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Not only is inornatus used of loosely hanging hair [Ovid Met. Further, inornatus makes a better antithesis with operosus sed in mea Photide non operosus, sed inornatus ornatus addebat gratiam. Apuleius often sets up an interplay of stylistic notions with concrete notions of ornament hair-style ; see Finkelpearl , 62—63 who, however, reads inordinatus. Callebat , , who cites inordinatus ornatus as an example of oxymoron combined with antithesis.

Moreover, the natural movement of their hair is only one aspect of its beauty. As Edgar Wind has finely noted,14 the three Graces, whom Vasari named from left to right Pleasure, Chastity and Beauty, alle- gorize contemporary Neoplatonic ideals by means of their demeanors, dresses, and hairdos: Pleasure leans forward, wears a richly draped and flow- ing robe and very luxuriant hair, a part of which is loosely bound in serpen- tine knots; Chastity stands discreetly and wears a suitably plain dress and neatly plaited hair; Beauty, who Neoplatonically represents the synthesis and the culmination of the triad, wears hair which is neither too loose nor too tight.

Xenophon and Heliodorus combine hair and clothes into dress. Lucius, on the other hand, in his ek- phrasis at 2,8—9 claims that hair is the only true dress for a woman. A woman might wish to take off her clothes to show her beauty, but should she remove her hair, not even as Venus would she appeal to Vulcan. Lucius is fantasizing about a naked woman adorned only by her hair. Photis will turn out to be just such a woman. The dominant note in her movement is again undulation.

She is wearing only a tunic, and Lucius, as it were, sees through it. His eye is entirely captured by the sinuous rotations and shaking of her limbs, hips, and spine; undabat, the last word in the description, sums up the scene. The effect on Lucius is so strongly erotic that in the end he imagines Photis stirring the pot no longer with her hands, as at the beginning 2,7,3 vasculum floridis palmulis rotabat in circulum , but with her buttocks: quam pulchre … ollulam istam cum natibus intorques 2,7,5.

For now Lucius is not suggesting full-blown sex, but just a little appetizer of the main course which he would taste by dipping his finger into it. Apuleius must have smiled at the use of vasculum and courses of food to indicate ever more serious sexual levels but then laughed out loud at post asellum diaria non sumo. To Petronius asellus is a person who like an ass has an uncommonly large sexual appetite: Priapea 52,9—10; Juvenal 9, When Quartilla mentions asellus, she is probably referring to a recent cou- pling with Ascyltus who is described Petron.

At Met. Clitophon and Melite, who are sailing to Ephesus after their wedding, disagree on the suitability of a ship for sex. The stability of the wedding-bed signifies the stability of mar- riage. Melite, in contrast, argues that a ship is the ideal setting for sex, be- cause Aphrodite was born from the sea, and she even finds features of the ship to be emblems of marriage. The Ship of Love of Lucius and Photis is about to sail on rolling waves.

Photis herself is a creature of the sea, a Venus just rising from the waves quae marinos fluctus subit. The adjective itself has an ob- scene meaning when applied to the membrum virile; see Adams , Jacobelli , Tav. II provides photographs from Pompei of just such a pendula Venus or oscillatio. The references to ————— 22 For the repetition, see van Mal-Maeder , Like Pho- tis, she is shaking her limbs 3,21,4 membra tremulo succussu quatit in fluctuating movements 3,21,5 fluctuantibus.

He had already identified these two appetites when he had begged Photis to intro- duce him into the secret world of magic. He swears, quite uncommonly, by her hair, and more precisely per dulcem istum capilli tui nodulum, quo meum vinxisti spiritum 3,23,2; see in summum verticem nodus astrinxerat, 2,9,7. The third woman who has the power to render Lucius defixus is Isis: after he recovers human shape, he stands stupore nimio defixus 11,14,1.

In addition to leaving him spellbound, it has the long-lasting effect of alienating him from his home. Similarly Lucius finds it very difficult to break the bonds of his longing for the goddess and go back home 11,24 — where he ————— 26 Odyssey 10, See Montiglio , 58— The meaning of puerile corollarium is not clear, but doubt- lessly Photis is the one who takes the initiative.

On the magic power of knots, see also Unnik , Like Photis, Isis is characterized by images of waviness. As she appears to Lucius in a dream, the first feature that he admires is her hair: iam primum crines … 11,3,4. Isis carries a boat-shaped object 11,4 , and she herself highlights her function as the protector of sail- ors when she orders Lucius to join the holy procession which opens the sail- ing season 11,5—6; see 11, The initiation stands in a relationship of continuity with, rather than of opposition to, his erotic passion for Photis leading to his dis- covery of magic.

As we have seen, Photis is compared to Venus at 2,17,1. It is not by chance that Venus makes a glam- orous appearance in the pantomime scene at 10,32,3, shortly before Isis ap- pears to Lucius. Probably not. It does not mean that Apuleius has renounced his passion for hair. Instead, we would like to suggest that the emphasis on baldness in the final scene indicates that the Metamorphoses is over.

A narrative that has sprawled ivy-like from story to story, as luxuriant and undulating as the hair which Lucius so much admires, is cut off at the same time as his own hair. Apuleius calls them castimonia 11,6,7; 11,19,3. Callebat, L. Englert, J.

Finkelpearl, E. Metamorphosis of Language in Apuleius. Griffiths, J. Gross, W. Apuleius Metamorphoses, 2 vols. Hofmann, J. Lateinische Syntax und Stilistik, Munich: Beck. Horsfall, N. Hunink, V. Amsterdam: Gieben. Apuleius of Madauros. Florida, Edited with a Commentary, Amsterdam: Gieben. Hilton, J.

Oxford: OUP, — Jacobelli, L. Mal-Maeder, D. McClure, L. Courtesans at Table, New York: Routledge. McLaughlin, T. Montiglio, S. Murgatroyd, P. Nethercut, W. Nisbet, R. Apuleius Madaurensis. Reardon, B. Robertson, D. Schlam, C. Hijmans et al. Sullivan, J. Petronius Satyricon, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Unnik, W. Walsh, P. Wind, E. Zimmerman M. Cupid and Psyche.

Michael Mathiesen

He did not, however, write this down, or in- deed any other part of his teaching. Nor did Socrates, a man himself more perfect than any other and to whose wisdom the god Apollo himself testified Soc. Once, then, Socrates had left mankind Plat. In the Seventh Letter, Plato if it is him is much concerned with the shortcomings of Dionysios. It is out of the process of scrutiny and malice-free question-and-answer that the spark of understanding and intuition about each problem arises b. The opening of the novel may be regarded as being in dia- logue form: she highlights the use of at to begin apparently in mid- conversation, the use of the second person pronoun in the phrase ego tibi and of the second-person demonstrative isto, and the apparent intrusion of a dia- logue partner with quis ille de Jong , — She then considers how Platonic dialogues sometimes begin in mid-conversation and how the Symposium in particular provides a model for the repetition of a story al- ready told, just as Aristomenes will repeat a tale for Lucius 1,2 and, we may add, Lucius is rehearsing his own story, the previously existing story of the Ass, for the Apuleian reader.

It is maybe a larger mat- ter, however, that the Metamorphoses is initially marked as dialogue. The dialogue form, as was observed long ago by Leo see de Jong , and in modern times by Jim Tatum , 26 , is reminiscent of the manner of some Roman satire, which in turn has its own links to the serio- comic communication strategy of some Hellenistic philosophers, notably Menippos.

He too challenges the reader by bringing a world to life, registering its words and conflicts, sometimes expressly in dialogue form and always with an awareness of other, discordant, voices. Culture and values, whether moral or aesthetic, philosophical or rhetorical, attract dialogic presentation. Narrative structure and prologue It is not only the dialogic opening of the Metamorphoses but its whole struc- ture that leads us back to Plato and to the Symposium.

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The method of frame and insertion4 in Apuleius has elicited comment over the years, whether on the basis of meaningfulness or of entertaining episodicity. However, on the middle ground, perhaps few would have diffi- culty with the idea that there is sufficient unity for the novel to function well for readers and there is a sense of theme and variations. In Merkelbach lan- guage,5 we might say, Den irdischen Erlebnissen des Lucius und der Charite entsprechen die mythischen der Psyche.

Es ist ein einziges Grundthema, das uns in ver- schiedenen Variationen entgegentritt. What other texts suggested this structure? The ————— 3 See Arrowsmith Dowden As for the Vorlage, we may argue over the extent to which it pos- sessed inserted tales. Perhaps he was aware of some Greek novels, depending on how you date the Metamorphoses and the novels, but it is unlikely they provided him with this method.

However, though there are many in- stances of subordinate narration in Antonius Diogenes, they seem to result from re-ordering the plot, telling what is not yet known, rather than from insertion of separate stories. The clearest and most sustained precedent in the immediate literary tradi- tion is the Milesiae of Sisenna or the Greek original of Aristeides. As first light approached, the enticing and lovely persuasion of your un- restrained narratives utterly gladdened me, with the result that I almost thought I was Aristeides being enchanted by the Milesian stories logoi.

This is a discus- sion of two varieties of love, male and female, perhaps somehow connected with the similar discussion at the end of Book 2 of the novel of Achilles Tatius, maybe an older contemporary of Apuleius. And both present a sense of dialogue, together with the internal narration of stories.

The Amores also displays striking intertextuality with Platonic dialogues and above all with the Symposium. Thematically the Amores is united by its discussion of the theme of eros and it reflects Plato throughout, constantly mentioning Socrates quite apart from anything else. It also engages with the model provided by the Symposium of a sequence of logoi trying to cast light on the nature of eros. The novel of Apuleius, philosophus Platonicus, be- longs in the same network — dialogue, internal narration, Milesiaka, certain works of Plato. He has picked up the Vorlage, and increased its scale and ambition with considerably more inserted stories, in the manner of Aristei- des-Sisenna.

We cannot know how the Milesian Tales were organised, but Apuleius has certainly used them to produce a sequence of related stories, many of them on the theme of love or passion, many of them I-narrated. And in so doing his structure takes on overtones of the Symposium. It would make sense if he had seen the Amores first.

Bowie , 60—61, though I continue to doubt the late dating of the Metamorphoses. But the discourse, logos or sermo, will be in a particular register — the Milesius, not the satiric or the Menippeus. This is, structurally, the Sym- posium metamorphosed into the manner of Sisenna-Aristeides. This sermo not only invites the reader into dialogue but requires chal- lenge by the reader. As de Jong has observed , , the opening of the Symposium plunges us into the prospect of repeating a story in the same way as Met.

Apollodoros, then, is to give a better account, the one in front of the reader. It is however, itself, an indirect ac- count. The narratology of this opening of the Symposium poses as many questions about the authenticity and reliability of a narration as does Met. After Winkler it has been harder to be- lieve in true narratives , , but on the other hand Plato probably believed there was something beyond aporia, though he preferred to suggest rather than dictate, as we have seen. A Platonic Metamorphoses would not be a techne, but a dialogue to help the reader towards their own insights — not a huge distance from the world of Jack Winkler.

Socrates and symposium The Socrates of the Symposium is in a sense present at the outset of our novel. We find this one at evening in the baths vespera oriente ad balneas processeram. Lo and behold, I caught sight of my companion Socrates! This beginning has strange echoes of the ending of the Symposium d. And if we now look at the early part of the Symposium a 17 we find Socrates once again having washed i. Echoes are of course not exclusively of the Sympo- sium: he bathes at Phaedo a, and he covers his face — 1,6 faciem suam ————— 17 Fick , Aristo- menes bathes him and takes him to a hotel, where he sleeps a while.

This is a sort of symposium where the narrative action of the novel — stories and enchanting the ears, as announced in the opening two lines of the novel — takes place in microcosm. Not all Apuleian stories are set at dinner-parties, but some are, particularly in the earlier part of the novel, which we shall see is the more Symposium-based. This is the setting for the story about the Chaldaean astrologer Diophanes. At 2,19 Lucius is at the banquet of Byrrhena, the scene for the story of Thelyphron.

At 4,7—8, the robbers bathe and preen themselves, when suddenly there is the arrival of further brigands who also bathe, join the banquet and then tell their stories. Stephen Harrison has identified other possible echoes of the Symposium too in 4,8— The same motif is of course more visibly reprised in the arrival of Habinnas the monumental mason in the Cena Trimalchionis, a text which is modelled relatively closely on the Symposium. A fragment of the Metiochos and Parthenope novel, ————— 18 Thibau , ; van der Paardt , 82; Fick , See also Cameron The episodes embrace a number of issues, of which love or lust, the subject of the narratives in the Symposium, is an important one; even tales of magic are made to revolve around love.

There are more themes, obviously, than just love in these books: witchcraft, religion, the pursuit of wealth and fame as goals, failed individuals and failed societies, individual choice and social compulsion, and an overall theme of direction and loss of direction, seen as a dependency on the untrustworthi- ness of Fortune 1,6; 11, Cupid and Psyche, like the discourse of Diotime in the Symposium is set in a different, more mythic, register and they both deal with the Soul and Love.

The story of Charite and Tlepolemus, the link between the two halves of the book culminates in a barbarism that the wild and uncontrolled behaviour of Charite 4,24—27 , little remarked upon, has foreshadowed. There is a metamorphosis not only of the tone of the narrative, but also of its structure. Now we do not learn even the names of those who tell these stories in authorial mode. This happens quite abruptly from the end of ————— lead up to, the aspirations of the Cupid and Psyche story. This also relates to attempts cf. Riefstahl , 95— to convert the Metamorphoses into an Entwicklungsroman.

Maaike Zimmerman has drawn attention to the key and disproportion- ate role of Venus at this turning point in the narrative, commenting — with her customary mixture of conciseness, acuity and energy — on 10,31 as fol- lows In this passage, there are some verbal references back to Fotis and Psy- che as impersonations of Venus, and to Venus herself in the Amor and Psyche episode … It is significant that this last Venus figure, who kalei- doscopically combines all earlier Venus figures in the Met.

She captures well the way in which threads are being pulled together and the figure of Venus, assembled from the preceding parts of the novel and evi- dently pandemic, is collapsed. Cupid and Psyche itself is beginning to look imperfect and limited: it is reaching the end of its shelf-life. The novel is now ready for the ass to escape, presently to reach a higher and purer relationship with the feminine, that with Isis in the eleventh book. The second sequence has reached a new climax, its own equivalent to the Cupid and Psyche story.

Krabbe , Ultimately a triadic relationship, which Peirce would have recognised, is at issue. The first member of the triad is the interpreter, the fictional person who is seeking to enter into the relationship. The third member of the triad is the object, that to which the subject is seeking to relate. The real Socrates of the Symposium seeks to un- derstand Eros; Diotime is the authentic mediator against whom others should be tested, is this one a Diotime, or this one?

But she is concerned in turn to interpret Eros as a mediator. The reader is the first term, the interpreter, in a new triad, for whom the mediator is the text. Divine Eros Socrates Diotime Reader Text The false Socrates, dead and in Thessaly, selects a false Diotime, whose objects are lust and a power that can only be demonstrated by overturning of the natural order 1,8. The reader, Aristomenes, who chooses that story is drawn into it and destroyed by it — just as Lucius will become a fabula in- credunda, and Thelyphron will turn out to be a player not just a watcher. In the light of this triadic structure, we can also begin to see an important difference between Cupid and Psyche and the Eleventh Book.

It has never been wholly clear how these two sit together if they are seriously meant. Cupid and Psyche is obviously Platonic and philosophical, whereas Book 11 is obviously religious. If you date the Metamorphoses early, as Rohde did and I do , then you might hold that the religious mentality of the Metamorphoses was juvenile and the phi- losophica reveal a mature Apuleius.

Rohde believed this and it is of a piece with 19th-century rationalism. Alternatively, you might follow the theory that Moreschini sketched, with a late Metamorphoses and an implicit recognition that philosophy was no longer enough for the later Apuleius. Both theories, however, come to grief when one sees in the Metamorphoses that both views, platonic and religious, are presented, though if we follow Moreschini , 30 , the address of the priest 11,15 amounts to a statement that phi- losophy doctrina?

Cupid and Psyche, it seems, was an interim stage in the novel.

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Nam, ut idem Plato ait, nullus deus miscetur hominibus Apuleius, Soc. Froidefond , n. Jupiter does not play that role and Venus is a hostile and predominantly pan- demic force,33 not yet metamorphosed into Isis. It is this limitation of Cupid and Psyche that demands the problematisation of Venus at the end of Book Only then can the next story at our banquet be told, the story of another divine woman, Isis.

Book 11 is the myth that closes the novel, though it is unclear how it should be nuanced and whether it can be completely understood. Lucius achieves breakthrough to divinity itself and a number of the themes of the novel e. At the same time, the preludes continue, as the novel finds difficulty in ending is Isis herself an intermediary to something further?

Thus the novel, in terms of its two sequences, is dynamic, even progressive. Its first, Symposium, sequence reaches whatever statement is inherent in Cupid and Psyche, but that statement, though modelled on the Symposium itself, has only reached the intermediary, demonic, level. It is the second sequence that leads to a new statement, maybe in turn only provisional, of the divine. For at 11,30 Osiris himself, the ultimate god according to Lucius and according to Plutarch, appears in a dream to Lucius, in surprisingly little detail but detail that may matter.

He is greatest and more important than great gods deum magnorum potior — such as Cupid? He does not metamorphose into another person unlike Lucius and therefore specifically exhibits the stabil- ity of the Platonic god who does not appear sometimes in one form, some- times in another Republic d.

We should perhaps take Osiris more seriously: he does allow the novel to close, and to close on a note of success. At the end, we leave the novel in the same way as we entered it, in mid- stream, as we see a Lucius going about his business timelessly in the imper- fect tense , but now with shaven head reproducing the baldness of Socra- tes? Our last picture is of Aristodemos accompanying Socrates as he always does, and of Socrates going to the Ly- ————— 33 See the detailed discussion of Keulen , esp. Life goes on, whatever we have learnt. Bibliography Arrowsmith, W. Bodel, J. Hofmann ed.

Bowie, E. Cameron, A. Hof- mann ed. Tatum ed. Harrison, M. Frangoulidis edd. Fick, N. Froidefond, C. Plutarque, Oeuvres morales, t. V, 2e partie, Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Apuleius, a Latin sophist, Oxford. Hijmans, B. Holzberg, N. Jong, I. Keulen, W. Krabbe, J. Mason, H. Haase ed. Merkelbach, R. Apuleio e il platonismo, Firenze: Olschi. Morgan, J. Paardt, R. Panayotakis, S. Riefstahl, H. The Metamorphoses of Apuleius, London: Duckworth. Scobie, A. Tatum, J. Thibau, R. Winkler, J. Whitmarsh, T. Nauta ed. She and I are both agreed that the most recent critical edition of the Metamorphoses Martos , though admirable in many ways, follows the text of the chief eleventh-century manuscript F too closely;1 in this piece I want to present a number of conjectural solutions to the problems clearly presented by the readings of F.

Though F is good for its time, it has plenty of the minor flaws which medieval copyists import into classical texts, and there is often a case for improving its readings by conjec- ture. My thanks to the editors for helpful comments. I am most grateful to Michael Winterbot- tom for helpful discussion of the textual issues in this paper. In all these cases I would agree with the supplement. GCA ad loc. Robertson conjectured mortem denique illam lentam de fame, but violence seems appropriate here; Hildebrand read mortem uiolentam ac nefantem; ————— 10 F in fact has neclegese, rightly corrected by most later MSS and all editors.

Finally, for an element of control we may compare the large number of simi- lar phrases where the connective in such pairings is indubitably transmitted, which show that such syndetic pairs especially alliterative or assonant ones are a frequent feature of Apuleian style in the Metamorphoses: cf. The contrast with the preced- ing sic, which Van der Paardt rightly identifies as important here, is also better expressed by nunc than tunc. The reading iter inuium is defended by GCA ad loc. TLL 6,1,,67ff. Cura is problematic here see GCA ad loc.

For a similar phrase cf. Bibliography Adams, J. Bernhard, M.

Fee Download Vibrations and Waves, by A.P. French

Review of J. Hofman, J. Martos, Juan. Paardt, van der, R. Reinhardt, T. Winterbottom, M. Martos, Apuleyo. To a certain extent, turning words into flesh is a feature of all fiction; if strictly formalized, it becomes a description of alle- gory. However, I wish to argue that in the Metamorphoses, the move is suf- ficiently specialized to become a distinct narrative device, while being broader and more varied than mere allegory. A very special instance of this kind of narrative instantiation is the story about how Lucius got his white horse back, because there the device itself is explicitly described and the description made part of the tale.

The episode takes place in the mysterious eleventh book, after the narrator and protago- nist Lucius has already changed his asinine shape back to a human one and become a devotee of the goddess Isis. Learning from a prophetic dream that ————— 1 A reading informed by much the same spirit as the present paper is Panayotakis There, Panayotakis argues that the three dangerous encounters awaiting Psyche in the underworld — a lame ass with his lame driver, a dead man, and some old crones — func- tion as abstract notions of Old Age, and of Mortality turned into flesh.

Since the like- ness between that article and the present one lies in the overall conception rather than in any details, I generally state my sympathetic outlook here. Sic anxius et in prouentum prospe- riorem attonitus templi matutinas apertiones opperiebar. When I asked the meaning of this, he replied that they had been sent to me as my belongings from Thessaly, and that there had also arrived from the same region a slave of mine by the name of Can- didus. On awakening I pondered this vision long and repeatedly, wonder- ing what it meant, especially as I was convinced that I had never had a slave of that name.

But whatever the prophetic dream portended, I thought that in any case this offering of belongings gave promise of un- doubted gain. So I was on tenterhooks, beguiled by this prospect of greater profit as I awaited the morning opening of the temple. The priest made his rounds of the altars posi- tioned there, performing the liturgy with the customary prayers, and pouring from a sacred vessel the libation-water obtained from the sanc- tuary of the goddess.

With the ceremony duly completed, the initiates greeted the dawning of the day, and loudly proclaimed the hour of Prime. Then suddenly the slaves whom I had left at Hypata, when Photis had involved me in those notorious wanderings, appeared on the scene. I suppose that they had heard the stories about me; they also brought back that horse of mine which had been sold to various owners, but which they had recovered after recognizing the mark on its back. This caused me to marvel more than anything else at the perspicacity of my dream, for quite apart from getting confirmation of its promise of profit, by its mention of a slave Candidus it had restored to me my white horse.

The new believer eagerly interprets the gifts offered as a promise of gain, but is at a loss when it comes to understanding the words about Candidus, since on the straightforward reading they have no referent. The move from words to novelistic reality here takes the form of a riddle. As ancient prophecies go, this is certainly nothing un- usual, and what is important for the present argument is rather the narrative pattern: the words arrive on the scene first, and the thing is made to follow — as Lucius puts it, the cleverness of the dream sollertia somni has given him his horse back reddidisset.

While it is common for form to imitate theme in a literary work, what we have here seems to be an inversion of that phenomenon. A remarkable trait about this particular instance is that both ingredients — the verbal expression and its thematic materialization — are spelled out, and so is the riddle-like relation between them: argumento serui Candidi equum mihi reddidisset ————— 3 Unless otherwise stated, all English translations of the Metamorphoses are from Walsh The horse still stands for a way of travelling and by extension of living comfortably and in style, a privilege which the protagonist does not appreci- ate until he loses it and has to walk on his own feet, as that ignoble parallel to the horse, an ass.

It is surely important that the time between his prophetic dream and the re appearance of the equus candidus 11,20,3— 5 is filled with the description of a new dawn as well as the stately Isiac celebration of it — and the incipient day is even greeted with the opening of gleaming white curtains, uelis candentibus! Contra Sandy , , but without much argument. See Keulen , 94, for further details and literature. See Frangoulidis for a pertinent discussion of images of death and rebirth in the Metamorphoses, including Lucius renatus. For instance, a curious fish-trampling scene in the first book 1,24—5 gains meaning when regarded as a veiled allusion to the Egyptian religious ceremony which entailed a priest ritually trampling fishes in a public sacred place.

In the ritual the fish symbolizes the enemy in one variety specifically the enemy of the local king , who is thus rendered pow- erless and extinguished. Scholarship first pointed out the connection between the ritual and the Apuleian passage in , and the interpretation has since been further developed. Winkler , p. As that part of his self is thus never warmed by the sun of the divine principle of the universe, it remains cold as the fish in the allegorical scene in the market- place.

It may well be read without knowledge of the religious rite behind it — and yet the event narrated has that strange, dream-like quality which invites the reader to in- terpret it as Lucius will later try to interpret his actual dream about Can- didus. So it has been noticed, for instance, that a metaphorical expression in the Pseudo- Lucianic Onos11 is revitalized by being converted into a narrative event in ————— 8 Derchain — Hubaux , This is especially so since in the logic of magic, what is done to an object is also done to the person to whom that object belongs or with whom it is otherwise associated.

A lucid summary of this issue, and the scholarly controversies around it, is found in Harrison , — I know how to butcher him, skin him, and chop him, and the sweetest part is getting hold of his very innards and heart. No doubt she wished to observe the proprieties of a sacrifice. This literary magic is even more explicit in the example of the inflated wineskins, mentioned above. I am grateful for his permission to quote it. Sullivan, printed in B.

Reardon ed. In the Metamorphoses, the windy wine- skins are actually made human through a piece of misfiring magic, and this stunning transmogrification, of some importance to the plot, is only gradu- ally revealed to the hero, as well as to the reader. Lucius promises to do his best 2, Returning to the house where he is staying, he sees what he takes to be three robbers shamelessly trying to break in through the front door, draws his sword, and kills all of them 2, The next day he is unexpectedly arrested and taken to stand trial for murder in front of all the people in Hypata — at first the trial is due in the forum, then, in order to accommodate the big audience, removed to the thea- tre.

Despite his protests, Lucius is made to uncover the evidence, and — they turn out to be sacks instead of men: Nam cadauera illa iugulatorum hominum erant tres utres inflati uari- isque secti foraminibus et, ut uespertinum proelium meum recordabar, his locis hiantes quibus latrones illos uulneraueram. I with the commentary of Hordern , ad loc. The gaping holes appeared where, as I cast my mind back to the battle of the previous night, I recalled hav- ing wounded those brigands. Instead of a homicida manslayer the poor man has been an utricida slayer of wineskins , as it is put somewhat later on 3,18,7.

The tragic court pro- cess is sharply reversed as, at this point, everyone except Lucius bursts out in violent laughter. The whole false trial turns out to have been a practical joke, played out as a celebration of deus Risus on his festive day. As the mistress worked her magic on the hair, its owners, the sacks made of the goat skins, came to her door 3,15— It should not be considered too fanciful, I believe, to say that what the witch does as a char- acter is paralleled by Apuleius at a higher level, as the creator of a fictional universe.

The world of the Metamorphoses is, albeit temporarily, altered to mimic a rhetorical figure. We can take a further step and say that reality is accommodated to un- derline the idea of the metaphor. A metaphorical term, by its nature, offers cognitive elucidation of that to which it is applied,16 and here the elucidation is lived. Unlike the case of the dream of Candidus discussed above, where both the sign and its enactment are spelled out in the text, here, before the Isiac conversion, only the enactment is. If someone, himself blame- less, barks at one who deserves censure?

There are a number of similarities between the court episodes in Horace and Apuleius respectively. Gwyn Griffiths , 47—51; Frangoulidis , esp. For a discussion of the importance of the Risus episode to the whole novel, see Frangoulidis As they defend themselves, both heroes object that they have only attacked those who deserved it Hor. The characters who undergo this sequence are important, and close, to their respective authors: the satirical persona in one case, the narra- tor-protagonist in the other.

The actual laughter is described as very violent by both authors, dissolving the laughers and the whole situation.

In Horace we read Soluentur risu tabulae, tu missus abibis; Apuleius says that the peo- ple of Hypata risu cachinnabili diffluebant, and Milo is depicted as risu maximo dissolutum, Met. Laughter, a token of the humour that is one of the main ingredients in the Metamorphoses, is made a deity after the pattern of Eros or Aphrodite in the Greek novel of love and adventure.

A more mystical interpreta- tion is offered in Fick-Michel , — NOM EN OM EN 79 This deity will favourably and affectionately accompany everywhere the person who arouses and enacts his laughter, and he will never allow you to grieve in mind, but will implant continual joy on your countenance with his sunny elegance. As becomes his genre, Apuleius has turned the Horatian passage into a three- dimensional episode, with laughter not only an indication of a positive audi- ence reaction this he inherited from Horace , but also a full-blown deity acting in his novelistic universe.

Deus Risus accompanies Lucius — and the reader — through the first ten books of the Metamorphoses, until they are handed over to grander, serious gods in the eleventh. To stay with the theme of laughter and humour, let us turn to a tongue- in-cheek version of the kind of narrative instantiation under discussion: the inverted proverb s in 9, The scene occurs when Lucius the ass and the gardener who is his master at the moment are in hiding.

In the meantime, the soldier has brought along some fellow soldiers, as well as the magistrates, and circled in on the house in question. Here the soldiers and magistrates are, for a spell, unable to find their antagonist, and the quarrel between them and the owner of the house is growing violent. At this point Lucius, true to his fatal curios- ity, sticks out his neck to see what is happening: Qua contentione et clamoso strepitu cognito, curiosus alioquin et inqui- eti procacitate praeditus asinus, dum obliquata ceruice per quandam fenestrulam quidnam sibi uellet tumultus ille prospicere gestio, unus e commilitonibus casu fortuito conlimatis oculis ad umbram meam cunctos testatur incoram.

It so chanced that one of the soldiers caught a glimpse of my shadow, and called all of them to witness it on the spot. Unde etiam de prospectu et umbra asini natum est frequens prouerbium. Onos 45 They all laughed uncontrollably at the informer from upstairs, who had turned in his own master. Sullivan Thus the twist of staging an already existing expression, and then, backwards as it were, claiming to have presented its origin, was already there in the Vorlage.

VI,2 , where it refers to lawsuits brought on ridiculous grounds.

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Van Thiel vol. His style of argument is very accessible, and it is certainly a more attractive mode of persuasion than dreary analyses of how capitalism actually works. Show More Show Less. Any Condition Any Condition. See all No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best Selling in Nonfiction See all. Unfreedom of The Press by Mark R.

Levin , Hardcover Blue Book of Gun Values 40 40th Edition. Sabatine Ringbound, Revised Edition, The Book of Enoch by Enoch , Paperback Save on Nonfiction Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days. Linda McCartney. You may also like. Social Sciences Education Textbooks. Social Sciences Textbooks. If you own a power extruder, you can extrude simple to complex forms, pug clay, and make slabs. Your extruder can be the starting point for wonderfully inventive and creative works of art. And the possibilities increase immensely when the extruder is combined with wheel throwing and hand building.

The 12 step-by-step projects include napkin rings, vases, umbrella stands, wind coolers, planters, platters, sculpture, and more. Art teacher loves this book By A Customer If you have been waiting for the best book on ceramic extrusion, it is available now Ceramic Extruding by Jean and Tom Latka successfully answers the question of, "Why are all of those clay extruders rusting on potter's walls?

This book acts as a magical muse for artists by showing over quality photos of beautiful work by some of the finest international contemporary artists working in the medium today. This book's focus is on the recent emergence of extruded ceramic art as dynamic and surprisingly varied form of creative expression. Our brick houses and their tile roofs are made from extruded clay. We shower on extruded tiles, send our smoke and fumes up extruded chimneys and our waste down extruded sewers.

From the round O's in your breakfast cereal to the pasta on your dinner plate, extruded objects occupy every conceivable nook and cranny of our lives". Beginning with bricks, Ceramic Extruding details the history of the extruder then demonstrates the ease, as well as the necessity, of using an extruder in one's pottery. The book is organized in a logical manner in order to guide the reader by employing numerous step-by-step instructional methods. Essentially, Ceramic Extruding is a how-to book and the projects gradually become more advanced.

Apart from the photos, another subject that distinguishes this book from other books on the market is its comprehensive theory of extrusion and was the only chapter I had to read twice. It is a difficult subject. The authors give detailed information on why extruders act in the manner in which they do. For instance, I didn't know that clay moves faster down the center of the barrel than clay closer to the walls. This information is useful for artists who want to design their own dies.

Educators take note: As a teacher, I know how it feels to give students a blank canvas and ask them to be creative. In contrast Ceramic Extruding shows how to create a limitless supply of foundation material from the extruder for the student. The book truly has an international cast of artists, photos of ceramics spanning from Australia to Inge Pedersen in Norway.

I became aware of several renowned European ceramicists. Jean and Tom Latka have an excellent body of work apart from each other, but their collaborative work shines superior. Everyone has been waiting for the next thing in clay. The quick release system makes these extruders user friendly.

The expansion box is larger than most other machines, and in the case of Flying Hybrid, it out performs slab machines by making slabs faster and more superior. Oddly enough, slab machines compress the clay from the center of the roller to the edges. This creates an unstable molecular structure and cracks result. The clay is evenly compressed in the Vertical Flying Hybrid.

An 18"x24" slab is the result when an 8" cylindrical shape 18" long is extruded and sliced lengthwise. I would like to sum up with a quote from Michael Cohen. As for the wheel, once you learn how to use it, one question ultimately remains: What are you going to make? After mastering centrifugal force and friction, perhaps it's now time to use gravity and inertia to make a personal statement. Like throwing, it only looks easy. The extruder's contribution to the studio can be as profound and influential as the potters wheel a slab for the imagination to leap off from".

Jean Latka Two thumbs up! Burn the other extruder books; this is the only one you will ever need. I am an college art teacher at U. If you have been waiting for the best book on ceramic extrusion, it is available now Ceramic Extruding by Jean and Tom Latka successfully answers the question of, "Why are all of those clay extruders rusting on potter's walls? This book's focus is on the recent emergence of extruded ceramic art as a dynamic and surprisingly varied form of creative expression.

The book truly has an international cast of artists, photos of ceramics spanning from Australia to Inge Pedersen in Norway Burn the other extruder books, this is the only one you will ever need. More than color photographs illustrate the easy-to-follow, step-by-step instructions, as well as display possibilities for the finished product.

Ceramic Extruding is a highly enjoyable how-to artbook and a strongly recommended addition to any personal, professional, or art school reference collection. As known, adventure and also encounter concerning lesson, enjoyment, and understanding can be obtained by just checking out a book The Prince And The Nun, By Jacqueline George Even it is not directly done, you could recognize even more concerning this life, regarding the world.

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Higher praise I don't think I could find for a literary work. She is trying to keep the handsome Prince Mefist at arm's length and at the same time protecting her friends. Villagers, partisans, refugees, and Jews all come to her for help and she cannot refuse. Only by cooperating with the Prince can she and the sisters survive. And if that means running a bordello for the Army officers, then that is what she will do. But it is not easy to resist Mefist, and as the two of them struggle to hold back a violent world, he becomes a friend and more.

Therese von Falberg is Mother Superior of the Sisters of Magdalene, whose Convent is housed in Montebello Castle and also the Chatelaine of the Castle whilst the reigning Count Egerhazy and his family have fled to America at the first rumblings of war. When Captain Prince Franz Mefist of the Imperial Army turns up to establish his Army base at the Castle, he matter-of-factly informs Therese he will need a dozen of her nuns to entertain his officers in the Officers Club.

At her shocked refusal, he orders some village women to be found for the purpose. Therese soon realises that, to save the wives and daughters of the village, she will have to agree to become the Madam of the nuns' bordello. Mefist's cousin Wanda turns up to help the nuns become courtesans and the girls are happy to follow orders.

But as a nun, Therese finds her growing attraction to Mefist and her curiosity about sex disturbing. I have always enjoyed sexy romance and erotica, but what drew me to this novel was the plot. At first I was unsure about nuns in the 40s being so uninhibited, then I decided that with their vow of obedience to their Mother Superior and Franz's and Wanda's charisma and after all, it's the war, I could accept that and sit back and enjoy the story.

Certainly, none of the nuns who taught me were like these: I guess I was taught by Sister Brigitte clones. I remain intrigued at where Therese drew the line on her own personal acceptable behaviour. This story has plenty of humour and romance and some very hot sex in different flavours. The backstory of the war goings-on give the plot realism and some lighter relief between the hotter scenes. The characters had some depth and novel asks some ethical questions about life during wartime.

I would have liked a bit more of Therese and Mefist at the end. The name of the sisters' order was a cute touch, considering the profession of Mary Magdalene. I enjoyed this novel and I think it would translate well into an adult movie. A job may obligate you to consistently enrich the knowledge and encounter. When you have no adequate time to boost it directly, you could get the encounter and knowledge from checking out the book. As everyone recognizes, publication Wood Bender's Handbook, By Zachary Taylor is incredibly popular as the home window to open up the globe.

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Handy charts show the bending qualities of the 25 most important woods and their desired effects. Best for beginning luthiers By Gordon Rodda After getting in over my head, I bought three books on wood bending: this one, Schleining's "The complete manual of wood bending" and "Fine Woodworking on Bending Wood. It omits coverage of milling and coopering wood to obtain curves, and the coverage of planning and drawing is superficial. One potentially useful section covers computing the length of a radius from the shape of the curve.

The book has an okay narrative with a pleasant writing style, but I found it short on practical knowledge. Some of the writing is cute. For example, the author pushes homemade hot pipe irons, because the commercial ones cost "what one could dine on for a week. Unless you eat at Taco Bell Overall, I recommend that most woodworkers will get more out of Schleining's book, which is filled with easy-to-read advice gleaned from years of practical experience.

Schleining does not focus on building instruments, however. If you are looking for plans, this one has them: oval boxes, walking sticks, boat ribs, and chair backs. Helpful for Steam Bending By I. Ibbett I bought this book for my boyfriend who is starting his own drum making company. He found the information on steam bending to be very helpful.

The table at the back which details the possible bent radius of different woods was also a plus. There's a good section on creating a steam box. It is simple to read with some projects at the back. Very condensed infomation. The boat building section is also a positive if steam bending is what you're interested in. Very Good. You will certainly never get the knowledge as well as encounter without obtaining by on your own there or attempting by yourself to do it. You can be fine as well as appropriate adequate to get how important is reading this Best Intentions: A Novel, By Emily Listfield Also you consistently review by obligation, you could support yourself to have reading book routine.

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