digital but more an attempt to understand some of the conditions in which such a term arises.
The past is thereby reduced to the image of a vast database of images without referents that can endlessly reassigned to open up new markets and establish new value networks. Layering of covers of key source texts for this article, generated from a script by James Charlton. Posthistory The Hegelian assertion of the end of history — a notion of history that culminates in the present — is what Francis Fukuyama famously adopted for his thesis The End of History and the Last Man to insist on the triumph of neoliberalism over Marxist materialist economism.
For critical purposes now, digital technology, more so than video even, seems to encapsulate the kinds of aesthetic mutability as well as economic determinacy he described in even more concentrated forms. This preferred choice of prefix helps to reject the view that new social formations no longer obey the laws of industrial production and so reiterates the importance of class relations.
Here he is also drawing upon the work of the Marxist economist Ernest Mandel in Late Capitalism who argued that in fact this third stage of capital was in fact capitalism in a purer form — with its relentlessly expanding markets and guarantee of the cheapest work-force. If we follow this line of logic, can we argue something similar with the post-digital? What are its residual traces and what is being suppressed? How are new markets and social relations are being reconfigured under these conditions? He then relates these economic stages directly to cultural production, as follows: realism — worldview of realist art; modernism — abstraction of high modernist art; and postmodernism — pastiche.
This aspect is important to any psychoanalytic conception of time and implies a complex and reciprocal relationship between an event and its later reinvestment with meaning. This feedback loop or dialectic of anticipation and reconstruction is perhaps especially important to understand the complex symptoms of psycho-social crisis. For instance, and to understand the present financial crisis, Brian Holmes traces cycles of capitalist growth and the depressions that punctuate them by also referring to long wave theory.
Then, when conditions are right, available capital is sunk into the most promising innovations, and a new long wave can be launched. Is something similar taking place with digital technology at this point in time following the dotcom hype and its collapse? Is the pastiche-driven retrograde style of much cultural production a symptom of these complex interplay of forces, and an indication of business logic that seeks to capitalize on the present crisis given the paucity of other options before launching new innovations on the market?
This is our reality today: there is too much production, but it is unaffordable, inaccessible, and useless for those who need it most. This position seems to concur with the overall problem of endless growth and collapse — the reification of class divisions — where old technologies are repackaged but in ways that serve to repress historical conditions.
In a similar vein Jameson would have us conceive of the contemporary phase of capitalism in terms of both catastrophe and progress Jameson This means to inscribe the possibility of change into the very model of change offered up as unchangeable — or something similarly paradoxical and dialectical. Other kinds of innovations outside of the capitalist market might be imagined in this way but there also seems to be a problem here in that the very processes have been absorbed back into further stages of social repression.
Postscript Are these periodisations simply too mechanical, too economically determining? Indeed, are Marxist theories of capitalist crisis bound to outmoded notions of the development of the forces of production, in order to conceptualise decisive class action? That may not be such a bad thing if our memories are fading about what is being displaced and how. The suggestion is that neither modern nor postmodern discourses are sufficient to grasp the characteristic features of the historical present.
In this view, the contemporary is not simply a historical period per se, but rather a moment in which shared issues that hold a certain currency are negotiated and expanded. That is to say, the concept of the contemporary projects a single historical time of the present, as a living present — a common, albeit internally disjunctive, historical time of human lives. Such a notion is inherently problematic but increasingly irresistible. The term contemporaneity has become useful to deal with the complexities of time and history, if not politics, in ways that neither modernism nor postmodernism seemed able to capture.
Beyond simply suggesting something is new or sufficiently different, the idea of the contemporary poses the vital question of when the present of a particular work begins and ends. Thus contemporaneity begins to describe the more complex and layered problem of different kinds of time existing simultaneously across different geo-political contexts. When it comes to the condition of the post-digital, the analogy to historical process and temporality seems underdeveloped to say the least. References: Cascone, K. Cramer, F. Jameson, F. Print Holmes, B. Mandel, E. Late Capitalism.
London: Verso, Osborne, P. The fears about communication surveillance is fully justified, but there is seems to be little concern about the fate of the information about our economic data and how they circulate in electronic networks. E-commerce and e-banking can exist only because everything is recorded, retrievable and verified. The same principles apply also to conventional banking before that, but there is one important difference.
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