It does not correspond to a conscious decision, and should lead to a medical and social evaluation. Because the specific mechanism s of DS may not be readily apparent from a routine, medical examination, a neuropsychological evaluation may be helpful in identifying the factors contributing to the dysfunctional behavior: careful differential diagnosis is critical to appropriate treatment selection, particularly with ever-increasing pharmacological options and to aid in the improvement of daily global functioning.
Although dementia must be high on the list of differential diagnoses, there remains the possibility that the hoarding or cluttering behavior can be attributed to pre-existing personality traits. Physicians are obliged to treat DS, given the fact that it is a predominantly behavioral syndrome with clear risk to personal health and safety as well as the implications regarding environmental hazards the foul odor that emanates from the house of the patients is a consistent clinical feature of the syndrome.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Dialogues Clin Neurosci v. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Diogenes syndrome DS is a behavioral disorder of the elderly. Keywords: Diogenes syndrome , dementia , self-neglect. Introduction Diogenes syndrome DS is a behavioral disorder described in the clinical literature in elderly individuals: the classical constellation of symptoms of this condition include extreme neglected physical state, social isolation, domestic squalor, and tendency to hoard excessively syllogomania.
Epidemiology The estimated annual incidence of DS is 0. Dementia and Diogenes New-onset DS in older age may be due to dementia, for instance. Assessment and management The assessment of DS must begin with gathering a comprehensive history, which should include a thorough history of behavioral disturbances. Conclusion Diogenes syndrome refers to a condition with distinct hoarding behaviors, severe self-neglect, and neglect in taking care of one's physical environment, as well as social isolation.
Notes The authors declare no conflict of interest. Marcos M. Atale of a misnamed eponym. Diogenes syndrome. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Cybulska E. Senile squalor: Plyushkin's not Diogenes' syndrome.
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Psychiatr Bull R Coll Psychiatr. Clark AN. Diogenes syndrome: a clinical study of gross neglect in old age. Macmillan D. Senile breakdown in standards of personal and environmental cleanliness. Reifler BV. Diogenes syndrome: of omelettes and souffles. J Am Geriatr Soc. Shah AK. Senile squalour syndrome: what to expect and how to treat it. Geriatr Med.
Diogenes syndrome in patients suffering from dementia
Barocka A. Sammeln und Horten: ein Messie kann nicht anders. Die Wohnung als Mullhalde. Post F. Functional disorders I. Description, incidence and recognition. In: Levy R, Post F, eds. The Psychiatry of Late Life. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Gruenberg EM. Identifying cases of the social breakdown syndrome. In: Gruenberg EM, ed. Ungvari GS. Social breakdown in the elderly, I. Case studies and management. Compr Psychiatry. Byard RW. Forensic issues in cases of Diogenes syndrome.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. Lachs MS. The mortality of elder mistreatment. Dickens C. Great Expectations. London, UK: Chapman and Hall. Gogol N. Dead Souls. London, UK: Penguin. Berlyne N. Grignon S. Association of Diogenes syndrome with a compulsive disorder. Can J Psychiatry. Ngeh JK. Diogenes syndrome presenting with a stroke in an elderly, bereaved woman.
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