Other sources, such as notarial deeds, judicial and fiscal documents, are needed to complement the registration data. A summary of progress. At the moment, the collection and computerization of the whole body of numerical data are completed and the analysis is under way J. Biraben and N. The computerized data base represents, for the Catholic sample, rural parishes and urban 'parishes' some hospitals and convents being included , and for the Protestant sample, rural and 75 urban churches.
A further 20 parishes were excluded because their registration series contained too many gaps, or was too short, or did not fit the studied time frame The nominal part of the survey is still at various stages of progress they are summarized in the table below. As we have said, the sample is not yet fully defined and the list of communes is incomplete.
Family re- constitution is still ongoing or not even begun in some of them. And finally, very few demographic studies have so far been carried out in France on this period, whether in the framework of this survey see the table or beyond. The present survey stemmed naturally from the one elaborated and directed by Louis Henry, in which J.
Biraben participated from the outset. He established a list of source materials from the information communicated by archivists in response to a questionnaire sent out by INED. He also contributed to elaborating the stratified sample and thereby came to deal with the problems of territorial changes'37'.
Presentation, progress. Development of a method for correcting random fluctuations in a sample that dwindles. This is the founder publication: it presents the survey's objectives, the representativeness of the early parish registers, the sample, and the first results population growth in Saint-Denis and Aubervilliers. A progress report, with a detailed presentation of the sample for Paris and its vicinity.
The proceedings of this conference are forthcoming. First results of the numerical part of the survey.
Louis Roussel (sociologue) — Wikipédia
A social and economic history of the Caux country and a reconstruction of its population from to A comparison with England,. Paris, PUF, Three centuries of population growth birth and death trends from the union of two sets of survey data, the provisional results of the J. Biraben survey and those of Louis Henry. Tome 2, p. Rennes, AFL, , p. Regional history and reconstitution of population growth from a regional sub-sample selected in both surveys Henry and Biraben.
Reconstruction of fertility dynamics and of the model of territorial regulation. Econometric modelling is used to adjust for deficiencies in parish registration series. Que sais-je? New edition of the work published in , updated on the basis of the preliminary survey results. The section on population growth is based in part on available data from the Biraben survey. Some studies based on the nominal part of the survey. Guy Yves , , Saint-Savin. Application of family reconstitution to ancient registration data and analysis of some population parameters nuptiality, fertility, child mortality.
Study of fertility and child mortality from an unbroken series of parish records. Family reconstitution in four neighbouring villages and exploitation of tallage rolls, as indicators of social inequalities, to complement the demographic analysis. Adaptation of family reconstitution to the study of a sixteenth century population and. INED, 44 p. Benedict Ph. Bernard G. Blayo Y. Cabourdin G. Cordoliani A. Samaran dir. Fleury M. Guy Y , , Saint-Savin. Higounet-Nadal A. Houdaille J. Lachiver M. Lepetit B.
Moriceau J. Mours S. Ozouf-Marignier M. Blayo, A.
Formulaire de recherche
Population: An English Selection, 11, , W For French historians, this is the period that begins with the end of the Middle Ages and ends with the French Revolution The urban classification was based on the census population and defined three categories: small towns fewer than 10, , medium towns 10, to 50, and large towns more than 50, Biraben kept the urban classification and territorial divisions adopted by Louis Henry in The territory covered by the survey corresponds to the town boundaries at the census. Whenever the urban history was available, the successive boundary changes have been noted.
In Bayonne, Bordeaux and Metz, such communities were tolerated on the principle of a fictitious conversion births being registered by the parish priest until To be complete, this panorama of the different religions should include some anabaptists living in Alsace and Lorraine and some Muslims in Marseilles. These scattered populations did not, however, hold registers and so escape observation Bernard, There was a very relative tolerance until the Edict of Fontainebleau 15 October finally put an end to Calvinism's legal existence.
The ordinance of Blois focused on marriages to fight against clandestine unions, at the request of the nobility. That of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, or the Louis Code , specified and standardized the contents of the records and dictated that the registers, or a copy of the. The Edict of Saint-Germain regulated the reformed religion and the registration of vital events; the following year, Protestant clergymen were made authorized registry officers.
PROGRAMMES D'ÉTUDES OFFERTS À L'UL
The Edicts of Nantes and Fontainebleau did not apply in Alsace because of special arrangements under the Treaty of Westphalia. The first ones do not begin until in Metz, in Bordeaux, in Bayonne, in Avignon and in Alsace. There are, however, some circumcision registers prior to these Bordeaux: ; Avignon: Until the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century, three godparents are the norm: two godfathers and a godmother for boys, two godmothers and a godfather for girls. The replacement of the Julian calendar by the Gregorian one meant ten days were lost in the year from 10 to 19 December in the Kingdom, from 22 to 31 December in the Flanders, Artois and Savoie; this transition occurred much later in Alsace, in Cordoliani, Blanchet Biraben and Blanchet, , A.
Blum Biraben and Blum, and N. Bonneuil Biraben and Bonneuil, ; Bonneuil, , Biraben and D. Blanchet showed that, for the eighteenth century, population trends in the parishes which had kept the earliest registers were not significantly different from those observed in the aggregate parish sample. It was therefore possible to fit this sample to that of Louis Henry. The sample was stratified by category of commune: 1 in rural communes were selected a total of and 1 record in 5 was extracted; 1 small town in 20 a total of 15 and 1 record in 25; 1 medium town in 10 8 in all and 1 record in 50, and all the large towns except Paris dealt with separately , with 1 record in Blayo, Several tens of researchers, assistants, teachers, students and genealogists have participated.
The forthcoming publication of the survey findings will cite in full each collaborator and his or her contribution. Restrictions of funding and time led him to reduce this sample to 8 medium towns and 15 small towns in addition to the 9 large towns and only the period was covered.
Biraben has since extended the extraction of numerical and. The method of data extraction set down by Louis Henry was respected, but in some cases there were problems of consistency of the sampling rate with the size of the town before Louis Henry's suggestion that the registers for a same year should be summed was difficult to handle and has rarely been done. There were, however, a few differences between the two lists, owing to the fact that J. Les statistiques canadiennes sont connues pour.
Allen et F. Angers; enfin et surtout elles sont, probablement, les seules au monde qui donnent depuis des renseignements sur les qualifications non seulement dans l'industrie mais en dehors de l'industrie. Les premiers recensements canadiens connus. C'est cette remarque qui incitera M. Les travaux de P. Angers et P. Sources de l'ensemble du tableau III : P.
Here, we can see the effects of the transformations of labour marketplaces observed since the s and s, particularly in manufacturing, whereby jobs have moved out of city centres in favour of locations on the outskirts of cities Girard Similarly, while the number of manufacturing jobs has decreased to a lesser extent in these FUAs than elsewhere, this is essentially because of the significant increases recorded in these periurban communities.
The economic difficulties of declining FUAs can in part be explained by their industrial pasts.
- Empire of the Necromancers: Frankenstein and the Vampire Countess (French Horror Book 3)!
- Summary: High Noon: Review and Analysis of Southwicks Book!
- Population and Societies.
- Lives of the Artists?
For example, while the industrial sector is shrinking overall in France, with a However, despite this slowdown in the industrial sector, the proportion of manufacturing jobs is still higher in these cities than in growing FUAs. For example, in cities with halted decline, the industrial sector still accounts for twice as many jobs as in growing FUAs Jobs in sectors such as construction and public works, transport, logistics, maintenance and repairs, and farming are also overrepresented, whereas sectors like distribution and services are less dynamic. In the case of shrinking FUAs, another factor also comes into play, namely a significant decrease in the number of individuals aged 20 to In these areas, the rate of natural increase dropped from 5.
In , some 3 out of every 10 people in work in shrinking cities were manual workers, compared to just 2 in 10 in other FUAs. The fact that more women go into higher education and are more employable in the tertiary sector, on the one hand, and the fact that men are more strongly associated with the industrial component of the labour market, on the other, probably explain how these situations arise. In this respect, the inadequacy of university structures — or, more specifically, the mismatch between the courses on offer and local demand — could be contributing both to the lack of attractiveness of declining cities and the transformation of their demographic structures.
In FUAs in halted decline, which in stood out most from the other area profiles, the sex ratio in the 15—24 age group was very similar, in , to ratios observed in growing FUAs. Accordingly, we can put forward the hypothesis that this gendered dimension can also be found in the process of resurgent demographic growth, as, since , women in the youngest age groups, who previously tended to leave these cities, are more frequently choosing to stay. Today, it seems increasingly difficult to separate the analysis of migratory and natural population changes when seeking to understand the trajectories of French shrinking cities.
While the ageing of the population could certainly create new jobs in local services, particularly involving the provision of personal care Cornuau and Devetter , the limited development of the tertiary sector in shrinking cities means that the same will probably not be true with regard to business services, which are broadly underrepresented in these areas, owing to the paucity of higher metropolitan functions and the scarcity of jobs in innovative sectors with high growth potential.
As for the gendered differentiation of mobility patterns, this is something that risks creating imbalances on the matrimonial market, which could in turn lead to a drop in birth rates, reinforcing the demographic decline of these cities. You must be registered before participating in this forum. Please enter your personal identifier. If you have not yet registered, you must register. Follow the comments:. Site made with Spip2 Contact us Legal notice.
Tags: deindustrialization migration population shrinking cities urban decline urban shrinkage degrowth shrinkage demographics demography fertility France.
Related Démographie et société (Sociologie) (French Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved