It would respond to the question: what forms environment dance does our therapeutic practice provide for human feeling so that these feelings can become available for thought and communication between therapist and pt? It asks the question of how can the spaces and experiences of human interaction be harnessed to enable a form of inquiry, a conversation, and a shared experience?
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- OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY.
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That eventually enhances the treatment and promotes innovations within it. Essentially, it is an understanding of symbolization, whereby words or images are used to capture emotions and sensations so that they can be thought about and communicated to others. Symbolization is rooted in experience, and having a theory of symbolization can help to establish epistemological principles for psychotherapy practice. Alternatively this can be done through conducting trial actions and many symptoms and enactions can be understood as such in control mastery theory.
What is Object Relations Theory in Psychoanalysis?
In my metaphor this is found in the safety of dance of therapy. Our goal is to help our patients find verbal expression rather than having to resort to enacting in order to communicate. This will help the infant to moderate anxiety aroused by an environment, which is as yet too complex to process. In order to cope with this anxiety, the infant utilizes the phantasies of splitting, projection identification, and introjection.
As the ego is still in a primitive state, the infant is unable to maintain a unified mental image of the self or of others. Therefore, relationships are maintained with parts of objects e. Thus, negative feelings are projected outward unto the mother, while positive sensations are internalized in a process called binary splitting. This splitting ties the self to positive sensations and thus forms the basis for the development of a positive self concept, more suited to sustain negative aspects of the self as well.
In categorizing objects as either good or bad, the infant in essence creates two individual mental images of objects, existing as unrelated individual entities. The fact that all bad is projected outwards, coupled with drives to destroy the bad, causes paranoia that the bad will return to seek revenge.
In order to cope with this paranoia, the infant begins a cycle where some negativity is internalized in order to gain control of it, and some good is projected unto the mother so that she could protect the infant . These cycles of projection and introjection continue until the infant comes to the understanding that the good mother and the bad mother are one. In addition, the fragmented view of partial objects develops into the awareness of the object as a single entity. Here begins a developing capacity to view the self and objects as including both good and bad, thus forming the basis for an integrated ego.
In other words, the mother who frustrated the infant is the same mother who satisfied. Accordingly, the infant who desires to destroy the mother is the same infant who loves her. The infant realizes, that the mother whom he phantasized of destroying, is the same mother he loves. Rather than feelings of anxiety which overwhelmed the infant during the previous state, the depressive position is characterized by feelings of guilt, and of mourning lost omnipotence.
Object Relations Theory (Melanie Klein)
The fear of being destroyed is exchanged by the fear of destroying another. The infant thus engages in reparation in an effort to restore and fix objects he phantasized destroying. Between months the paranoid schizoid position takes place. Baby is not distinguishing between itself and other. As we grow up, we get a sense of other. For a baby it is normal.
The ideas of Melanie Klein and Object Relations Theory | Noel Bell Psychotherapist in London
It is only later that a self is formed. Objects relations therapy will look at the relationships between all your objects. Who are you when you are out in the world, outer and inner relationships.
Idea of phantasy big part of objection relations theory unconscious. Unconscious going on all the time. Instinctual drives going on before thought. Phantasies about hunger, hence the focus on breast. Phantasies are very live, very immediate but not in a conscious way angry biting the breast. If my parents are not okay then it is because I am not lovable. Okay to be angry. Two stages : Paranoid schizoid months Child trying to make sense of the world.
Depressive months. Schizoid manoeuvre to split off. Paranoid bit is that it will come back and bite me. Someone is doing the anger for us, they will realise that and will get angry with us.
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