This exhaustive survey is the result of a four year effort by many leading researchers in the field to produce both a readable introduction and a yardstick for the many upcoming experiments using he This book illustrates the history of Atomic Physics and shows how its most recent advances allow the possibility of performing precise measurements and achieving an accurate control on the atomic sta The thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter has become a profound and challenging area of modern physics, both in theory and in experiment.

Statistical quantum chromodynamics, through analyti These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at PLMMP, addressing modern problems in the fields of liquids, solutions and confined systems, critical phenomena, as well as c The late Richard P. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the development Robert Gardner is an award-winning author of science books.

He is a retired high school teacher of physics, chemistry, and physical sience.

He lives with his wife, natalie, and enjoys writing, biking, Condensed matter systems where interactions are strong are inherently difficult to analyze theoretically. The situation is particularly interesting in low-dimensional systems, where quantum fluctuat David L. Gilloon Distinguished Teaching and Service Professor Imagine physics as a community full of wacky characters--the building blocks of the universe each with a unique personality. A hundred years after the spacetime formulation of special relativity, it is shown that the kinematical consequences of special relativity are merely a manifestation of spacetime geometry.

A hundred years The physicist Friedrich Houtermans was an essential promoter and proponent of the development of physics in Berne. He introduced a number of activities in the field of elementary particles, with a special focus on the physics of cosmic rays, and important contributions in applied physics. This biography of Houtermans was written by The physicist Friedrich Houtermans was an essential promoter and proponent of the There is significant interest in the Philosophy of Science community to understand the role that "effective theories" have in the work of forefront science.

The ideas of effective theories have been implicit in science for a long time, but have only been articulated well in the last few decades. Since Wilson's renormalization group revolution in There is significant interest in the Philosophy of Science community to understand the role that Strong dynamics constitutes one of the pillars of the standard model of particle interactions, and it accounts for the bulk of the visible matter in the universe made by ordinary protons and neutrons.

It is therefore a well posed question to ask if the rest of the universe can be described in terms of new highly natural four-dimensional strongly Strong dynamics constitutes one of the pillars of the standard model of particle interactions, and If the mirror is perfect, N is conserved in any frame.

However, if the electrons in the mirror emit high-frequency photons, a greater number of incident low-frequency photons must be absorbed with their angular momentum. From a classical point of view, absorption of angular momentum requires some dissipation mechanism [42] which, in our example, implies a non-vanishing absorption in the rest frame of the mirror. In the case here investigated, effective dissipation is provided by the RF force which makes the electron dynamics consistent with the radiative losses.

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We use a simple model to account for such losses and provide a scaling law with the laser intensity. The classical RF force on an electron is defined in order that the work done per unit time equals Prad. The spectrum of the emitted radiation peaks at frequencies wrad — g 3w, with g the relativistic factor of electrons which can be estimated as g — a0 w. At such frequencies the radiation from the plasma is incoherent see also the discussion in section 3 , thus the total radiated power by N comoving electrons will be NPad.

For thin targets accelerated by the CP laser pulse 'light sail' regime , all electrons move with the foil at vx — c, and there is no high-frequency oscillation driven by the v x B force.

### A Theoretical Perspective

In contrast, RF losses become much larger for thick targets [29,30,54] 'hole boring' regime because the acceleration of the plasma surface has a pulsed nature [55,59,60] with a dense bunch of electrons being periodically dragged towards the incident laser pulse, i. In order to estimate the number of radiating electrons per unit surface we consider the dynamic picture of hole boring [59,61]. As illustrated in figure 1, at the surface of the plasma the radiation pressure generates a positively charged layer of electron depletion of thickness d and a related pile-up of electrons in the skin layer of thickness ls , i.

Ions are accelerated in the skin layer leaving it at a time t; at which an ion bunch neutralized by accompanying electrons is formed. At this instant, the equilibrium between ponderomotive and electrostatic forces is lost and the excess electrons in the skin layer will quickly return back towards the charge depletion region.

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Eliminating d from these equations yields for the density compression ratio in the skin layer. For studies on orbital angular momentum absorption and IFE in laser-plasma interaction see, e. The IFE is due to absorption of EM angular momentum6, which in general is not proportional to energy. Figure 1.

Cartoon showing the electron dynamics during the 'hole boring' stage. In order to compare the radiated energy with the laser pulse energy we take into account that the radiation is emitted as bursts corresponding to the periodic return of electrons towards the laser, i.

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This order-of-magnitude estimate implies that for such intensities a significant part of the laser energy is lost as radiation, strongly affecting the interaction dynamics. A more precise estimate would require to account both for the energy depletion of the laser and for the trajectory modification of the electrons due to the RF force. A 3D approach is essential to model the phenomena of angular momentum absorption and magnetic field generation, thus we rely on massively parallel PIC simulations in which RF is implemented following the approach described in [7], based on the LL equation see [9] for a benchmark with other approaches.

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We remark that the inclusion of the radiation loss as a dissipative process via the RF force requires the following assumptions: i the dominant frequencies in the escaping radiation are much higher than the highest frequency that can be resolved on the numerical grid, ii the radiation at such frequencies is incoherent, iii the plasma is transparent to such frequencies. Case a is without RF, case b and c are with RF included and for opposite helicities.

The laser pulse is incident along the x-axis from the left side and the thin black lines denote the boundaries of the target.

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The coordinates are normalized to A. The plus and minus sign in the expression for a correspond to positive and negative helicity, respectively. The numerical box had a 30 x 25 x 25A3 size, with 40 grid cells per A and 64 particles per cell for each species. The comparison of figures 2 d and e shows that Bx has similar values and extension for a Gaussian pulse.

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The fraction hrad ofthe laser energy dissipated by RF reaches values up to hrad — 0. Figure 3. The dashed and dashed-dotted lines are fit to the data for hrad and Bmax, respectively. The density of angular momentum has been integrated over the radius and normalized to the total integrated angular momentum ofthe laser pulse. Results with and without RF included are shown.