Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)

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Both of the principals of the romance are almost anomalies in their time; but their attitude, and particularly that of Ydoine, marks the beginning of a new conception of love. Amadas, who first falls a victim to love, is in a somewhat uncertain position. He wants Ydoine for his "amie," but what else he wants is not clear until, without hope of anything else, he dehnitely demands "bele pramesse sans proufit. But when she is led to believe that Amadas harbors other emotions for her, she feels insulted and injured vv. It is no wonder that Amadas sighed "de cuer parfont. She hopes, as does Amadas, that, when he returns from his wanderings worthy of her, their love may be openly declared, and that they may be united.

If she would rather be drawn by horses than love basely, so she would rather suffer a like fate than give her body to one to whom she cannot give her heart. With the capableness which her very name indicates she set out to prevent any such disaster. Her deception of the Count by means of the three witches has been mentioned above. With the same steadfastness of purpose with which she once refused Amadas she now consistently refuses the Count, her lord, so that Ydoine, qui dame est noumee,.

After he had defeated the fairy knight and resuscitated Ydoine, it must have seemed to Amadas, who was still pretty much a partisan of the old usage, that he had earned a lover's right:. According to Ydoine, everything must be done properly and in order. Not of her can it be said that the passions of her heart vanquished the dictates of her reason:. The poet's insistence on natural love and on pure love leads one to suspect him of some ulterior motive. Our suspicions seem to be justified and explained by lines quoted above on page , especially the lines printed in italics.

The poet cornes as near as poets ever did-in an age of impersonal and uncritical literature, in which the writer is the instrument and mirror of society and not society the victim of the writer's cleverness-to declaring that he is writing an anti-Tristan. Without attempting to define too closely the limits of any epoch whose literature is characterized by certain definite traits, it may be said, for the sake of convenience, that as regards French literature, the'year divides the old from the new.

The last half of the twelfth century was the period wherein the Arthurian and courtly romance grew, flourished and declined. In the first years of the thirteenth century a new tendency is visible in literature. The poets now no longer looked exclusively to the matter of Britain or of Rome for models or material for their poems. There was a reaction, not violent, but certain, against the exotic, and a growing predilection for homely stuff.

Poets turned once more to native material, re-wrote the old gestes and composed new ones. But the period was national in another sense also: Not only were Raoul de Cambrai and Huon de Bordeaux celebrated in verse-people of lesser stature and humbler manners, such as Galerent and the Comtesse d'Anjou, were sung as well. The poet did not disdain to choose his heroes and his heroines from the society in which he himself lived.

The recensions and continuations of the old chansons de geste did not form a particularly valuable addition to French literature, but of the new romance, which may be caHed the romance of manners, the opposite was true. In so far as the new literature represented actual contemporary life, of the. The spirit which produced the new literature was not different from the temper of the times: the two were halves of the same whole.

It was a spirit of protest, not only against foreign models, but particularly against an anomaly in social life represented by Marie's verdict that love is impossible between married persons. Apparently there were some sober people who thought that marriage was not necessarily a bar to happiness, and that it could be found in the married state in spite of the inelasticity of the feudal system in these matters. It is Amadas et Ydoine that leads the return to common sense. If one keeps Tristan in mind while reading Amadas, as the poet must certainly have had it in mind, it is impossible not to compare and contrast the two heroines at every step.

JOHN R. In the preceding paper it was pointed out that Amadas et Ydoine seems to fall into a fourth category of literature not mentioned by Jehan Bodel, namely, the roman d'aventure. It was further observed that Amadas diverges from the pure romance of adventure type in so far as it lays stress on love rather than on adventures.

The elements of courtly love which it shows have already been treated: here the purpose is to examine what remains Amadas does show of the Arthurian or roman d'aventure type. The materials for our study are found in the account of Ydoine's attempt, by means of sorceresses and visions, to avoid marrying the Count of Nevers, w.

Finally, we shall study the various phases of love-sickness and love-madness, vv. Our examination will illustrate Paris' remarks and furnish additional reasons for believing that his primary statement is probably true. In literature, at least, witchcraft has always been the means of accomplishing the impossible, either for good or bad ends.

It would be difficult to say when hard-beset mortals first had recourse to supernatural aid. CIerks cunning in these matters were not always well received by the rest of society; white magic was looked on with a more or less tolerant eye, but black magic and those who practised it were damned. The magic employed by Ydoine under stress of necessity certainly looks more black than white; in order to frighten the Count into breaking his engagement to her,.

Such handmaidens as these had never before been found, says the poet, and to prove it he cites a number of their powers: sevent de nuit voler. Witches were not infrequently called to the aid of lovers. Witchcraft accomplishes the desired end, of course, by means of an agent: this is sometimes tangible, in the shape of physical charms or potions, sometimes intangible, in the form of visions or geisi.

Deianira, jealous of Iole, sought, with disastrous results, to preserve the love of Heracles through a charm supposed to lie in the blood of Nessus. Jerome, in his additions to the Eusebian Chronicle, "Titus Lucretius, poeta amatorio poculo in furorem versus propria se manu interfecit. Certainly they are unavailing to call back Simaetha's lover Delphis. Such love-charms were used by the Celts as well as by other peoples. Love-marks are of frequent occurrence, and sometimes love-nuts appear.

Schultz, Das Hofische Leben, zd ed. In Marie's Yonec, vv. Brun de la Montagne, vv. In Amadas the charm employed to ward off love is the intangible vision, with only partial success. It may be observed that the use of the three Fates in this matter is novel in French literature. The mention of Yonec brings us to a large number of instances in which a charm is used to prevent the consummation of love or to keep the legal husband at his distance while the lady lies in "avoutire" with a more favored lover.

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Probably the Ephesiaca of Xenophon of Ephesus established the vogue of the potion drunk, not to preserve love or to obtain it, but to escape, by seeming death, an undesired marriage or at least preserve virginity. Sometimes the unloved husband is befooled by visions produced by pure witchcraft, as was Thibaut in Les Enfances Guillaume.

If literature be considered as more or less a reflection of fact, we may be able to find in the life of the Middle Ages, courtly influences apart, an explanation of the existence of the hoaxed husband in its literature. It seems to be fairly well established that under the feudal system a lady of rank had little or nothing to say in the matter of whom she should marry. Marriages were arranged according to the requirements of land and its succession. The noble married, not conformably to the dictates of his own heart, but according to the dictates of reason, which counseled him, if he had no land and castles, to acquire them by marriage, or if he had, to increase his holdings thereby.

If the lady happened to be the only heir of a rich baron-as was Ydoine-her situation was even worse, for usually the lord called up three of his vavasours and forced her to marry one of them. Such absences, often prolonged, were extremely harmful to the marriage relation.

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  4. Even if the lady might ordinarily have had no desire to seek extra-marital consolation, frequent and extended absence of her lord provoked that desire and provided opportunity for fulfilling it. Amorous chatelaines sought love outside the bonds of wedlock; sometimes they did not have far to seek. It was inevitable that such liaisons should appear in literature and that literature should develop the details thereof.

    To that category belong the loves of Equitan and the seneschal's wife. In Yonec the lady seeks consolation for an old and ill-favored husband in the embraces of a young and handsome knight. In Tydorel the motif is further complicated with a fairy knight. The fair lady of Fayel, though chary of her reputation, at last yields to the embraces of the Chatelain de Coucy, for she would not have him die.

    The bright and shining examples-if one may use those termsof marital infidelity, however, are Guinevere and Yseult; neither of them profited much by it in the end. Taylor, The Mediaeval Mind; R. Warnke, Lais de Mari de France, pp. In the Welsh Triads Yseult was known as one of the three incontinent women of Britain; her sisters were the other two.

    For literature on the subject of the deceived husband consult the studies of M. Landau, Die Quellen des Dekameron, and A. Lee, The Decameron on tales II. To a different category belong the cases in which a lady sets aside her husband through false death brought about either consciously or unconsciously, in the latter case, usually by means of witchcraft. Says Guiot in his. The ill fame which Solomon enjoyed among our ancestors seems to rest upon the very old and widely current tale of SolomonandMarcolf. The best preserved version is in German. But Solomon defeats Flore and throws him into prison under the guardianship of Salme.

    While imprisoned Flore's wizard nephew Elias sends him a ring which inspires Salme with love for him when she puts it on her finger. Salme effects Flore's escape and promises to follow him six months later when a messenger shall corne for her. At the proper time the "spilman" arrives, bringing with him a zouberwurze" v. Upon eating the root Salme appears to be 18 Ed.

    See also Sept Sages, w. IX, ; "Btasme des Femmes," Rom. II, Pt. Vogt, Salman und Morolf. For further material connected with the rape of Solomon's wife, cf. Vogt, op. On the third day the icspilman" disinters her and carries her off to his master vv. A rather feeble imitation of the Solomon and Marcolf Morolf story occurs in Li it is essentially the same story as that told by the ballad "John Thomson and the Turk. It is a successful case of husband deception. In Amadas Ydoine sets her husband apart from her at first and always, not by means of a vision, potion or other charm but by her tears and plaints and the protest that she will die if he touches her; this latter may be construed as a reflection of the Celtic But the magic vision has a retroactive influence: the Count is also intimidated by the memory of the warning given him by the three Fates.

    Thus the Count of Nevers Iike so many others, takes his place among the hoaxed husbands w. Ydoine, betrothed to one man and loving another, had three things to do: prevent the marriage if possible, cause it to be null and void in case it did take place, and preserve her favors for Amadas. We have seen that she had ample precedent for her attempt to get rid of the Count; we shall now see that she also had plenty of examples for her attitude in the last matter.

    The nuptial-night resistance credited to St. Cecelia has in it something of a conjuration and something of intimidation. Under the cover of telling him a secret, Cecelia says to her newly married husband: "Angelum Dei habeo amatorem, qui nimio zelo custodit corpus meum. Hic si vel leviter senserit, quod tu me polluto amore contingas, statim feriet te et amittes florem tuae gratissimae juventutis 24 Valerian asks for proof, and on the appearance of the angel is convinced.

    Cecelia successfully preserved her virginity, not for a mortal lover, but for a ghostly one. Chaucer used the story in the Seconde Nonnes Tale, basing his version on the Legenda Aurea or the French version thereof. Aelfric c. The manner in which Ydoine preserves her virginity, as has already been pointed out, is analogous to the method employed by St. Gawain has been granted such intimate favors by a charming damsel that he thinks ke du plus faire. The damsel, unaware of Gawain's identity-she thinks he is dead-explains that she has loved Gawain for many years and that it is for him that she is saving her maidenhood.

    I, More often, however, virginity was preserved by magie other than conjurations and exhortations, a potion, ring or herb accomplishing the desired effect. It is a "racine" in Raoul de Cambrai that protects the lady on her wedding night. She is considerably disturbed on account of the approaching nuptials until she hears ".

    Kotbing; cf. See atso K. A charm is effective in Orson de Beauvais also, but arouses considerable ire on the part of the victim. A "chamberiere" of Thessala's stamp furnishes her mistress with an herb of magical properties. When Hugues was left alone with his lady Lez la dame se couche c'onques nou pout amer. Visions of a different sort protect the lady's chastity in Les Enfances Guillaume. Orable loves Guillaume, the son of Aimeri de Narbonne. Her opportunist brother marries them by j ommg their hands, in spite of the fact that Orable was already betrothed to the Saracen Thibaut.

    Paris, SATF, w. Foerster; cf. Sometimes it was real poison the lady drank; cf.

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    Cian's note to Sect. That night, when they are seated at the marriage feast, a stag pursued by sixty hunters and four hundred dogs dashes through the hall, upsetting and even killing many of the guests. But a fire-breathing giant takes hold of him, and he begs for mercy. To these wonders succeed others: Lions and bears kill the pagan guests, and water drowns them. Wearied out with enchantments, as dawn appears Thibaut cries to Orable for pity.

    But he has still enough sense left to bid adieu to his pretended wife and take himself out of Orange. In almost every case the bride, who has been abducted, lays her captor under bonds geisi not to make her his wife or mistress for a day and a year, in the course of which length of time she expects to be, and invariably is, rescued by her lover. Fedelma puts the King of the Land of Mist under bonds not to touch her for a day and a year. As an example of a mediaeval tale embodying this situation, upon analogues of which the modern tales mentioned above are Cf.

    IV, ff. It was not necessary for Iseult to have recourse to magic in this situation; her honor, if not her chastity, was preserved on the wedding night by the substitution of Brangene in her credulous husband's bed. Gottfried's Tristan, w. It appears that Forgall, the father of Emer, was opposed to the mating of his daughter with Cuchulain. Now while the latter was achieving valor under the tutelage of the doughty Scathach, his foster-brother Lugaid went forth to woo the maidens of Mac Ross.

    When Forgall the Wily heard this, he went to Lugaid and told him of the best maiden of Erinn, who was living with him. Lugaid said it pleased him well, and so Forgall betrothed her to Lugaid. Then from fear of Cuchulain, Lugaid did not dare to sleep with her, and he returned home agaln. In the story of "The Battle of the Birds" the giant's daughter, whose lover is temporarily under the spell of forgetfulness, on three successive nights protects her virginity from youths who have paid the marriage price'. The first youth she fastens to a vessel of water so that he is unable to approach her; the second youth is magically fastened to the latch all night and cannot move; the third youth's foot sticks to the floor the entire night so that he cannot touch her.

    Blanche, in love with Prince Enriquez, was married against her will to the Constable of Sicily. Campbell, Popular Tales, I, But what seemed likely to become of her, when her women, having undressed her, left her alone with the Constable? He enquired respectfully into the cause of her apparent faintness and discomposure. The question was sufficiently embarassing to Blanche, who affected to be ill. Her husband was at first deceived by her pretences; but he did not long remain in such error. Being, as he was, sincerely concerned at the condition in which he saw her, but still pressing her to go to bed, his urgent solicitations, falsely construed by her, offered to her wounded mind an image so cruel and indelicate, that she could no longer dissemble what was passing within, but gave free course to her sighs and tears.

    What a discovery for a man who thought himself at the summit of his wishes! They accordingly partook of the same bed, but with a conduct altogether different from what the laws of love, sanctioned by the rites of marriage, might authorize in a pair mutually delighted and deHghting. Speculation as to Le Sage's source of the tale is of doubtful value: his use of the motif only provides additional proof that "similar manners will naturally be produced by similar situations," in literature as elsewhere.

    The rape of a mortal woman by a personage belonging to the supernatural world is not a new motif in literature. Before leaving the subject, a few more cases of virginity magically preserved may be noted: In Wailenskotd's Florence de Rome, w. Bartsch, Das Nibelungenlied, X, stanzas ff.


    Oesterley's Gesta Romanorum, no. The scene of the rape in. For the moment the knight, who is a fairy, is balked of his purpose. Such forcible abductions are of very frequent occurrence in Celtic folklore and romance. Cahal went in search of her and found that Wet Mantle had stolen her from Striker. The lady had put Striker under bonds not to make her his wife or mistress for a day and a year, and Wet Mantle she put under geisi not to touch her for two days and two years.

    But Long Sweeper the gruagach stole her from him, and this abductor she put under bonds not to touch her for three days and three years. The Black Horseman in his turn stole her from Long Sweeper, and lost her to White Beard of the Western World, who must not touch her for four days and four years. On the eventual arriva! Thus Cahal was able to rescue his lady. Arthur fought with the giant and won her back. The lady makes her captor promise not to make her his wife for a year and a day; before going away she leaves with Conal an explanatory and instructive letter.

    Conal searches her out, kills the fairy and wins back his bride. Whatever be the cause of supernatural abductions in other literature, in Celtic tradition, with which we are primarily conCurtin, Hero Tales of Ireland, pp. Curtin, op. In Curtin's tale of "Lawn Dyarrig and the Knight" Lawn similarly rescues his lady from the clutches of the Green Knight who had been put under bonds for seven years and a day. The stories cited here are modern tales, but rest indubitably on older folklore tradition.

    This is the situation of the fairy claiming as his wife the wife, sometimes a fairy herself, of a mortal man. It is well known that fairy women sometimes mated with men of this worid: The wife of Crundchu was the fairy Macha. Such liaisons must have been sterniy regarded by the fairy men; what more reasonable than that they should seek to restore these love-errants to their proper domain? But he already had a wife, Fuamnach, through whose jealousy Etain was changed into a butterfly. After many years of wandering, Etain was miraculously reborn as a mortal woman and became the wife of Eochaid.

    One day Midir appeared to Etain and entreated her to go back with him to the Land of Youth. He rose with her through the roof of Eochaid's palace and bore her off to the fairy mound. There Eochaid besieged him, reducing mound after mound, till Midir was forced to yield him his ravished wife. This ancient motif, in the mysterious fashion in which folkliterature operates, became fastened to certain stories about Guinevere.

    We have it on the authority of the Vita Gildae 55 that Melwas, ruler of Somerset, violently seized Guinevere and bore her off to Glastonbury. Brauns, Japanische. I, ; see also T. It is doubtless to this tenth century tradition that Chaucer's contemporary Dafydd ab Gwylym refers: "Alas, says he, "there is no use in sighing like an unhappy lover, and 1 may wish in vain for Melwas'.

    He tells how the lord of a strange castle daims Guinevere at Arthur's court, consents to fight a duel with Arthur for the possession of her, is defeated, but later captures Guinevere in a wood and carries her oit. Arthur, his curiosity aroused, resolves to seek him out.

    The latter says that for seven years Arthur has held a captive of his at his court. She never loved you, says Gasozein, and offers the queen's girdle as proof of his statement. A duel is to decide who shall have the lady, Arthur forbidding any of his men to interfere. The battle is a fiasco. Guinevere again falls into Gasozein's power and would have succumbed to his embraces had she not been rescued in the nick of time by Gawain who forces Gasozein to admit that his pretences were lies.

    Owen, Poems of Dafydd ab Gwylym, p. XII, , has quoted pertinent extracts from these poems; he misread the handwriting of his English correspondent, however, and has made a number of mistakes in spelling. Professor K. Webster, Eng. He and Amadas undertake, not a sham battle, but a very senous one, to decide who shall have the lady, and like Arthur, the fairy warns his men not to interfere.

    In the end the fairy also admits that his pretensions were false and that Ydoine never loved anyone but Amadas w. Now the motif underwent another modification: If Guinevere could be carried off by a fairy knight, so also could other damsels of lesser rank be carried off by infatuated lovers, whether fairy or mortal. In the Atre Perilloits 61 It is related how a strange damsel made her appearance at one of Arthur's feasts and asked a boon.

    She wished to be Arthur's cup-bearer, provided that the best of knights would undertake her defense in case of need. The task is assigned to Gawain. On the morrow a great knight rides into the hall while the court is at meat and carries off the damsel. Gawain is too courteous to interrupt the meal and waits till it be finished before starting in pursuit.

    After various adventures Gawain meets Escanor and worsts him in battle the latter begs for mercy, but Gawain remembers his mother's s words-the battle with Escanor was the only one whose favorable outcome she could not foretell-and strikes off his head. We have seen that It was Gawain also who rescued Guinevere from Gasozein; on another occasion he rescued his own sister in a similar situation.

    For some reason or other, Gawain carried her with him on his journey to the King of the Isles, but was forced t0 set her down at a cross-roads. While waiting there for some good-natured chevalier to conduct her back to Arthur's court there appeared a knight on a black horse, mortal enemy to Gawain, who bore her away. After his business with the King of the Isles is done, Gawain finds and releases her. Arthur and the Queen ride to the chase; but, as in Efec, the Queen is left at the cross-roads with no one for company and protection but Ydier.

    When he tried to carry her ofF, Ydoine's men forced him to set her down but. It may be objected that the escapades of such persons as Renaud de Dammartin, who in abducted Ida, Countess of Boulogne, formed a sufficient model for the rape motif in contemporary literature; but Renaud is not characterised by any features of the Celtic Otherworld as are the abductors treated above.

    Amadas and Ydoine both knew well enough, to their sorrow, the virtues of that magic ring. He was sure of its effectiveness, for he came to the cemetery prepared to resurrect Ydoine and lead her away; the wonderful palfrey which he brought with him was destined for her use. Indeed, the fairy knight improved on the Solomon and Morolf situation, for he brought with him a body which, apparently, was to take the place of that of Ydoine in the tomb. Here again we have the appeal to the supernatural to accomplish an extremely difficult task. The use of talismans of one sort or another-potions, pins, thorns, rings-to produce sleep or the appearance of death, is of considerable antiquity.

    In the Babylonica of Iamblichus, Sinonis and Rhodanes are thrown into a trance by eating magic honey. We have seen that the sleeping potion that gives the appearance of death to those who drink it was used by Masuccio Salernitano in his Novellino, by Giraldi Cinzio in Gli Ecatom-. But the use of precisely a ring for creating a death-like torpor is of infrequent occurrence in folklore. In the Magyar tale of "The Worid's Most Beautiful Woman" it is indeed a ring which first causes the beautiful girl to appear to be dead p. The second time the apparent death is caused by a pin stuck in her clothes, and she is wakened as in the first case.

    The third time the slumber-pin is so well concealed in her hair that it is not discovered, and she is considered really dead. The Prince of Persia finds her golden coffin, falls in love with her, and carries her home. During his absence the prince's sisters accidentally remove the enchanted hair-pin, and the beautiful girl cornes to life once more. Such sleep-thorns are a part of the household furniture of every evil hag in Celtic folklore. In The King of Ireland's Son Morag foils the intent of the Hags of the Long Teeth to put sleep-pins under the pillows of Baun and Deelish and herself she puts them under their pillows instead.

    Jones and L. Kropf, The Folk Tales of the Magyars, pp. The same story is told in less detail by J. Jacobs, Celtic Fairy Tales, p. The properties of the slumber-pin were such, sometimes, that it was not necessary even to touch the body of the victim with it. Such a "spike of hurt" put in the outside of his door-post causes a certain youth to fall into a deep sleep as he is about to go to church.

    Prompted by jealousy perhaps, a young step-mother makes use of the slumber-pin when she learns that her step-son has been conversing with a swan-maiden. He will fall asleep then. She won't get a word of talk from him. He will be sleeping. Sagen der Transsilvanischen Zigeuner, p.

    Here the youth is in love with the neighboring princess; as he is going to woo her, the jealous step-mother contrives to have him put a sleep-pin into his hair; he falls asleep and a thicket springs up about the place where he lies. Boite, Z. A story of this sort. In the above cases the slumber-pin, wand or potion simply puts the victim to sleep for a short space of time.

    When the situation no longer demands the unconsciousness of the hero, he is duly allowed to awaken by the removal of the slumber-pin or because the effects of the sleeping potion wear off. But not always was the action of the talisman as comparatively harmless as this: in one story, that told by Comparetti supra, note 75 , a poisoned pin causes Dragone to appear dead for three days. Indeed, in the stories of "Gold-tree and Silver-tree" and "The World's Most Beautiful Woman" already cited supra, p the talisman causes the appearance of death till removed from the victim's person.

    It will be remembered that Juliet and Fenice were buried as dead. The motif, as has been shown, was a widely current one. Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir, p. Schneller, u. II 1, No. Comparetti, Novelline Popolari Italiane, I, p. Zingede Kinder u. Nerucci, Novelle Popolari Montalesi, p. Coelho, Contos Popolares Portuguezes, p. Amadas, vv. In Amadas this motif is found in a form of rarer occurrence-the fight with an opponent, supernatural or otherwise, at the tomb of the supposedly dead lady.

    At sunset Ydoine died v. Both companies stopped outside the wall. One company carried a bier on which there was a body. The other company led a palfrey that made strange music as it went, for bells were hung from the reins, poitral and stirrup straps of his harness. A strong and hardy knight, fully armed, caused his horse to jump over the wall.

    By means of the ring which Ydoine had presumably given to the strange knight, the latter causes Amadas to doubt his lady's fidelity. But after thinking it over, Amadas decides that there is something wrong, and resolves to defend Ydoine's body at all hazards. The strange knight places an injunction on his people not to interfere in the combat. Neither knight gains any advantage in the first encounter. In the third encounter Amadas cuts off the fairy knight's hand, whereupon the latter acknowledges himself defeated. He now tells Amadas some news he is glad to learn, and adds that he cannot die by arms, 'for his nature will not.

    Shakspere does better, though Romeo's fight with Paris is not exactly for the possession of the body of Juliet. A closer parallel to the situation in Amadas is found in the Atre Perillous, though here the lady is not dead, but only confined to a tomb. During his search for the abductor Escanor Gawain is forced one night to seek shelter in a churchyard.

    He has not been sitting long on a "tonbel de marbre bis" before he feels something move under him. It develops that a lady has been shut up there by a "diable" who cornes every night to have his will of her vv. It seems to her that Gawain has been sent by God to effect her rescue. Gawain does, in fact, set about preparing to fight the "diable," for by the noise which they hear, they know that he is now not far off.

    He wooed a noble maiden and won her hand; but shortly before the marriage the bride became sick, died and was buried. On the eve of the wedding Jon found in the churchyard a fresh-made grave. A great, tall man approached on horseback; he was girt with a sword, falcon on wrist and hound at heel. In reply to Jon's query he declared that he had corne for his sweetheart, who had been but recently buried.

    The stranger also vouchsafed the information that it was he who, by means of witchcraft, had caused the girl to have the appearance of death so that no man might have her but himself. Jon and the stranger, Alheimr by name, fight. Jon kills the dog, the falcon, For this reference, as wet! II, novella xli. Atre, w. These two poems were written both about ; it is impossible to say which one is indebted to the other. The grave is opened and the girl is found living.

    The story does not mention how she was brought back to life, but it is probable that she was unspelled by Alheimr's parting words. Gengr drengr or garoi snauSr,. Here again the Amadas poet has made excellent use of a motif in folklore and mythology current from the time of Euripides to the present day. Probably no other hero in literature suffered more cruelly for the sake of love than did Amadas.

    He not only languished on his bed for two years and a half vv. Love takes Amadas completely by surprise; its effects are immediate and do not give him a chance to defend himself. He grows pale and changes color; he trembles and sighs; so overwhelming is love that he loses sight and memory and does not know where he, is. He loses desire to play; he eats and sleeps little; he grows so thin that the skin clings to his bones. There is only one cure for his malady, and that is the grace of his lady. But while he showed all the symptoms and suffered all the agonies common to lovers in similar situations, it will be noted that Amadas' case is somewhat anomalous: In the beginning he certainly wishes Ydoine to be his "amie" in the full significance of that word; forced by her innexibility, however, he decides to be satisfied with "Bele pramesse sans prount v.

    I respect his bravery and military genius…. But he is mistaken if he supposes my rights can be made the subject of bargain or compromise. However, Bonaparte gave the French everything which they had thought could only be supplied by a Bourbon restoration. When Napoleon assumed the title of Emperor in , the King travelled to Sweden to join Artois—whom he had not seen for a decade—and issued a formal protest. But the Empire had a disquietingly permanent appearance.

    The diarist Charles Greville, accompanied by his father, visited Louis at Hartwell the following year. He gave them a very modest dinner, carving himself; the only wines served were port and sherry. They spent the evening playing whist at threepence a point. The atmosphere was a compound of privation, hopelessness and ridiculously pompous etiquette. The King was in constant touch with the professional adventurers and spies who were the only people in France still to take an active interest in the Bourbon cause. Most were of dubious reliability—one double agent even tried to persuade Louis to make a secret trip to Paris.

    The favourite at once challenged Puisaye to a duel, but the King had him arrested by the English authorities to prevent him fighting. As a mark of his esteem he then made Avaray a Duke. The British government gave her a state funeral in Westminster Abbey, after which her body was sent home to Turin. The King was by now in his late fifties, gout-ridden, cripplingly overweight and with a digestion which must have suffered dreadfully from his love of good food.

    He was prostrate when news came in that Avaray had died in Madeira. Luckily, Louis quickly found a new dear friend, one who had been recommended by Avaray himself. Like his predecessor, he was a career soldier, a former dragoon captain. A quixotic figure who modelled himself on the heroes of French chivalry, he insisted on regarding his gouty master as the reincarnation of Saint Louis and Henri IV. He knew Latin, and soon Louis was devoted to him. Then in October Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig. On 13 March Bordeaux hoisted the white flag of the Bourbons.

    Napoleon abdicated on 6 April and departed to Elba. Artois, who had been on the frontier of northern France since February, entered Paris on 12 April in his capacity as Lieutenant-General Regent. He delighted the French by quickly negotiating what France wanted most of all—the evacuation of the occupying allied armies in return for withdrawing the French troops who were cut off in Italy and Germany. France kept the frontiers of , including that of the Rhine. The Prince Regent had come to fetch him, and in London the King was cheered by what seemed to be the entire capital and serenaded by brass bands outside his hotel in Albemarle Street.

    He dined at Carlton House with the Regent and the Archbishop of Canterbury; Louis bestowed the Cordon Bleu on his host, who reciprocated with the Garter later the Regent said that buckling it on had been like putting a girdle round the waist of a stoutish woman. The King was certainly very different from the Emperor. His legs were swollen by gout and the great family nose now presided over a cascade of chins. His snuff-stained clothes were even more antiquated; he wore knee-breeches and red velvet gaiters and carried a three-cornered hat.

    Yet this fat, antediluvian little creature, with its preposterous dress, high shrill voice and pedantic jokes, somehow possessed a most regal dignity. He had thus avoided having to accept that prepared by Talleyrand and the Imperial Senate and, by granting rather than accepting, safeguarded the monarchic principle. The Charter, as the constitution was known, consisted of a hereditary monarchy and two chambers on the model of the English Parliament—an upper house of Peers and a lower of Deputies who were elected by less than a hundred thousand voters.

    The two Chambers constituted a system no less representative than the contemporary English Parliament. During his time at Hartwell Louis may well have taken an interest in English politics, but unfortunately he had no first-hand knowledge of how the system worked. His dear friend Blacas, who looked back to rather than to and who as Minister for the Household was the nearest thing to a Prime Minister, was disastrously ineffectual; as in —92 ministers worked directly to the King without any proper co-ordination or cabinet.

    The one area in which the regime of —15 took positive action, the military, was especially unfortunate. At court, Marshals were snubbed and reminded of their humble origins. What angered the army above all was the revival of the Maison du Roi , 6, strong, complete with Bodyguards, Horse Grenadiers, Musketeers and even the Hundred Swiss, which only noblemen could join. Among them were two young poets—Alphonse de Lamartine and Alfred de Vigny. The news reached the Tuileries on Sunday 5 March.

    Louis, his hands crippled by gout, had difficulty opening the envelope which contained the telegram.


    You have been wrong many times before and I am afraid that you are deluding yourself again. Napoleon re-entered the Tuileries the very next day. Ghent was the new Coblenz, Louis installing his court at a house lent by the King of the Netherlands. Meanwhile, the people of Ghent were astounded by the immense number of dishes and bottles consumed by their venerable guest, though he also impressed them by his calm during the panic caused by conflicting reports of the outcome of Waterloo.

    Parisians scowled at the fat old man forced on them by the enemy troops who swaggered through their city. French pride was shattered. In fact it was a Frenchman, Talleyrand, who had given France the Bourbons. Although personally he despised the man, in he had greeted him with the most honeyed flattery.

    But my ancestors were cleverer; if yours had been, it is you who would be inviting me to sit down now. For a period after the Hundred Days Louis could not do without him. However, Tsar Alexander then told Louis that Talleyrand was unacceptable; if the King would replace him by the Duc de Richelieu, whom the Russians knew and respected, the Tsar would see that France received good terms.

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    The King has often been criticized for not making more use of Talleyrand, but he was totally unacceptable, not only to Ultras but to many moderates. Furthermore, he had betrayed Napoleon and might well betray the Bourbons. Louis would not willingly employ such a dangerous man, but he tried to mollify him with a shower of honours—Grand Chamberlain in , a Duchy in , the cordon bleu in —and ignored his frequent attacks on royal ministers.

    Controversy in French Drama

    Meanwhile, a White Terror raged throughout France, in which nearly people died. Everyone dreaded the royalist bands, the Miquelets and the Verdets , who settled old scores and plundered and looted, murder gangs equipped with pocket pistols, knives and sword-sticks, often working in collusion with the local police. If was one of the most terrible years in French history, was scarcely better. Amid continuing anarchy, heavy rain caused a bad harvest and a cattle plague broke out; there was widespread famine.

    Already France was exhausted by years of warfare, years in which she had lost a million men, had been crushed by backbreaking taxes, and had had her trade crippled by the British blockade. Yet she had to find the money to pay for the indemnity and the army of occupation. Furthermore, France was woefully disunited. Of Deputies, the majority were Ultras who organized themselves into something like a political party; the Faubourg Saint-Germain formed its hard core, but its ranks were made up of small country squires and even of bourgeois and new men with landed interests.

    On the left sat a motley collection of Liberals who, to begin with, were only united in their loathing of the new regime; most came from the haute bourgeoisie and the parvenu Napoleonic nobility, both deeply resentful of the old aristocracy. However, when discussing Restoration parliaments, one should speak of groups of partisans rather than political parties. The groups which the King preferred were those of the Centre, sometimes known as Constitutionalists. But most Constitutionalists were simply moderate Royalists. Through them he intended to find a middle ground, adopting policies which would upset neither the old aristocracy nor the new rich of the Empire; ultimately he hoped to forge an alliance between both classes.

    The King was fond of his brother, or at least felt as sentimental about him as his cold nature allowed. Indeed, apart from the King, the entire royal family were Ultras. He could be extraordinarily generous, frequently giving money to tramps, and was democratic enough to treat the merchant banker Greffulhe as a personal friend. He played the flute, was a discerning collector of pictures, and genuinely loved the opera and the theatre—he was a keen admirer of Talma. In the Duke married a beautiful madcap Bourbon cousin from Naples to whom, though he loved her, he was frequently unfaithful.

    Caroline de Berry was a small, lively blonde, with large blue eyes, and just a little too high-spirited.

    Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition) Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)
    Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition) Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)
    Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition) Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)
    Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition) Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)
    Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition) Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)
    Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition) Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)
    Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition) Le bal des hypocrites (LITT GENERALE) (French Edition)

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