Heavy Horses 6 Nadia the Noriker

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Andalo CARD. Ricche colazioni con prodotti locali e fatti in acsa. Stanze spaziose e dotate di ogni comfort vi aspettano per trascorerre al meglio la vostra vacanza in Val di Sole. Le nostre camere sono arredate in stile di montagna , i letti hanno i cuscini di cirmolo per poter usufruire di profumi e sensazioni aggiunte. Hotel Restaurant Bar Vallesinella, surrounded by a beautiful nature and only 4 km from Madonna di Campiglio town center.

A unique location in the Adamello Brenta Nature Park and with unforgettable panoramic views which will sure stay in the heart. The hotel is an ideal meeting and starting point for those who wish a peaceful and natural holiday but with all the comforts of the Eco Design Hotel. The Paoli family is pleased to welcome you for an unforgettable holiday in Trentino. You will live carefree days with your loved ones in the midst of nature on the beautiful Dolomites, lots of fun with the many activities to do for young and old. The well-being and nature are essential to fully enjoy the holiday and all'Ambiez Hotel you will experience memorable moments.

Visit the pages of our most exciting home: the wellness and beauty center with swimming pool, the Club lunch break for the little ones, the Activity program with many activities for the whole family, and the Gourmet dishes of the past reinterpreted transforming dishes Traditional mountain cuisine in culinary delicacies. Apartment of square meters that lies in a quite and sunny area. Prices do not include heating. Pescol Michela. Dotato di un parco di In ogni appartamento ci sono 2 balconi con vista sulle Dolomiti di Brenta. Sono composti di stanze con posti letto, cucina, forno elettrico, divano.

Servizi con doccia e lavatrice. Offering panoramic views, accommodation at Lido Hotel includes a flat-screen TV with satellite channels and a private bathroom with hairdryer. Decorated in a classic mountain style, most of the rooms, suites and apartments have a balcony. Breakfast is buffet style, while the restaurant serves traditional Trentino cuisine at dinner. You have a choice between 3 first and 3 second courses. Children have a separate menu. Bike rental is free and children have both indoor and outdoor play areas.

Free parking is provided and free Wi-Fi access is available in public areas. Apartment on the first floor with: living room with kitchenette, 1 double room, 1 twin room, 1 bathroom with shower, balcony; depot; small-sized pets admitted. Apartment on the first floor with: living room with kitchenette, 1 double room, 1 twin room, 1 bathroom with shower, balcony and garden. Our windows look onto memorable landscapes amid intense greenery in the summer and a magical white world of snow in winter. Our indoor and open air pools are interlinked, can be used no matter what the temperature, and offer views that, once seen, are never forgotten.

Our all-new health and fitness centre combines essential design with the warmth of natural materials such as wood and stone. The little structure feautures a beautiful and quiet atmosphere and an absolute relax, especially when it is surrounded by mountains and nature that give you new emotions in each seasons The day beginns with a healthy breakfast, rich in local products , while in the evening, you may taste the typical and regional cousine in the uncountable reastaurants that the valley feaytures.

New and recent building that feautures 10 rooms and a flat. Each room is characterized by different styles and it is special, incomparable and extraordinary. The structure feautures: breakfast room, hall, TV room and bar where you may taste the regional specialities and where you may spend the winter evenings in a cold room near the fireplace. We waiting for you! Vacation in Val di Sole and take advantage of the great opportunities that this card has to offer: you can take a cabin lift and reach peaks at a height of meters in the Ortles Cevedale mountain group, and new this year, in the Adamello Presanella with a spectacular view of the most extensive glacier in all of Italy, plus, you can visit museums, castles, forts and travel by train or by bus throughout the entire province of Trentino.

We are in the Stelvio National Park, where you can easily come into contact with the wildlife. If you want to marvel at the splendour of the Mare glacier, you can also walk up to this refuge opened in the s on the site of an older building in spring, when it is sometimes open for ski mountaineers.

Open From 20 June to 20 September From mid-March to mid-April Before leaving for your hike, always contact the manager to verify the actual opening of the mountain hut Walks To climb Cevedale across the Mare glacier requires mountaineering experience and involves a 4-hour walk over the glacier. Within the capabilities of any walker, instead, is the route from the refuge to the valley that first ascends to the Lago della Marmotta, then continues to the Malga Mare car park via Lake Careser 2 hours, difficulty E.

Riz Andrea. Bernard Eliana. Penthouse with wooden roof. Located in a new 3-storey building with a modern wooden and steel elevator with direct access from the garage, this bright penthouse has an internal surface of 70 square meters, consisting of 2 double bedrooms, modern bathroom with shower, bright open space living room with full kitchen with appliances, large balcony, lift access to the first third. Internal parking space, private storage room and shared basement with central vacuum cleaner.

Excellent interior finishes. The unmistakable outline of the Brenta Dolomites. The lakes and the mountain refuges of the Adamello Brenta park.


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Ski lifts linked to Madonna di Campiglio are located just 50 meters far from the hotel and are the gateway to km of pistes were, thanks to the programmed snow, it is possible to ski until late spring. Hotel Madonna dell Nevi is situated close to facilities such as the congress center, the ice-skating rink and the sport center in folgarida.

Madonna delle Nevi. The national cooking has a familiar conduction and is enriched by the most known dishes of the trenitinean tradition. Moreover the weeked gala evening gives an unforgettable touch of charme. Furnished in a modern way and comfortable, are the best place to finish a holiday day for the comfort they offer: TV color, radio, direct phone, private services with shower, wide balcony, hair dryer and safe.

For the lovers of dancing and for the young people, the well equipped discotheque will be occasion to spend together wonderfull evenings with Latino and techno dances. The Equipped and complete Fitness Center satisfys the exigency of who, also on holiday, don't want to renounce to be in good condition, providing sauna, steam bath, 2 hydromassage bathtub, solarium, and a gym. Nestled in a peaceful setting, at the foot of the Dolomites, just 30 metres away from lake Molveno.

Additional hotel facilities are: satellite TV, in-house-movies with large screen, games room, terrace-bar, free use of mountain bikes, wellness center and an outdoor swimming-pool. Private car parking. All rooms have ensuite bathroom, with bath or shower , wc, hairdryer, direct-dial telephone, TV sat. Continental Breakfast with buffet.

Located about metres from the village centre in a peaceful and sunny position near the woods. A wellness centre with indoor swimming pool. Rooms with private bathroom, telephone and TV-almost all with a balcony and terrace. Bar, living room and television, lift and car park. The personal management by the owners ensures top-quality service as well as an excellent and varied cuisine.

Free WiFi. Folgarida Hotel enlarged and rebuilt promotes rooms inclusive of balconies, toilets, hairdryer, electronic strong-box, TV colour satellite, direct phone, and alarm clock. Huge dinner room, gaming room for children, internet point, bar and lift. Underground and open parking till all places are full.

Heated ski-room with electric ski-boots dryer, balcony and solarium. Air-conditioned in the common areas. Disabled parson access. Little size animals are admitted. Folgarida Hotel is managed directly and personally by owners grown up in the regional hotel tradition, sign of kindness and hospitality. Two restaurants areas are available to guarantee our guests much more privacy and tranquillity. At guests arrival there will be a welcome cocktail together with our animator who will entertain you during all your holiday; and for children mini-club in the afternoon.

Hospitality is a tradition at the Albergo Dolomiti, where a family-style atmosphere and painstaking, professional service are combined to make your vacation a totally relaxing experience with the comfort you are looking for. All rooms in the hotel are equipped with bathroom or shower, TV color satellite, and telephone.

Guests can take advantage of a TV room, lounge, terrace solarium, restaurant, private parking, and a unique area that is specially equipped for ski waxing. Open all year, the hotel has been outfitted for use by the handicapped. This 4-star hotel offers rooms with a balcony overlooking the mountains.

Free Wi-Fi is available in all common areas. With a flat-screen TV, minibar and safe, each room also includes a private bathroom with free bathrobe and toiletries. Guests can relax in the sauna, hot tub and Turkish bath at the wellness centre. A gym, seasonal pool and furnished sun terrace are also available.

The hotel provides a free private parking and valeting service. Buffet Breakfast is hosted daily in the dining room, with a selection of sweet and savoury items. A free shuttle service to and from the Nardis Waterfall, in the Val Genova valley nearby, is provided. Enjoy relaxing holidays at Garni Aritz in Campitello di Fassa. Escape from everyday life and recharge your batteries while going for walks in our impressive mountains or climbing high peaks with professional mountain guides. During your mountain hikes you will see marmots and chamois, while eagles are soaring high in the air over the Sasso Lungo and Sasso Piatto mountain ranges.

Mountain bike lovers choose from easy trails away from traffic, demanding downhills and difficult tracks, which allow them to discover the most beautiful spots of the valley. Or how about feeling the adrenaline rush while enjoying a thrilling paragliding and hang gliding flight from the Col Rodella mountain and the Belvedere mountain?

In the evening you can taste traditional specialties in different restaurants. Bar, restaurant, TV-room, living room with piano-bar, library and fire place, gym, lift, multi-purpose hall with maxi-screen and karaoke, UVA lamp, play-room with billiard table, solarium, garden, skibus transfert, garage, private parking. Buffet breakfast, three choices of menu, salad bar, buffet of desserts, welcome cocktail, trentino typical dinner.

In a charming and nice position at the center of Fassa valley, sorrounded by the wonderful Dolomites, Hotel Madonnina is ideal for summer or winter holidays. Our restaurant offers a tasting of regional and national dishes with menu choices, rich buffet, menu for children and romantic dinner in order to make your stay more unforgettable.

We think of everything. Bonelli Sergio e Annamaria. Apartment on the first floor with: living room with kitchenette, 1 double bedroom,1 twin bedroom, 1 bathroom, terrace; small pets allowed. The Piccolo Hotel is situated in a very quiet and sunny position near the centre of Canazei.

It is easy to reach Belvedere and Sellaronda lifts in winter thanks to the free transport service of the private hotel bus. Cross country skiers can reach the well known track of the Marcialonga in only few minutes walk. During the summer season there are a lot of excusions to choose between easy and difficult ones and when up, a wonderful view on the most famous mountains of the world catches the eye.

Relaxing is a familiar activity in the hotel. Every moment is the right one for a relaxing holiday as a real cure-all for body and soul. Located in a peaceful and sunny position amongst the Navoi lawns, it is equipped with comfortable rooms with private bathroom, television and a panoramic balcony overlooking the Valle di Primiero.

The cuisine is directly managed by the owners and offers typical local specialities. Our house is at walking distance of about mt from the centre and mt from the nearest ski-bus stop. The house is surrounded by a large and equipped garden and all of the seven apartments are furnished with all comforts: they have from 2 to 5 beds, a fully equipped kitchen with dishmashine,oven, microwave and cosy dinning corner, and a balcony with deckchairs, wi-fi connection and safe.

At their disposal is also a welcoming lounge with garden view. For each apartment is available one car park in our garage, where are also provided a ski boot drier and some mountain-bikes for your summer excursions. The Hotel has a Spa with a whirlpool bath, sauna, bio-sauna, Turkish bath with emission saline, emotional shower, ice fountain and a relaxation area with herbal tea to spend pleasant moments of well-being.

A relaxing environment, away from the monotony and stress of daily life. A comfortable world where the frenzy, tension and tiredness slip away. Situated in a sunny position that dominates the town of Pinzolo, the hotel offers a friendly and familiar ambience for those who love sports and relax.

The cuisine offers Italian and traditional Trentino specialities with a buffet breakfast. Open From mid-June to late September Before leaving for your hike, always contact the manager to verify the opening of the mountain hut Walks From the Refuge you can climb to the top of the Marmolada Punta Penia along the via ferrata on the west ridge climbing route from Forcella Marmolada - 4 hours, difficulty EEA.

For anyone with more modest ambitions, the short walk from the refuge to nearby Malga Contrin is a must. Davarda Dino "Casa Dino". Degasper Anna. Appartamento nel centro storico di Cavalese, a pochi passi dai negozi e altri servizi pubblici e m dagli impianti di risalita Alpe Cermis, zona sciistica ed escursionistica.

Su richiesta biancheria da letto, bagno e cucina compresa nel prezzo. Lettino per bambini disponibile. For the past eighty years, anyone making their way up to Passo Valles - summer and winter - has been certain to find a huge St. Bernard dog waiting to greet travellers stopping on this Alpine pass on the border between the provinces of Trento and Belluno. There was a St. Bernard in when Enrico Cemin, legendary road builder, opened the Capanna Passo Valles at a time when the cars that passed by in a day could be counted on the fingers of one hand. And there's still a St. Bernard here Anton , as the family of refuge wardens is in its third generation.

Skiers in winter and walkers in summer stop overnight here, people who love good food and the old world charm of a pass where time seems to stand still. In May by reservation only. The hotel has a bar, restaurant, spacious garden, parking, wi-fi, rooms with balcony and Sat TV. Typical dinner once a week. The Hotel has a bar, a lounge, a large breakfast room, a dining room, a disco, a children's playroom, a ski storage room, a ski boot warming device, a car park for 80 car, and a lift.

All entries are adapted for disabled people. All of them have a bathroom, a color TV set, radio, telephone and hairdryer. We provide a breakfast buffet with lunch and dinner served at your table. Typical renovated rural building in a peaceful mountain village, it is located in front of vast meadows offering an overview on Val di Sole and lies just 1 km far from Daolasa-Val Mastellina lift. The apartments have kitchenette with oven, fridge, dishwasher, hotplate, Sat-TV, washing machine. Apartment on the ground, first and second floor with: kitchen, living room, 1 double bedroom,1 bedroom with bunk beds, 2 bathrooms, terrace; depot room; pets allowed.

Frati Roberto "Residence Borest". Grazioso appartamento,al piano terra, completo di tutti i confort. Immerso nel verde, in zona tranquilla, a pochi passi dal centro di Fiera di Primiero. E' composta da una zona giorno con cucina, attrezzata di lavastoviglie,forno a microonde,frigo e tv, wi-fi gratisDue camere da letto, un ampio bagno con doccia e lavatrice,riscaldamento autonomo,posto macchina e piccolo giardino. A richiesta la biancheria da letto. Dista circa 10 km da San Martino nota stazione sciistica.

A disposizione scopa elettrica. Adatto per persone. Distanza dal centro paese: due minuti a piedi; sotto casa fermata bus navetta giro del paese gratuito. Our objective is that you feel as a guest, the warmth of our family, without intrusion, but with discretion and professionalism. We will happily relate the history of our area and our home. Hospitality and passion for our work are the qualities in which we belive, wich we persue with pride, delight, enthusiasm and harmony. We are delight to welcome you! The Donini Family. Nice and pretty, well-equipped apartment in the ground floor with one double room and one single room, sofabed 1place.

Garden, privat parking and garage, near wood, walks and playground. Family-run, with a large garden and barbeque. Decorated with care while including all comforts. They each have a separate entrance, attended parking, independent central heating. The owner's family management provides its guests with typical and international cuisine and musical entertainment. Apartment in sunny and panoramical position to the mountain chain Lagorai. Composed by two sleeping room, kitchen, bathroom. Very close to the lifts of Alpe Cermis. In winter available for seasonal renting.

Placed in Alba di Canazei, known as winter and summer tourist centre in Val di Fassa, this hotel lies among the Dolomites very close to the slopes of Sella Ronda, Ciampac and Marmolada. Some years has gone by and we have improved our house, looking for an happy union of elegance, heat and familiarity.

We have grown up, but we have kept the same human heat and the same calm that have distinguished us since the beginning. In our house guests feel like at home. Vian Elisabetta. Posto auto e ampio giardino. A conduzione familiare. Vicino impianti di risalita. Camere con servizi e balcone. Parcheggio, giardino. Flat on the first floor, situated in a quiet and sunny place, with two bedrooms and a kitchen-livingroom.

Apartment on the first floor with: living room with kitchenette, 2 double rooms, 1 bathroom with shower, terrace; depot; small-sized pets admitted. Hotel Cima Dodici enjoys a sunny and relaxing position, and is the ideal place to pass an invigoration and magic holiday, in the middle of our wonderful Dolomites. Apartment placed in Cavalese's old town centre, composed by three bedrooms, living room with kitchen, bathroom with shower.

There is a very spacious terrace with table to relax and eat in the open air! Pets are no allowed. Even if Hotel Catinaccio lies in the middle of Vigo di Fassa and few minutes walk from the Catinaccio cable-car, it is in a very quite and sunny position. Hotel Catinaccio: enjoy your holiday. Are you looking for a dream holiday in contact with pure and uncontaminated nature, walking for hiking and high Alpine mountain hut? Hotel Catturanino is ideal for you! Our staff will put emphasis on being attentive to your needs so you can indulge in all of the many comforts.

We will pamper you! It is located in a sunny and quiet position a few meters away from the skibus stop. The breakfast room, the TV room and the bar are located at the ground floor. There are a private car-park and a garage. We have double and single rooms, all of them have a bathroom with shower, toilet and hairdryer, TV, safety box, telephone and balcony.

In it was transformed into a pension-restaurant, naming it after their only daughter Gianna who, together with her husband Rudy and their sons Christian and Federico, now runs the business. In order to improve the service and the offer, the hotel has been enlarged and refurbished. Furthermore, the hotel boasts a wellness and relaxation area. Located in Madonna di Campiglio, we welcome guests in a friendly and cozy atmosphere and offer great value for money.

In collaboration with the ski school, we ensure holidays full of emotions. Our hotel nestles in a quiet location at app. The host family await guests with a warm hospitality. You arrive as guests as leave as friends. The hotel is going to be awarded 4 stars. The Eden Hotel is a typical three — stars family run hotel with an alpine confortable and traditional atmosphere. The Eden Hotel is located in Transacqua, a municipality of the Primiero Valley, at meters above sea level.

The village of Transacqua has a fantastic view over the surrounding mountains and it is placed at the joining of the Cismon and Canali streams. You can reach Fiera di Primiero by crossing the bridge over the Cismon stream, a suitable place for trout fishing. Transacqua has always been an economic center above all due to the mining sector since the 15th century.

During that period there were more than tunnels for copper, galena and silver mining. Today the municipality of Transacqua is doing work to secure some tunnels for guided tours inside the mines by train. A short distance from Madonna di Campiglio, where there are no cars nor ski slopes, is lake Nambino, a pearl amidst the woods, with the Brenta Dolomites behind and the refuge overlooking the water.

Children can play in the large meadow while their parents take a rest on the terrace. And if you decide to spend the night in one of the beautiful wood-panelled rooms, the Serafini family - who have run the refuge since - will have your luggage brought up by ropeway conveyor. The easy walk across to Rifugio Pradalago takes approximately 2 hours difficulty E. A small villa with two apartments, each with beds for 6 people.

A large garden with barbeque, private parking, TVSat, dishwasher, laundry room, storage area for skis and skiboots, balconys, a small kit for children. Ideal for the winter season, it is very close to the "Daolasa-Val Mastellina lift facilities that connect to the Folgarida-Marilleva-M. Excellent for the summer season, starting point for various excursions in the Brenta mountain range.

Nelle vicinanze si trovano i seguenti servizi: piscina scoperta, minigolf, campo bocce, pattinaggio su ghiaccio, impianto sciovia 2 km , campo tennis, campo pallacanestro, campo golf, noleggio mountain bike, parco giochi per bambini mt. Gli appartamenti sono dotati di: telefono con teleselezione diretta, citofono, tv; parte degli appartamenti con balcone. Servizi comuni: ricezione, ascensore, aspirapolvere, piscina coperta 8x4 con idromassaggio subacqueo, sauna finlandese, piccola palestra, lavanderia a gettone con asciugatoio ed angolo stireria con ferro da stiro, sala giochi con tennis da tavolo, deposito biciclette, sci e scarponi riscaldato , posto auto scoperto, servizio telefax.

A richiesta fornitura biancheria. Davarda Bernardetta. It is located on the first floor of a private house, has 55 square meters and offers a kitchenette with refrigerator and microwave oven, a living room with dining area, a TV, a sofa-bed, a bathroom with shower, washing machine, bedroom with balcony, heating and a ski deposit. A free car park is also located nearby the house. The linen and towels are provided for guests. It is a non-smoking establishment and is an ideal destination for any type of tourist, young and old.

Apartment on the first floor, with: living room with kitchenette, 1 double room, 1 twin room, 1 bathroom, 1 balcony; depot. English and German speaking. A restaurant renowned for its typical dishes. You will come to the hotel as guests and will leave as friends. A rural home surrounded by waterfalls and larches of great naturalistic value in a panoramic location, renovated according to the principles of the Casa Clima Plus. The ground floor has a hall, a heated storage area for skis and any other sports equipment, a laundry room, a well-equipped garden, an area to play and open air.

The first floor has two trilo apartments with a separate entrance and a spacious cooking area. The second floor has a quadri mansard apartment with a separate entrance. Cincelli Willy. Nuova costruzione in tipico stile di montagna immersa nei verdi pascoli di Salanzada. Apartment on the first floor with: living room with sofa bed and kitchenette, 1 double room, 1 bathroom, balcony; depot; small-sized pets admitted. English and French speaking. More than years of hospitality The Golf Hotel in Madonna di Campiglio, nestling in the heart of the Brenta Dolomites, boasts a long tradition as well as a charming and historical atmosphere.

Already in the middle of the 19th century, the Habsburg family, Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth, and the Viennese nobility spent their holidays in this old hunting chalet. During the years is has become a luxury hotel. In the 70ies it has been refurbished and provided with a golf course without losing its traditional atmosphere. The hotel is built to satisfy even the most demanding guests.

In the centre next to the cable car. Lounge, restaurant, bar, meetingroom with wide- screen wi fi zone, games - room, parking. Rooms with tel. New wellness centre with jacuzzi, sauna, steam bath, gym. Gala dinner, wine tasting, petite carte, baby menu. Entertainment, mini club. Si compone di una camera da letto, un bagno con doccia, cucina abitabile. E' disponibilie per affitti annuali. Appartamenti in posizione tranquilla e soleggiata con ampi balconi vista lago e Dolimiti di Brenta. A pochi passi dal centro storico e dal lido.

All'ingresso ci sono anche giardino e parcheggio privato. Benvenuto nella fantastica cornice delle Dolomiti, ai piedi del gruppo del Brenta e dei pendii della Paganella. Desilvestro Luigi. La casa si trova in posizione soleggiata, a metri dal centro ma fuori dalle strade principali, immersa nel verde. Piccolo giardino a disposizione. Posti auto privati. L'Hotel Chalet Genziana, antico maso ristrutturato in modo raffinato ed elegante, che ha mantenuto la tipica e rustica architettura alpina.

Situato nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio, circondato da una natura incontaminata ai piedi del gruppo Ortles-Cevedale, dista metri dal centro di Cogolo. This residence is close to the gondola lift that goes to Malga Panciana located at a height of m. All amenities are provided; there are Mono 1-room and Bilo 2-room apartments. Spacious common areas, a theatre and a conference room.

Casa accogliente in posizione tranquilla e soleggiata, immersa nel verde con vista panoramica sul Gruppo Brenta. Ampio giardino, prato recintato e parcheggio privato. Gli appartamenti"Sport" sono ubicati in casa privata confortevole nel centro storico di Molveno. I principali servizi quali banche, posta, municipio e negozi sono tutti comodamente raggiungibili nel giro di 50 m. Grazie al divieto di transito veicolare nel centro storico sono garantite la quiete ed il relax.

Piccolo albergo situato a 4 km. Ideale per gli appassionati di passeggiate nel bosco e degli amanti della natura. Gestione familiare con preferenza alla cucina tipica. The family atmosphere of the Hotel Pordoi welcomes you for an unforgettable holiday with breathtaking views, unforgettable sunsets, sports and nature. In privileged location 10 km from the center of Canazei, with sunny terrace, offers the opportunity for a unique holiday, very relaxing and quiet. Located at meters surrounded by green and pink rock Dolomite, summer a pond full of reflections between the sky and the mountains and in winter the ski slope directly connected to the hotel, so you can fully enjoy the privilege of a free holiday car.

With 30 rooms beds, with bathroom and shower, free wifi service. Color TV, dining room and bar in the old style, a TV room, turkish bath, aromatic showers. From the rocks of the Ladin Dolomites to the meadows of Alpe di Siusi, this refuge is on the border between two worlds: it was built in the thirties on a pass Giogo di Fassa, in Ladin Jouf de Fascia dividing the provinces of Trento and Bolzano.

A location that has also influenced the food. If you have come from Passo Sella on the Sassolungo and Sasso Piatto Tour, you are at the halfway point, but make a little effort anyway to walk up to the meadows above the refuge to the south and take in a spectacular view of the Catinaccio. Open in summer although in winter many ski mountaineers come here , with a few outdoor games for children, you may occasionally find yourself having lunch accompanied by local live!

Open From 20 June to mid-October Before leaving for your hike, always contact the manager to verify the actual opening of the mountain hut. Experienced hikers can make the ascent of Sassopiatto 2 hours; EE. Boso Marlene. The Col Rodella cable car, connecting to Sella Ronda ski slopes, is reachable in a 9-minute walk from appartamento Casa Boso. Canazei is 2 km away. The apartment Boso Marlene Casa Boso include a living room with sofa bed and kitchenette, a bedroom with double bed and one twin bedroom, bathroom with shower. Also has satellite-TV, safe and a washing machine. Located in the centre of the peaceful village of Siror, it is about 1 km from Fiera di Primiero in the direction of San Martino di Castrozza.

Completely renovated, it provides its guests with an ambience that respects the alpine tradition and with all the necessary comforts for a pleasant stay. Rooms equipped with bathroom, hairdryer, TV, telephone, safe, and most with a balcony. Realizzato in una maso sui prati che portano verso il Passo Cereda, qui Gianna e il marito Cornelio vi coccoleranno con il fuoco sempre acceso e i racconti della vita di montagna.

Residence Bonetti awaits you for a holiday in contact with nature, for a relaxing family holiday or for an active holiday in the mountains of Val di Rabbi in Trentino. Do you love being outdoors? A house that evokes an ancient charm, in the middle of unforgettable fascinations between history and nature. Francesco Delugan had a bee in his bonnet: to open a staging post. In he obtained the very desired trade licence and could open his hotel, "The Black Eagle".

Since then the ancient hotel has kept its past atmosphere, but also does follow the development of times. Our house offers hospitable family rooms and some superior. Degiampietro Patrizio. Each apartment, comfortable and fully equipped, is provided with independent heating, private garden, garage as well as an outside car park.

They enjoy a wonderful view on Mount Vioz and the peaks of the Ortles-Cevedale mountain range. The apartments on the ground floor give direct access to the garden whereas the others offer sunny balconies. Self-catering units: - 2-rooms apartments livingsroom with the kitchen, double sofa-bed, one double bedroom and bathroom - 3-rooms apartments livingsroom with the kitchen, double sofa-bed, two double bedrooms and bathroom - 4-rooms apartments livingsroom with the kitchen, double sofa-bed, three double bedrooms and bathroom.

The House host an American bar with live music at night. Meeting-room, tavern with live-music, video-games, elevator, parking and small garage, ski and ski-boots locker-room. Relax and fitness centre with sauna, turkish Bath, thermarium and laconium, hot-whirlpool-Jacuzzi, gym, solarium, and beauty centre for massages and body care.

Appartamento di nuova realizzazione in zona tranquilla e soleggiata, gode di ottima vista sulle Dolomiti di Brenta. Vicino agli impianti di risalita e al centro. Ideale per famiglie con bambini. Small and simple apartment situated in a residential area of Cavalese, at a walking distance from historic centre. Kitchen, 1 doubleroom with balcony, bathroom with bathtub, wardrobe. Summer Season: available from June to September min. Free ski bus. Bar, reading lounge, TV lounge. Car park. Breakfast and salad buffet. Dallapozza Giancarlo "Casa Anita".

Family Dallapozza welcomes you. The house is located in a quiet and sunny place, in the green, meters from the ski area Rosengarten-Ciampedie. Nice, modern furnished Apartment, m from the town centre, sunny, quiet position, comfortable access to the town's public servicesSummer Season apartment available in June weekly, from July to September minimum 15 days.

Welcome to the oldest hotel in Canazei! Who will look after you? Derik and Armin Detone will be delighted to make your stay the most pleasant and comfortable. Our "Junior suites" are approximately 30 square metres with first class comfort. An ideal oasis for your health and beauty, sensible hands to rigenerate you. Hay, a natural element used to cure rheumatism, or simply for a rest in a naturally perfumed surrounding. Our fitness area: "Keep fit while on holiday".

Circular hot whirlpool with star studded sky. Steambaths with natural odours and chromotherapy to help us breath to the full depth of our lungs the pure mountain air; 2 Sauna at different temperatures to help eliminating the toxins in our bodies and to render our skin velvet like. Trentino Residences is the name for prestigiuos self-catering accommodation in the heart of the Dolomites.

We offer comfortable apartments with all the services characterising a quality hotel. Families with children find all they need for the perfect holiday, both in winter and in summer. Find out more. You will also be pleased to discover our convenient prices.

Ourphilosophy is to offer our guests an accomodation in well furnished and equipped apartments and the facilities and services usually characterising a high quality hotel. It has turned out to be a successful story, because more and more tourists like to match independence with comfort and get quality accomodation at reasonable prices. In the last years Trentino Residences has made a constant effort to improve its already existing residences and to build new ones, so as to satisfy both those guests who like to go back to their usual holiday destination and those curious to know new aspects and sceneries of the ever-enchanting Alpine world.

The answers to the questionnaires our guests are kindly asked to fill at the end of their stay demonstrate that they highly appreciate the service provided by our discreet but kind and efficient residence staff. The Valle Verde campsite is situated at the foot of the Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino Nature Park, in one of the most beautiful river valleys in Trentino, formed by the Travignolo Torrent, famous for its meandering movement which has created splendid porphyritic walls that are also used for rock climbing. The family run campsite is a little peaceful paradise set in the beautiful landscape of the Dolomites.

It is perfect for those who are looking for a holiday that combines relaxation, nature, entertainment, sport and culture. The level grass pitches have an electricity and water supply. The campsite has high quality shower block facilities, washing machines and tumble dryers, a pizzeria, restaurant, a designated area with 5-a-side football, table tennis and green volleyball. Pozza di Fassa, the renowned summer and winter holiday resort, is located where Fassa Valley opens up into a wide green area, surrounded by the Catinaccio, Sella, Sassolungo, Marmolada, Monzoni and Latemar Dolomites.

Thanks to its beautiful position and its efficient network of uphill facilities, it is the ideal starting point for a number of unforgettable summer excursions. Apartment on the second floor with: living room with sofa bed and kitchen, 1 double room, 1 twin room with bunk beds, 1 bathroom, balcony and garden. German speaking. Our hotel was established in December in the centre of Canazei and since then the family management characterises the hospitality that enables you to enjoy a relaxing and peaceful holiday, surrounded by nature, in the midst of the spectacular scenery of the Fassa Dolomites, a landscape that allows you to forget the stresses of modern life.

Nice and sunny apartment made up of 2 bedrooms, 4 beds, in semi-detached house with garden. Independent entry. It lies in a quiet position near the sports area, the riding centre and the playground. Apartment situated in an impressive area, at a walking distance from the centre of the town, far from traffic and in a quiet atmosphere.

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Recently renewed, it is elegantly furnished in an alpine style. Spacious living area, small moderni kitchen with dispenser and a dishwasher. A matrimonial room with a LCD television and two single beds in another room. Toilet with tub and shower. In winter and summer: weekly, monthly or seasonal rentals. Situata in zona tranquilla nelle immediate vicinanze del centro sportivo mt. A recently renovated 3 floor building situated in the centre of the village. It offers a friendly ambience and is personally managed by its owners. It has 40 rooms all with private bathrooms, telephone, colour TV, safe-deposit box, hairdryer and balcony.

The "Hotel La Baita", 42 rooms, 10 apartments with hotel service, is placed in a terrace with the exciting view of the Dolomites, far meters from the center in a pleasant and relaxing place. We have also 10 mini suite in apartments near the hotel building, same price of the Hotel rooms. Free shuttle hourly with the center. Rooms with WC and shower, TV set, hairdryer, direct phone. Facilities: Restaurant, bar, disco, lounge room, TV room with megascreen, private parking area. Once a week typical dinner. Sport : Free entrance hotel swimming pool, Whirlpool.

Situated just in the centre of Canazei, the Denise Hotel to its guests a comfortable,relaxing and warm atmosphere. The position of the hotel allows its guests to achieve shops and main services easly as well as man y marvellous paths among nature. It is only mt. Come and visit us, you will be delighted by our friendly and familiar atmosphere and you will never forget our mountains. We are waiting for you soon. A vacation in complete freedom, a refined setting and facilities that can meet all your needs: the perfect combination for an unforgettable stay. Close to all amenities, next to the slopes, private heated ski lockers: top comforts for those who love to ski.

A wide range of apartments available with two washrooms, a whirlpool, three bedrooms, free wi-fi. Mini Club with games, activities, baby dance, a Non-Skiers Club that organizes outings and a snowshoe excursion with mulled wine. Puppat Giuseppe. The cable way to reach the slopes is just m. In the center of the Dolomiti di Brenta, at the gates of the Parco Naturale Adamello Brenta and Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio, in the summer is ideal for those who want to spend a holiday between mountain scenery of incomparable beauty. The question was: tradition or modernity?

Family Lorenz decided to renew the tradition. In Trentino-Alto Adige people is very attached to his land. They did not want to repeat another 4-stars hotel like many others existing in the Dolomites, with wood - sometimes fake - every where. It was preferred to use the classic materials of mountain - wood and stone - with the addition of steel and glass. The mixture thus obtained privileges the brightness, the elegance, the rational use of spaces. The position of the new hotel is ideal, just meters from the center of Vigo di Fassa and from the Rosengarten cableway, off road, in a sunny, quiet, and panoramic place.

Golf course at the near Carezza pass. Riz Vincenzo e Marcela. Gli appartamenti sono situati in zona molto tranquilla a 10 minuti dal centro paese, con vista sulle Dolomiti di Brenta. Arredati in maniera confortevole e completa, con parcheggio, terrazzo solarium in comune. Posto auto anche coperto. Appartamenti soleggiati, in posizione tranquilla, dieci minuti dal centro del paese, con grandi balconi e vista alle Dolomiti di Brenta e sul lago. Sono dotati di televisione e lavatrice. This refuge was built in the sixties in a clearing facing the Vette Feltrine at about 1, metres above sea level, where the meadows give way to forest.

The refuge which has been completely renovated and can be easily reached from Primiero is now run by a second generation of wardens. Open: From late March to 7 January Before leaving for your hike, always contact the manager to verify the actual opening of the mountain hut Walks An easy path takes you to the Rifugio Fonteghi in nearby Val Noana in 1 hour 20 minutes. Continuing along the forestry track through Val Giasinozza, you will get to the Baita Cogolate around 6 kilometres on undulating terrain.

In summer , the local CAI Italian Alpine Club restored and signposted several footpaths that start from the refuge, such as the no. Davarda Marta. The apartment, just refurbished, is situated in the attic, on the 3rd floor. It has got a double bedroom, kitchen with living room, bathroom, closet, two balconies. In our apartment you will find: a washing machine, TV, vacuum-cleaner, ironing board and iron, hairdryer, bikes-depot.

Free Wi-Fi connection on request. Prices include: heating, bed and bath linen. Also available for shorter stays. Felicetti Mariano. Ground-floor apartment, sorrounded by meadows, place in a quite but close to the center area. The apartment, recently renewed, is composed by two sleeping rooms one doble room and a queen-size bed room , windowed bathrooms and a kitchen with all comforts: owen, microwave, refrigetor, dishwasher.

Living area with sofa and tv. Independent heating. There are several public parking places nearby. Pets admitted. The Beverly Hotel is located in Pinzolo in a quiet and privileged position a few steps from the center and the Doss del Sabbion ski lifts. The informal atmosphere and a careful but discreet family management will contribute to make your stay pleasant.

Completely renovated in the summer, this hotel offers a warm, comfortable and functional ambience typical of mountain homes. It is personally managed by its owners. The restaurant offers a rich buffet breakfast, Trentino specialities, traditional dishes and a refined, attentive service. And moreover, a rich selection of the best Trentino wines, and a candlelit dinner once a week. At request evening in a mountain refuge and a torch-light excursion. The hotel has 49 comfortable, and furnished in rare wood rooms, all fitted with private bathrooms, satellite and pay tv colour TV, radio, hairdryer and most have balconies.

At extra cost: garage euro 9. Distance from the ski lifts: 50 metres from the cable car of Pradalago and the homonymous ski run, connected with the Skirama Dolomiti Brenta area. Ogni mattina serviamo una deliziosa colazione naturale, con prodotti accuratamente selezionati: burro e affettati da produttori locali, marmellate e frutta di stagione a km0, vari tipi di pane, dolce e salato, fatto in casa con lievito madre. Are you looking for your best accommodation in Madonna di Campiglio? Apartment on the ground floor with: living room with sofa bed and kitchen, 1 family room, 1 bathroom, garden; pets admitted.

Appartamento in residence sito in zona tranquilla di Cavalese, vicino ai prati e al campo sportivo. Il centro si raggiunge in circa 10 minuti a piedi. Le camere sono una matrimoniale e una doppia. Cucinino attrezzato con forno elettrico, frigorifero con vano ghiaccio, lavastoviglie. Bagno con vasca. L'appartamento dispone di ampio garage. Aree comuni con gli altri condomini: sala giochi e piscina all'aperto.

Agenzia Immobiliare Dolomiti. Davarda Ottavio. The Seppi Bed and Breakfast offers a friendly and familiar athmosphere and is settled in Cavalese, in a quiet and relaxing area closed to the Alpe Cermis cable lifts. During the winter season a free skibus service will connect you to all the ski resorts of the valley. Mariotta, Rita and Donatella turned kindness and care towards their guests into the main feature of Hotel Torretta.

Martino, between the ski areas of Alpe Lusia and Skicenter Latemar. Our family has been working in the accommodation field for three generations. We always give great value to the contact with our guests and to the high quality of the products we offer, paying particular attention to those of our TRENTINO region! For your business: a nice conference room.

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Cross country trails nearby. Suites with kitchen facilities and dining area available. Reading lounge, TV lounge, tavern, ski and boot room, private parking. Our guests can have access to the relax centre with swimming pool and sauna at Hotel Pangrazzi at 20 m and will have special discounts on restaurant service. Cassol Mariangela "Ciasa Tamion". We hope you will become soon our guests during your favourite season and we welcome you warmly from now. Completely restored in , our hotel offers on ideal place for a quiet holiday in a warm and friendly environment. Moreover our hotel offers a wide garden equipped with games for children and the new wellness centre with sauna, bio sauna, solarium and Whirpool.

Facilities for disabled, lift, parking, ski depot, and bikes available. For the skipass you can order and when you arrive it is in hotel. All the hotel is provided with an high-speed wireless internet connection. Hotel Milano in Andalo, a family run business, is situated in a central and at the same time quiet position, only meters from ski facilities.

In addition to this strategic position is the beautiful view of the Brenta Dolomites and Paganella mountain. For our guests: comfortable and new halls like the bar, the panoramic living room with corner for games, the quiet TVroom suitable also for reading and the luminous restaurant. Other facilities: lift, private parking, bowls, garden and ski- or bicycle-room. The restaurant offers a cuisine with buffet breakfast, 2 choices of menu with typical and traditional meals, vegetables buffet. All the rooms have private bathrooms with bath or shower, TV, telephone, hairdryer and most of them have a balcony.

Deville Mariano. Design Boutique Hotel in contemporary lifestyle, at mt from Spinale cableway and at mt from the centre. Great attention to details and hospitality, gourmet cuisine and Spa with swimming pool and salt cave, thalasso and phytocosmetics treatments. Garage and free internet. A jewel in the heart of Fassa Valley, entirely refurbished from the reception to the dining rooms and the bar with its typical "stube" in ladin style.

Partly made of wood, chosen and cut during the waning moon and built following the rules of bioarchitecture. The hotel is located at the foot of Ciampedie "God's field", an environment of incomparable beauty, excellent for families in winter and summer, with the Rosengarten, Lake Carezza, and a golf club surrounded by nature. For the fond of ski all areas are within reach: the famous Selaronda, Lusia, San Pellegrino, Pampeago. For your holiday full of vitality. The building consists of 3 floors in a hundred historic Cavalese year of construction , quiet but alive residential context Foodstores, Hospital, SkiBus stop, Alpe Cermis ski slopes, Library, Swimming pool, Palace of the magnificent community of fiemme, they are easily reached on foot in less than 5 minutes from the house.

Our lovely attic is on the second floor of a sunny house, close to the centre of Tonadico. The flat is modern, it has got two balconies and there is a a large garden where you can relax and sunbathe. The house is situated in a quiet position which is a perfect point of departure for walks and treks. Available both in winter and in summertime - least stay : a week. Hotel La Baita is conveniently located in the village centre and very closed to the ski-lifts. The hotel provides guets with cosy lounges for moments of relaxation.

All rooms with en-suite bathroom, direct dial telephone, colur satellite TV and balcony. The hotel also has a covered car park. The cuisine is exquisite and offers dishes that are success. E invite you to have relaxing days in our apartments in Peio Valley. Come to enjoy your holiday in our apartments located far away from the every day traffic but close to all facilities. All apartments have color tv, washing machinee, private parkin, balcony with panoramic view and a green area with barbecue.

All the comfort for a relaxing holiday. Parcheggio privato. Si accettano animali. Nello stesso edificio: edicola, bar e ristorante Anna "Osteria Tipica Trentina". Bio lago a metri, fermata trenino e autobus a 30 metri dall'edificio. Convenzione con il ristorante per la mezza pensione. Poco distante si possono trovare delle bellissime camminate, poco impegnative e molto rilassanti.

The RTA Alpin Dolomites is a new residence, built with the best materials and the most modern technologies so as to combine the tradition of mountain hospitality with modernity. Right at the centre of the ancient village of Commezzadura, surrounded by typical buildings and immersed in the green of nature, the apartments of the RTA Alpin Dolomites offer a modern environment which guarantees the most absolute comfort, all combined with the traditional mountain lifestyle. Let yourself be amazed, an oasis of unexpected comfort will overwhelm you! Our family run residence hotel in Val di Sole is characterised by the quality of our hospitality, where your stay will become an experience rich of emotions, in a natural paradise for you to discover!

The Penasa family looks after the residence, the details and the care of the guests with great passion and professionalism. All holiday apartments in our residence can satisfy your needs of relax, privacy, saving and autonomy. Lopes, Maria S. These horses were very important during the colonization of the island. Due to their very balanced proportions and correct gaits, and with an average withers height of 1. This population was officially recognized as the fourth Portuguese equine breed by the national authorities in January, The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the genetic diversity by means of microsatellite markers of this emerging horse breed.

The biometric data consisted of 28 body measurements and nine angles from 30 animals 11 sires, 19 dams. The Terceira Pony is now a recognized horse breed and is gaining in popularity amongst breeders and the younger riding classes. Relationships between body dimensions, body weight, age, gender, breed and echocardiographic dimensions in young endurance horses.

The heart's physiological adaptation to aerobic training leads to an increase in heart chamber size, and is referred to as the Athlete's heart. However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight BWT , body size, growth and in some species breed. There are few published data on the relationships between heart dimensions and growth or aerobic training in Arabian and Arabian-related endurance horses. Although there was no gender difference for LV dimensions, females had larger LA dimensions.

In terms of breed , Anglo-Arabians had the largest LV dimensions. Regression models indicated that the included explanatory factors had a weak influence on heart dimensions. Age, body dimensions, breed and gender showed the most consistent influence on LA dimensions, whereas BWT, breed and kilometres covered in competition showed the most consistent influence on LV dimensions.

We also observed small changes associated with the initiation of endurance training. Morphometric dimensions had a greater influence on LA dimensions, whereas LV dimensions were also influenced albeit weakly by parameters associated with exercise intensity. These results may therefore reflect early adaptations linked to the initiation of endurance training. The paternally inherited Y chromosome displays the population genetic history of males. While modern domestic horses Equus caballus exhibit abundant diversity within maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, no significant Y-chromosomal sequence diversity has been detected.

We used high throughput sequencing technology to identify the first polymorphic Y-chromosomal markers useful for tracing paternal lines. The nucleotide variability of the modern horse Y chromosome is extremely low, resulting in six haplotypes HT , all clearly distinct from the Przewalski horse E. The most widespread HT1 is ancestral and the other five haplotypes apparently arose on the background of HT1 by mutation or gene conversion after domestication. Two haplotypes HT2 and HT3 are widely distributed at high frequencies among modern European horse breeds.

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  • Using pedigree information, we trace the distribution of Y-haplotype diversity to particular founders. The pervasive introgression of Thoroughbred stallions during the last years to refine autochthonous breeds has strongly affected the distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in modern horse breeds and has led to the replacement of autochthonous Y chromosomes.

    Only a few northern European breeds bear unique variants at high frequencies or fixed within but not shared among breeds. Our Y-chromosomal data complement the well established mtDNA lineages and document the male side of the genetic history of modern horse breeds and breeding practices. Genetic conditions of joint Nordic genetic evaluations of lifetime competition performance in warmblood sport horses. Breeding programmes for warmblood sport horses are similar in the Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, and stallions of same origin are used.

    The aim was to investigate whether a joint Nordic genetic evaluation based on lifetime competition performance is feasible and beneficial for breeding competitive sport horses in the Nordic countries. Results for almost 45, horses in show jumping and 30, horses in dressage were available. Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performances in the different countries were estimated, and comparisons of accuracies of estimated breeding values EBVs and number of stallions with EBVs based on national or joint data were studied. The heritabilities ranged between 0.

    The genetic correlations between competition performances in the Nordic countries were estimated to 0. A joint Nordic genetic evaluation for sport horses is recommended. Evaluation of catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries in Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses at three Midwestern racetracks. To determine the incidence of and compare the types of catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries CMIs sustained in Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses during racing at 3 Midwestern racetracks from to Retrospective cohort study.

    Veterinary officials from 3 Midwestern racing jurisdictions provided injury reports for Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses that sustained CMIs which required euthanasia and the total number of race starts for each year. Past performance reports for each horse with a CMI were evaluated. The total number of race starts both breeds at the 3 racetracks from through was ,, with an overall incidence of 1.

    Incidences of CMIs among racetracks were similar. Of horses that sustained a CMI, the median age of Thoroughbreds at first race was 3 years, compared with a median age of 2 years for Quarter Horses. Differences identified between CMIs in Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses should allow veterinarians to focus on horses and anatomic regions of greatest risk of CMI during racing. Assessment of repeatability of a wireless, inertial sensor-based lameness evaluation system for horses. To determine repeatability of a wireless, inertial sensor-based lameness evaluation system in horses.

    Horses were from 2 to 29 years of age and of various breeds and lameness disposition. All horses were instrumented with a wireless, inertial sensor-based motion analysis system on the head accelerometer , pelvis midline croup region [accelerometer] , and right forelimb gyroscope before evaluation in 2 consecutive trials, approximately 5 minutes apart, as the horse was trotted in a straight line.

    Signal-processing algorithms generated overall trial asymmetry measures for vertical head and pelvic movement and stride-by-stride differences in head and pelvic maximum and minimum positions between right and left sides of each stride. Repeatability was determined, and trial difference was determined for groups of horses with various numbers of strides for which data were collected per trial.

    Inertial sensor-based measures of torso movement asymmetry were repeatable. Repeatability for measures of torso asymmetry for determination of hind limb lameness was slightly greater than that for forelimb lameness. Collecting large numbers of strides degraded stride-to-stride repeatability but did not degrade intertrial repeatability. The inertial sensor system used to measure asymmetry of head and pelvic movement as an aid in the detection and evaluation of lameness in horses trotting in a straight line was sufficiently repeatable to investigate for clinical use.

    Frequent occurrence of nonprimate hepacivirus infections in Thoroughbred breeding horses - A cross-sectional study for the occurrence of infections and potential risk factors. Recently, several new hepaciviruses have been identified of which the nonprimate hepacivirus NPHV - the closest relative to hepatitis C virus HCV discovered to date - is highly prevalent in horses.

    However, potential risk factors for the transmission of NPHV among horses remain still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of NPHV infections in Thoroughbreds in northern and western Germany and to identify potential risk factors associated with NPHV infections. Information regarding signalment, stud farm, breeding history and international transportation history of each horse were collected and evaluated.

    A frequent occurrence of NPHV was found in the study population with seropositive horses For horses that stayed in Germany no association between age and infection could be observed. In conclusion, the high occurrence of NPHV infections in breeding Thoroughbreds suggests circulating NPHV infections, endemic herds or persistent shedding in these animals and revealed the association of age and international transportation as risk factor for NPHV infections.

    A modified oral sugar test for evaluation of insulin and glucose dynamics in horses. The aim of the study was to compare the results of a modified OST between horses with equine metabolic syndrome EMS and healthy horses using a Scandinavian commercially available glucose syrup Dansukker glykossirap. In addition, the effect of breed and the repeatability of the test were evaluated. In the present study, clinically healthy horses 7 Shetland ponies, 8 Icelandic horses , 8 Standardbred horses and 20 horses of various breeds with EMS underwent the modified OST test.

    Coefficient of variation for repeated tests was The results of the present study demonstrate that the modified OST appears to be a practical and useful diagnostic tool for assessment of insulin dysregulation in the horse. However, to make it possible to establish the most appropriate sampling interval and to evaluate the accuracy of the modified OST, further studies in horses with a variable degree of insulin resistance are needed, where results from the modified OST are compared with quantitative measurements for IS.

    Background Although the physiological effects of immunocontraceptive treatment with porcine zona pellucida PZP have been well studied, little is known about PZP's effects on the scheduling of reproductive cycling. Recent behavioral research has suggested that recipients of PZP extend the receptive breeding period into what is normally the non- breeding season. Gestation lasts approximately 11—12 months in wild horses , placing conception at approximately Since the contraception program began in January , foaling has occurred over a significantly broader range than it had before the contraception program.

    In addition, current recipients of PZP foaled later in the year than did prior recipient and non-recipient mares. Females receiving more consecutive PZP applications gave birth later in the season than did females receiving fewer applications. In addition, reproductive cycling into the fall months could have long-term effects on foal survivorship. Managers should consider these factors before enacting immunocontraceptive programs in new. Cross-validation analysis for genetic evaluation models for ranking in endurance horses. Ranking trait was used as a selection criterion for competition horses to estimate racing performance.

    In the literature the most common approaches to estimate breeding values are the linear or threshold statistical models. However, recent studies have shown that a Thurstonian approach was able to fix the race effect competitive level of the horses that participate in the same race , thus suggesting a better prediction accuracy of breeding values for ranking trait. The aim of this study was to compare the predictability of linear, threshold and Thurstonian approaches for genetic evaluation of ranking in endurance horses. For this purpose, eight genetic models were used for each approach with different combinations of random effects: rider, rider- horse interaction and environmental permanent effect.

    All genetic models included gender, age and race as systematic effects. The prediction ability of the models for racing performance was evaluated using a cross-validation approach. The average correlation between real and predicted performances across genetic models was around 0. Although no significant differences were found between models within approaches, the best genetic model included: the rider and rider- horse random effects for threshold, only rider and environmental permanent effects for linear approach and all random effects for Thurstonian approach.

    The absolute correlations of predicted breeding values among models were higher between threshold and Thurstonian: 0. For rank correlations these figures were 0. The lower values were those between linear and threshold approaches 0. Pedigree analysis in the Austrian Noriker draught horse : genetic diversity and the impact of breeding for coat colour on population structure. The pedigree of the current Austrian Noriker draught horse population comprising horses was traced back to the animals considered as founders of this breed. In total, the number of founders was , the maximum pedigree length was 31 generations, with an average of Average inbreeding coefficients within the breeding regions ranged from 4.

    Other measures of genetic variability like the effective number of founders, ancestors and founder genomes revealed a slightly different genetic background of the subpopulations. Average co-ancestries between and within breeding areas showed that the Salzburg population may be considered as the nucleus or original stock whereas all other subpopulations showed high relationship to horses from Salzburg. The target of draught horse breeding in the 21st century does not meet the breeding concept of maximizing genetic gains any more. Stabilizing selection takes place.

    In this study, we show that demographic factors as well as structure given by different coat colours helped to maintain genetic diversity in this endangered horse breed. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses. Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida.

    Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

    Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse. Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period 16th and 17th centuries. We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

    Elevated urinary excretion of free pyridinoline in Friesian horses suggests a breed -specific increase in collagen degradation. Friesian horses are known for their high inbreeding rate resulting in several genetic diseases such as hydrocephaly and dwarfism. This last decade, several studies focused on two other presumed hereditary traits in Friesian horses : megaoesophagus and aortic rupture.

    The pathogenesis of these diseases remains obscure but an important role of collagen has been hypothesized. The purpose of this study was to examine possible breed -related differences in collagen catabolism. The latter might, at least in part, explain the predisposition of Friesians to connective tissue disorders.

    Presence of the glycogen synthase 1 GYS1 mutation causing type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy in continental European draught horse breeds. The purpose of this study was to determine which continental European draught horse breeds harbour a mutation in the glycogen synthase 1 gene GYS1 that is known to be responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy in quarter horses and North American draught horses. Of a non-random selection of continental European draught horses belonging to 13 breeds , 62 per cent of tested were found to carry the mutant allele.

    The mutation was identified in animals from each of the breeds examined. In the breeds in which more than 15 animals were available for testing, the highest percentages of GYS1-positive horses were found in the Belgian trekpaard 92 per cent; 35 of 38 horses tested , Comtois 80 per cent; 70 of 88 , Netherlands trekpaard 74 per cent; 17 of 23 , Rheinisch-Deutsches kaltblut 68 per cent; 30 of 44 and Breton 64 per cent; 32 of An integration of external information for foreign stallions into the Belgian genetic evaluation for jumping horses.

    The aim of this study was to test the integration of external information, i. The Belgian model is a bivariate repeatability Best Linear Unbiased Prediction animal model only based on Belgian performances, while Belgian breeders import horses from neighbouring countries. Hence, use of external information is needed as prior to achieve more accurate EBV. Pedigree and performance data contained horses and performances, respectively. After conversion to the Belgian trait, external information of 98 French and 67 Dutch stallions was integrated into the Belgian evaluation. External information was partially to totally equivalent to 4 years of contemporary horses ' performances or to all the stallions' own performances.

    All these results showed the interest to integrate external information into the Belgian evaluation. Genomic evaluation of regional dairy cattle breeds in single- breed and multibreed contexts. An important prerequisite for high prediction accuracy in genomic prediction is the availability of a large training population, which allows accurate marker effect estimation.

    This requirement is not fulfilled in case of regional breeds with a limited number of breeding animals. We assessed the efficiency of the current French routine genomic evaluation procedure in four regional breeds Abondance, Tarentaise, French Simmental and Vosgienne as well as the potential benefits when the training populations consisting of males and females of these breeds are merged to form a multibreed training population. Inflation of genomic evaluation of young candidates was also reduced.

    Our results indicate that genomic selection can be effective in regional breeds as well. Here, we provide empirical evidence proving that genetic distance between breeds is only one of the factors affecting the efficiency of multibreed genomic evaluation. Evaluation and management of the recumbent adult horse. Evaluation and management of recumbent horses are challenging. Familiarity with disorders that can result in recumbency will facilitate more rapid diagnosis and more appropriate formulation of a prognosis.

    With rapid and appropriate diagnosis, appropriate treatment can be pursued and, with good nursing care, can result in a favorable outcome. Epidermolysis bullosa EB is a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases characterised by skin blistering and fragility. EB has been described in several species, like cattle, sheep, dogs, cats and horses where the mutation, a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of the LAMC2 gene, was very recently identified in Belgian horses as the mutation responsible for JEB.

    In this study, the same mutation was found to be totally associated with the JEB phenotype in two French draft horse breeds , Trait Breton and Trait Comtois. This result provides breeders a molecular test to better manage their breeding strategies by genetic counselling. The myostatin MSTN gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse Equus caballus MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element SINE insertion of bp within the promoter of the gene.

    The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites TFBSs generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing gallop and trot and other purposes.

    The SINE insertion was genotyped in horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic. Severe renal hemorrhage caused by pyelonephritis in 7 horses : clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation. Case records of 7 horses diagnosed with pyelonephritis were reviewed to determine common features that might aid in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this disease.

    All 7 horses had been admitted for evaluation of hematuria. During cystoscopy of 5 horses , hemorrhage was observed from one or both ureters. Renal biopsy of 1 horse , laboratory analysis of ureteral discharge of 2 horses , and renal ultrasonography of all horses indicated that pyelonephritis was the cause of hemorrhage. Sonographic renal changes included decreased length, increased echogenicity, abnormal outline, loss of corticomedullary distinction, pyelectasia, and focal hypoechoic or hyperechoic cortical defects.

    Renal hemorrhage in all horses eventually resolved but recurred in 4 of 5 horses that were followed long-term. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4A. Figure 4B. Figure 4C. Figure 5A. Figure 5B. Figure 5C. Figure 6A. Figure 6B. Figure 7. Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses.

    The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses , and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers' exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed.

    The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects. In the last 30 years the amount of white markings in the population of Franches-Montagnes horses FM has more than doubled which has led to some controversy, particularly in respect to the health of the horses. The objective of this study was to investigate if the coat colour and white markings have an impact on selected skin diseases and hoof horn abnormalities. To this purpose three-year-old FM were subjected to a clinical examination during the field and station tests organized by the FM breeding association.

    In Abnormalities of the hoof horn were found in The prevalence of pastern dermatitis was 2. Our study shows that FM horses with more pronounced white markings have an increased risk to suffer from pastern dermatitis, sunburns and hoof horn abnormalities. The coat colour was not associated with skin diseases. Association of leptospiral seroreactivity and breed with uveitis and blindness in horses : cases Recurrent uveitis, a leading cause of blindness in horses , often develops as a sequela to systemic leptospirosis.

    Odds-ratio analysis revealed that seropositive horses were Odds-ratio analysis revealed that seropositive horses with uveitis were 4. This field study therefore confirmed a strong positive relationship between uveitis and leptospiral seroreactivity in horses. Furthermore, the data suggested that seropositive horses with uveitis were at increased risk of losing vision, compared with that in seronegative horses with uveitis, and that Appaloosas were at increased risk of developing uveitis and associated blindness, compared with that in non-Appaloosas. Alternatives to conventional evaluation of rideability in horse performance tests: suitability of rein tension and behavioural parameters.

    Rideability, i. However, at present rideability is evaluated rather subjectively in breeding horse performance tests. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role horse behaviour as well as degree and quality of rein tension might play in judges' evaluation of horses ' rideability. During these rides, rein tension was measured continuously, and frequency of behaviour patterns such as head-tossing, tail swishing, and snorting was recorded. Rein tension parameters showed reasonable repeatabilities within horse -rider pairs e. According to mixed model analysis, rideability scores dropped all P horse welfare, potentially, measurements of rein tension along with behaviour observations assessing the quality of rein contact e.

    To 1 assess upper airway function by videoendoscopy in horses performing poorly after laryngoplasty and 2 establish whether dynamic collapse of the left arytenoid can be predicted by the degree of resting postsurgical abduction. Case series. Horses with video recordings of resting and exercising upper airway endoscopy were included and postsurgical abduction categorized.

    Horses with immediate postoperative endoscopy recordings were also evaluated and postsurgical abduction categorized. Relationships between resting postsurgical abduction and historical information with exercising endoscopic findings were examined. Dynamic collapse of the left arytenoid cartilage was probable in horses with no postsurgical abduction and could not be predicted in horses with grade 3 or 4 postsurgical abduction.

    Respiratory noise was associated with upper airway obstruction but was not specific for arytenoid collapse. Most horses with a left vocal fold had billowing of the fold during exercise. Other forms of dynamic collapse involved the right vocal fold, aryepiglottic folds, corniculate process of left arytenoid cartilage, dorsal displacement of soft palate, and pharyngeal collapse.

    Complex obstructions were observed in most examinations and in all horses with exercising collapse of the left arytenoid cartilage. There was no relationship between exercising collapse of the left arytenoid cartilage and grade 3 or 4 postsurgical abduction but was likely in horses with no abduction. Work organization and occupational health: perspectives from Latinos employed on crop and horse breeding farms. Agriculture is hazardous and increasingly dependent on Latino workers, a vulnerable population.

    However, little research has studied how work organization influences Latino farmworker health. Crop workers experienced more physical demands, work-related and environmental stressors, and musculoskeletal and ill-health symptoms. A majority of both groups cited exposure to toxic chemicals, a minority of whom received training on their use.

    The Heavy Horses - Murder Ballads & Other Love Songs

    Leisure riding horses : research topics versus the needs of stakeholders. Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding.

    However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities.

    The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders.

    Multi-trait, multi- breed conception rate evaluations. Heifer and cow conception rates HCR and CCR were evaluated with multi-trait, multi- breed models including crossbred cows instead of the previous single-trait, single- breed models. Fertility traits benefit from multi-trait processing because of high genetic correlations and many missing observation Genetic monitoring of horses in the Czech Republic: A large-scale study with a focus on the Czech autochthonous breeds.

    We propose the first comprehensive in-depth study monitoring horses in the Czech Republic. We scanned 9, animals from 44 populations for 17 equine STRs. Other equids analysed involved Equus przewalskii and Equus asinus. The total of different alleles were detected, with the mean number of Interpopulation differences explained approximately nine per cent of the total genetic diversity.

    Reynold's genetic distance ranged from 0. Close genetic proximity between the Silesian Noriker and Noriker was revealed. The Moravian Warmblood was better differentiated and more distant from the Czech Warmblood than the Kinsky Horse and retained the original genes of the old Austro-Hungarian tribes. A high gene flow level and a lack of genetic structure were found in the seven studied populations.

    A NeighborNet dendrogram revealed breeds not classified in their groups according to the nomenclature the Friesian, Hafling and Merens. Evaluation of gastrointestinal activity patterns in healthy horses using B mode and Doppler ultrasonography. Abstract Healthy adult horses were examined by using transabdominal ultrasonography to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate activity of the jejunum, cecum, and colon with B mode and Doppler techniques.

    Doppler ultrasound was used to assess jejunal peristaltic activity. Examinations were performed on multiple occasions under imposed colic evaluation conditions, including fasting, nasogastric intubation, and xylazine sedation. In fasted horses , jejunal visibility was increased and jejunal, cecal, and colonic activity was decreased.

    The stomach was displaced ventrally and was visualized ventral to the costochondral junction. Xylazine sedation in fed horses had minimal effects; however, in fasted horses , xylazine significantly decreased jejunal and cecal activity. Nasogastric intubation in fasted horses had no observable effects on activity, but moved the stomach dorsally. B mode and Doppler jejunal activity were strongly correlated. Prior feeding and sedation status need to be considered when interpreting the results of equine abdominal ultrasound examinations. Doppler techniques may be useful for assessing jejunal activity.

    Methods to evaluate the quality of frozen-thawed stallion semen are still needed, particularly those considering the sperm function. The present study evaluated sperm motility, membrane and acrosome integrity and the capacitation status of frozen-thawed spermatozoa from seven Tori and six Estonian breed stallions by way of computer assisted sperm analysis CASA , a triple fluorophore stain combination and Merocyanine , respectively, the latter ones using flow cytometry. Two ejaculates from each stallion were cryopreserved using the Hannover method in 0.

    Two straws per ejaculate per stallion were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30s. Results as least square means were as follows: the motility of frozen-thawed semen was After Percoll separation The same parameters for Estonian stallions were There were no statistically significant differences between breeds or ejaculates within breed for any evaluated parameter. We conclude that triple staining and flow cytometry are valuable techniques to evaluate frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa, and that no differences in quality of frozen semen were registered between Tori and Estonian breed stallions, allowing implementation of this technology in the Estonian horse population.

    Evaluation of behaviour in stabled draught horse foals fed diets with two protein levels. The present work is aimed at evaluating the behaviour of Italian Heavy Draught Horse IHDH foals reared in semi-covered stables and fed two isoenergetic total mixed rations with different dietary protein levels The study was prompted by the restrictions for nitrate emissions in farms of the European Nitrate Directive. One suggested solution is to reduce dietary protein while maintaining normal performance and welfare, but there is a lack of literature in studies of horses.

    The percentage of the daily time spent in each behavioural category and single behaviours was analysed via a single traits GLM including S, D and their interaction. This result, together with the findings of a companion study showing no changes in growth performances of foals, showed that a reduction of CP in foal diet is reconcilable with the maintenance of performance and welfare. In other breeds , the distribution of lactate transport activity is unknown. The amount of transporters was compared with TB performance markers. High lactate transport activity was present in all 3 racing breeds , with the greatest proportion in the TB, followed by the racing FH, then SB.

    There was no significant statistical correlation found between lactate transporters in RBC membrane and markers of racing performance in the TB. While susceptibility to hypersensitive reactions is a common problem amongst humans and animals alike, the population structure of certain animal species and breeds provides a more advantageous route to better understanding the biology underpinning these conditions.

    The current study uses Exmoor ponies, a highly inbred breed of horse known to frequently suffer from insect bite hypersensitivity, to identify genomic regions associated with a type I and type IV hypersensitive reaction. Quality control resulted in , SNPs and individuals being tested for association.

    Genome-wide association analyses were performed using the GenABEL package in R and resulted in the identification of two regions of interest on Chromosome 8. The first region contained the most significant SNP identified, which was located in an intron of the DCC netrin 1 receptor gene. Although additional studies will be needed to validate the importance of these regions in horses and the relevance of these regions in other species, the knowledge gained from the current study has the potential to be a step forward in unraveling the complex nature of hypersensitive reactions.

    An evaluation of pulse oximeters in dogs, cats and horses. Evaluation of five pulse oximeters in dogs, cats and horses with sensors placed at five sites and hemoglobin saturation at three plateaus. Prospective randomized multispecies experimental trial. Five healthy dogs, cats and horses. Animals were anesthetized and instrumented with ECG leads and arterial catheters.

    Arterial samples were drawn concurrently and hemoglobin saturation was measured with a co-oximeter. Accuracy of saturation measurements was calculated as the root mean squared difference RMSD , a composite of bias and precision, for each model tested in each species. Accuracy varied widely. The Pearson correlation coefficients for the tongue, toe, ear, lip and prepuce or vulva were 0. The Pearson correlation coefficients for the tongue, nostril, ear, lip and prepuce or vulva were 0.

    The correlation coefficients for the tongue, rear paw, ear, lip and front paw were 0. Evaluation of clinical and electrocardiographic changes during the euthanasia of horses. The objective of this prospective field study was to investigate whether commonly used criteria for clinical death occurred at the same time as cardiac death, as determined by electrocardiography. Specific ECG changes during euthanasia were also studied. Twenty-nine horses were euthanized with pentobarbital at two different dose rates and 15 of the 29 horses also received detomidine hydrochloride for sedation.

    ECG was recorded prior to and during euthanasia. Time to collapse, cessation of reflexes, heart sounds and asystole were recorded. Differences between groups and ECG changes were evaluated using analysis of variance. Clinical determination of death occurred before cardiac death P horses took longer to collapse than unsedated horses P horses P horses. Importantly, the results show that the clinical definition of death occurred significantly earlier than cardiac death defined as asystole , which indicates that the clinical declaration of death in horses could be premature compared to that used in humans.

    Effect of rider experience and evaluator expertise on subjective grading of lameness in sound and unsound sports horses under saddle. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether rider experience influences the assessment and grading of lameness in horses based on under-saddle gait analysis. Thirteen adult sports horses in active training were included in the study.

    After a baseline lameness and neurologic examination by the principal investigators, horses were videotaped while being ridden by an experienced and a less experienced rider. A 3-minute video was made for each horse and rider and 26 videos were randomly ordered and compiled on a DVD. In a model accounting for the expertise of the evaluator , there was no difference in overall lameness scores between experienced and less experienced riders. This result was consistent for both sound and unsound horses. The overall lameness scores reported by specialists and students, however, differed significantly.

    The lameness score reported by the study participants while the horse was ridden was significantly associated with the subjective baseline lameness assessment reported by the principal investigators for the same limb when the horse was not under saddle. Additional work is necessary to determine whether riders with even lower skill levels would further alter the balance and motion pattern of the horse and have more influence on subjective grading of lameness. Risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome in horses.

    To determine risk factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome NCS in horses. Retrospective case-control study. Medical records of horses that had an endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway performed between January and December were reviewed. Signalment, housing management, and season of evaluation were recorded and reviewed for each horse. The associations between clinical signs and endoscopic findings were evaluated by the use of a prospective logistic model that included a Bayesian method for inference. Results- Breed and sex had no significant effect on the risk of having NCS.

    The risk that a horse had NCS increased significantly with age. Exclusive housing in a stall was protective against the development of NCS. In addition, the amount of pasture turnout had a dose-related effect, with exclusive pasture turnout positively correlated with increased risk of developing NCS, compared with a mixture of pasture turnout and stall confinement.

    Horses were significantly more likely to be evaluated because of clinical signs of the syndrome during the warm months of the year.

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    The risk factors for NCS identified in this study may support chronic environmental exposure to an irritant or infectious agent as the cause of NCS. Information gained from this study should be useful for investigating the cause of NCS. Lipinski, Monika J. The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world.

    Genetic data were derived from over individuals, representing seventeen random bred populations from five continents and twenty-two breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity, however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in horse meat from supermarkets in France and performance evaluation of two serological tests.

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    In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T.

    The serological tests lacked sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between them, and there was no correlation with the presence of T. However, to avoid any risk of toxoplasmosis, thorough cooking of horse meat is recommended. Aroussi et al. Comparison of clinical examinations of back disorders and humans' evaluation of back pain in riding school horses. Questionnaires are a common tool to assess people's opinion on a large scale or to sound them out about their subjective views.

    The caretakers' opinion about animals' "personality" has been used in many studies. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the owners' subjective evaluation was effective to detect back disorders. Back disorders have been shown to have a high prevalence in working horses. Out of these horses , 59 were subjected to manual palpation of the spine and were subjected to sEMG examination all along the spine. The results showed that subjective caretaker-reported evaluation via questionnaire survey was not efficient to detect back disorders: only 19 horses While most caretakers under- evaluated back disorders, a few "over- evaluated " it more horses reported as affected than found via clinical evaluations.

    Horses were less prone to present back disorders when under the care of these "over-attentive" caretakers. This study showed that back pain is difficult to evaluate , even for professionals, and that subjective evaluations using a questionnaire is not valid in this case. The results also highlighted the real need for observational training behaviours, postures outside and during riding. Sedation with detomidine and acepromazine influences the endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal function in horses.

    Endoscopy of the upper airways of horses is used as a diagnostic tool and at purchase examinations. On some occasions it is necessary to use sedation during the procedure and it is often speculated that the result of the examination might be influenced due to the muscle-relaxing properties of the most commonly used sedatives. To evaluate the effect of detomidine 0. Forty-two apparently normal horses underwent endoscopic examination of the upper airways on 3 different occasions, under the influence of 3 different treatments: no sedation control , sedation with detomidine and sedation with acepromazine.

    All examinations were performed with a minimum of one week apart. The study was performed as an observer-blind cross-over study. The ability to abduct maximally the right arytenoid cartilage was not altered. Sedating apparently healthy horses with detomidine or acepromazine significantly impairs these horses ' ability to abduct fully the left but not the right arytenoid cartilage. This resulted in different diagnosis with respect to RLN when comparing sedation to no sedation.

    Since the ability to abduct the right arytenoid cartilage fully is not altered by sedation, it is speculated that horses changing from normal to abnormal laryngeal function when sedated, might be horses in an early stage of the disease. To confirm or reject these speculations, further studies are needed. Until then sedation during endoscopy should be used with care. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the supraspinous ligament in a series of ridden and unridden horses and horses with unrelated back pathology.

    Background Injury to the supraspinous ligament SSL is reported to cause back pain in the horse. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic examination. Results The supraspinous ligament of all horses was imaged between T thoracic 6-T18 and ultrasonographic appearance. There was an average of 2. The average number of abnormalities in unridden horses was 4. It was clear that ultrasonographically diagnosed SSL desmitis cannot be considered as prima facie evidence of clinically significant disease and further evidence is required for a definitive diagnosis.

    Qualitative evaluation of selective tests for detection of Neospora hughesi antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of experimentally infected horses. Neospora hughesi is a newly recognized protozoan pathogen in horses that causes a myeloencephalitis similar to Sarcocystis neurona. There are no validated serologic tests using the gold standard sera that are currently available to detect specific N.

    The objectives of the present study were to establish a bank of gold standard equine sera through experimental infections with N. Seven horses were inoculated with N. The horses were monitored, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected repeatedly over a 4-mo period. With the sera, 4 different serologic techniques were evaluated.

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the results showed that the N. Cerebrospinal fluid in all but I infected horse had very low N. A histamine inhalation challenge HIC procedure was developed to assess hyperreactive states in horses. Following clinical evaluation , percutaneous lung biopsies were performed on nine light breed mares aged 6 to 15 years.

    Five horses , with normal small airways, were classified as group A and four subjects with small airway disease SAD lesions formed group B. Pulmonary mechanics parameters were monitored following an aerosol of 0. Tidal volume VT and airflow V values were obtained with a pneumotachograph. Transpulmonary pressure delta Ppl was measured by the esophageal balloon catheter method. Dynamic compliance Cdyn , total pulmonary resistance RL , end expiratory work of breathing EEW and respiratory rate f were calculated by a pulmonary mechanics computer.

    One horse in clinical remission from SAD, but with a high biopsy score group B , and one clinically normal horse belonging to group A showed marked hyperreactivity as shown by increases in EEW, maximum change in delta Ppl and RL and decreases in Cdyn. These results suggest that the HIC described can be used as a method to investigate airway hyperreactivity and SAD in horses.

    Images Fig. The evaluation of scour at bridges throughout the State of Missouri has been ongoing since , and most of these evaluations have used one-dimensional hydraulic analysis and application of conventional scour depth equations. Occasionally, the conditions of a site dictate that a more thorough hydraulic assessment is required.

    The model was calibrated using flood-flow information collected during the flood. A flood profile along the Illinois side of the Mississippi River on August 5, , with a corresponding measured discharge of , cubic feet per second was used to calibrate the model. Two additional flood-flow simulations were run: the flood peak that occurred on August 6, , with a maximum discharge of 1,, cubic feet per second, and the discharge that caused impending overtopping of the road embankment in the vicinity of the Horse Island Chute bridge, with a discharge of , cubic feet per second impendent discharge.

    Hydraulic flow parameters obtained from the simulations were applied to scour depth equations to determine general contraction and local pier and abutment scour depths at the Horse Island Chute bridge. The measured discharge of , cubic feet per second resulted in The maximum discharge of 1,, cubic feet per second resulted in Equine keratomycosis in Switzerland: a retrospective evaluation of 35 horses January August Keratomycosis is a severe disease in horses.

    Geographical differences in fungi causing keratomycosis and susceptibility of the organisms to antifungal drugs exist but few previous publications on this disease originate from Europe. To retrospectively compare the clinical data of 36 eyes with keratomycosis, diagnosed in 35 horses between January and August at the Vetsuisse Faculty of Switzerland.

    Case history, season, prior treatment, clinical appearance, surgical and medical treatment, treatment duration, and globe survival were evaluated.

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