One must also ask to what extend did Reclus carry forward the attitudes and perspectives of his erstwhile mentor? To cite one example, in his discussion of the influence of climate in the tropics in vol. II of La Terre he remarks:. In many regions of the tropical zone, all that man has to do when in search of food is to shake the branches of the trees, or pull up roots from the ground.
His needs are so very few, and life is so easy to him, that he cares little about it; he is not compelled to sustain it by dint of work, but it meets him, as it were, half way, and he almost despises it, because its favors are so generously offered. He therefore meets death without a regret, and not one tear is shed when he closes his eyes forever…. Thus mildness of the climate, the fertility of the soil, the exuberance of life, and the suddenness of death, take an equal part in maintaining man in his native carelessness and idleness.
Perhaps his best remembered observation was that bananas in tropical America were so extraordinarily productive — 44 times more productive than potatoes, and times more than wheat per unit area, that they were in effect, counter-productive. As generally known, Reclus was born in into a large family of religious dissidents and free-thinkers in southwest France.
He attended a Moravian school in Germany and a Protestant university in his native French region. He capped his formal education with a term spent at the University of Berlin, where he attended the lectures of Carl Ritter. His lesser works single volume books, articles, reviews total more than two hundred publications. His Colombian interlude was a prelude to a full life devoted to both geography and radical politics. Working as a rural laborer, Reclus saw colonial oppression first-hand. There he also began to dream of researching and writing grand works of geography.
- Dictionary B.
- Beautiful Leaders.
- The Blessed Child.
- French Revolution?
- VUESTRA SUERTE ESTA EN VUESTRAS MANOS (Un periodista en la Gran Colombia nº 1) (Spanish Edition).
- O Caminho para a Consciência (Portuguese Edition).
- Elisée Reclus’ Latin Americanist Geography?
Joining the rural exodus in the wake of the potato famines, Reclus traveled with Irish immigrants to New Orleans rather than New York, choosing a city more like Marseille than Paris. In his brief account of the voyage, he mentioned a few evocative land sights, including denuded Haitian hill slopes — though without mentioning human agency Reclus As he entered the Mississippi he commented on stray cattle roaming the marshy landscape and knocking over recently installed telegraph lines.
He initially found work as a dockworker, but soon turned to tutoring the children of local elites. His earliest published writings are on his Louisiana experiences Dunbar Among his most critical and vivid descriptions were of race relations and the institution of slavery Reclus , He was repulsed by slavery and the culture it produced, including endemic drunkenness and general disorder Reclus 52, His later geographical writings are notable for their critiques of racist thinking and doctrines in orthodox Eurocentric thought and scholarship.
In correspondence, his caustic side is on full display Reclus :. He envisions Colombia as a tropical paradise without much state presence and also perhaps, proximity to the Colossus of the North. Certainly Humboldt was a formative influence, but Reclus only occasionally refers to him or his writing in his own Latin American work, and not in his letters leading up to his decision to go directly to Colombia. The boat broke down in Cuba, and during the two-week delay, he saw some of the island. His next landfall was Aspinwall Colon Panama.
He was immediately struck by the ethnic diversity of the population. Adventurers from all parts of the world mixed with the local whites, blacks, Chinese, and indigenous folk. Racial admixes of all these groups offered an ethnic tableau of great complexity — one that he obviously enjoyed. As with his anti-racist stance, in his later geographical works Reclus wrote approvingly of the biological and cultural blending of races and ethnic groups. His family life was no exception. Clarisse, his first wife, was Afro-French — her mother Fulani and her father French.
For Reclus, the English and North American enclave of Aspinwall offered a prefiguration of the future, when British and North Americans would establish outposts beyond local control throughout the region. It is worth quoting from his description of this implantation :. The flag of Colombia flies on a house of Colon-Aspinwall; but Colombian authorities, far from being able to govern, are lucky to be simply tolerated.
The city is their creation, and they feel in their own right to govern it and to name it after one of the most powerful men in the company, the merchant Aspinwall. This name is shared with that of Colon that the Grenadian Republic chose as a tribute to the glorious navigator who discovered the island of Manzanilla. After a few weeks in Santa Marta he moved up the Guajira Peninsula to Riohacha, which he judged to be a better terminus for his project of establishing a rural retreat and possible community of likeminded colonists.
He spent the next year in Riohacha interacting with the small circle of ex-patriot French there, and trying various schemes to support himself, including giving French, German, and English lessons. None met with success. Having exhausted the options of urban life, Reclus resolved to move to the mountains and launch a new life as a self-sufficient farmer. He convinced Jaime Chastaing, informal leader of the French community, to join him as equal partner in the venture. After an extensive reconnaissance of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta uplands, Reclus chose a fifty-hectare valley plot a half-league outside San Antonio, a pueblo some fifty kilometers south of the coastal village of Dibulla.
At about meters altitude, a wide range of crops could be grown there. From there on out, it was literally and figuratively downhill. The return trip to Riohacha was arduous. It took Reclus a month to recuperate. The return trip with supplies to start the colony was even worse. The trip to Dibulla by bongo ended with a capsizing, but the cargo was saved. Waiting in Dibulla to arrange oxen for the inland trek, Reclus contracted malaria, something that plagued him for the rest of his time in Colombia.
He proceeded on foot, but fever once again overcame him, and he thought he would die beside the road. He was found by Chastaing, his son Luisito, and two hired-helpers coming along behind with oxen and supplies. Once installed in San Antonio, Reclus took another two months to recuperate.
As he remarked :. Chastaing, his son, and the two mulatto boys had furiously launched multiple projects: clearing, burning, terracing, fencing, planting, and felling timber for buildings. Soon, however, the tempest turned to depression. Chastaing alienated the Indians, ran off one of the workers, and declared the whole enterprise hopeless. He dissolved the partnership and returned to his life of relative leisure in Riohacha. Reclus, still febrile, remained alone there for another month, before dissolving his own dreams of establishing a Colombian beachhead for Euro-egalitarian-colonization.
San Antonio was later abandoned in the wake of the civil wars and upslope migration of coastal blacks, and reconstituted with the misnomer Pueblo Viejo. As girls could not be sent to Europe to obtain an education, a school for them was absolutely necessary in New Orleans, and Bienville, at the suggestion of the Jesuit Father de Beaubois, asked that six Ursuline nuns be sent from France to attend to the hospital and to open a school for girls. In her letters to her father Sister Madeline Hachard gives an interesting account of New Orleans in , speaks of the magnificent dresses of the ladies, and says that a song was publicly sung in which it was said that the city had as much "appearance" as Paris, and she adds quaintly, "indeed, it is very beautiful, but besides that I have not enough eloquence to be able to persuade you of the beauty which the song mentions, I find a difference between this city and that of Paris.
It might persuade people who have never seen the capital of France, but I have seen it, and the song will not persuade me of the contrary of what I believe. It is true that it is increasing every day, and may become as beautiful and as large as the principal towns of France, if there still come some workmen, and it become peopled according to its size. Sister Madeline was prophetic, as Father Charlevoix had been in his letter quoted above in In the Ursulines occupied the convent, built for them by the Government, which is still standing on Chartres street. They remained there until , when they moved to another building down the river.
Their services as educators of the girls of Louisiana in colonial times were invaluable. The Province of Louisiana had been divided on 16 May, , into three spiritual jurisdictions.
The first, comprising all the country from the mouth of the Mississippi to the Wabash, and west of the Mississippi, was allowed to the Capuchins, whose superior was to be vicar-general of the Bishop of Quebec and was to reside in New Orleans. The second extended north from the Wabash and belonged to the Jesuits, whose superior, residing in the Illinois country, was also to be vicar-general of the Bishop of Quebec in that department.
C. Howard Nichols Collection
The third comprised all the country east of the Mississippi from the sea to the Wabash, and was given to the Carmelites, whose superior was also vicar-general and resided usually at Mobile. The Capuchins took possession of their district in The Jesuits had already been in theirs a long time. The jurisdiction of the Carmelites was added to that of the Capuchins on 19 December, , and the former returned to France. In December, , the jurisdiction of the Capuchins was restricted to the country on both sides of the river from Natchez south to the sea, as the Capuchins were not very numerous.
It was, however, decided in that no monks or priests could attend churches or missions within the jurisdiction of the Capuchins without the consent of the latter. A little later the spiritual care of all the savages in the province was given to the Jesuits, and their superior was allowed to reside in New Orleans , provided he performed no ecclesiastical functions without the consent of the Capuchins. It was the Jesuits who in introduced the sugar cane into Louisiana from Hispaniola.
They cultivated on their plateau the sugar cane, indigo, and the myrtle-wax shrub. The tribes with which the early colonists had principally to deal were the Natchez, the Chickasaws, and the Choctaws. The last named were very numerous but not warlike, and were generally friendly to the French, while the Natchez and the Chickasaws were often at war with the colonists, and the former had to be nearly destroyed to insure the safety of the colony.
The village of the Natchez was the finest in Louisiana, and their country was delightful. The men and women of their tribe were well-shaped and very cleanly. Their chief was called the Great Sun, and inheritance of that title was in the female line. They had a temple in which a fire was kept burning continually to represent the sun which they adored. Whenever the Great Sun died, or a female Sun, or any of the inferior Suns, the wife or husband was strangled together with the nearest relatives of the deceased.
Sometimes little children were sacrificed by their parents. Denis, and what remained of the tribe were adopted by the Chickasaws. The name of the Natchez as a nation was lost, but it will live forever in the literature on account of the charming pages devoted to them by Chateaubriand. Bienville wished to compel the Chickasaws to surrender the Natchez who had taken refuge among them, and his ill-success in two campaigns against that powerful tribe was the cause of his asking in to be allowed to go to France to recuperate his exhausted health.
He left Louisiana in May, , and never returned to the colony which he and Iberville had founded. He had endeavoured to establish in New Orleans a school for boys, but had not been successful. He was known as the "Grand Marquis", and his administration was very popular. In he became governor of Canada, where he was not as successful as he had been in Louisiana. On the plains of Abraham in , where both Wolfe and Montcalm fell, the fate of Canada was decided, and the approaching independence of the English colonies might have been foreseen.
Dictionary of Louisiana Biography - B - Louisiana Historical Association
Spain, in her turn, ceded to Great Britain the province of Florida and all the country to the east and south-east of the Mississippi. Already, by the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau 3 Nov. Although the King of Spain had accepted, on 13 Nov. The selfish monarch who cared nothing for his subjects in Europe, in India, or in America, ended his letter with these hypocritical words: "Hoping, moreover, that his Catholic Majesty will be pleased to give is subjects of Louisiana the marks of protection and good-will which they have received under my domination, and which only the fortunes of war have prevented from being more effectual.
They wished, therefore, to remain Frenchmen and sent Jean Milhet as their delegate to beg Louis XV not to give away his subjects to another monarch. It was in vain that Bienville went to see Minister Choiseul with Milhet. They were kindly received, but they were told that the Treaty of Fontainebleau could not be annulled.
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The rule of the Spaniards was more apparent than real, for Ulloa came with only two companies of infantry, and did not take possession officially of the colony in the name of the King of Spain. Indeed the Spanish banner was not raised officially in the Place d'Armes in New Orleans, the capital of Louisiana, and the orders of Ulloa were issued through Aubry, the French commandant or governor. The colonists should have been treated with gentleness at the very beginning of a change of regime, but Ulloa, who was a distinguished scientist, lacked tact in his dealings with the Louisianians and issued unwise commercial regulations.
Jean Milhet returned from France at the end of , and the colonists were greatly excited by the narrative of the failure of his mission. The inhabitants of Louisiana resolved to expel the foreign governor, and held a meeting in New Orleans, where it was decided to present a petition to the Superior Council on 28 Oct. The colonists said that they would "offer their property and blood to preserve forever the sweet and inviolable title of French citizen.
On 29 Oct. Aubry protested against the decree, but the council ordered its enforcement, and on 31 October Ulloa embarked aboard a French ship which he had chartered. The next day the cables of the vessel were cut by a Louisianian named Petit, and the foreigner was expelled. It was a real revolution. The colonists were actuated by the highest and most patriotic motives, resistance against oppression and love of country.
They endeavoured by all means in their power to induce the King of France to keep them as his subjects, and, not succeeding in their efforts, they thought of proclaiming a republic on the banks of the Mississippi in New Orleans. This contribution of a spirit of heroism and independence to the civilization of the future United States is of great importance, and deserves to be carefully noted. The Louisianians were not successful in the revolution of , for the Spanish government sent powerful troops to subdue the insurgents.
At first he treated the chiefs of the insurgents with great politeness, and led them to believe that he would take no harsh measures with regard to the even of October, He acted, however, with great duplicity, and caused the principal insurgents against Ulloa to be arrested while they were attending a reception at the governor's house. No one was found in the colony to act as executioner, and the five heroic men were shot by Spanish soldiers on 25 Oct.
Six others of the insurgents were condemned to imprisonment in Morro castle at Havana. Among them were Jean Milhet, the patriotic merchant. O'Reilly acted with unpardonable severity, and his victims are known as "the Martyrs of Louisiana". Although the Spanish domination began with cruelty, it was afterwards mild and paternal, and at one time glorious. Most of the officials married creole wives, women of French origin, and the influence of charming and gentle ladies was most beneficial.
Unzaga, who succeeded O'Reilly in the government of Louisiana, acted with great tact in dealing with the Louisianians, and Bernardo de Galvez gave them prosperity and glory and reconciled them to the rule of Spain. In the war between the United States and Great Britain was at its height. France had recognized the independence of the new republic, and Lafayette had offered his sword to aid Washington in his great work. Spain came also to the help of the Americans, and declared war against England on 8 May, On 8 July Charles III authorized his subjects in America to take part in the war, and Galvez, who had thus far acted as provisional governor, received his commission as governor and intendant.
He resolved immediately to attack the British possessions in West Florida, and refused to accept the advice of a council of war, that he should not begin his operations until he had received reinforcements in Havana. He had already aided the cause of the Americans by furnishing ammunition and money to their agent in New Orleans. He called a meeting of the principal inhabitants in the city and told them he could not take the oath of office as governor, unless the people of Louisiana promised to help him in waging war against the British.
This was assented to with enthusiasm by all the men who were at the meeting, and Galvez made preparations to attack Baton Rouge, which the British had named New Richmond, and which for a time had been called Dironville by the French from Diron d'Artaguette, an early official of the colony. On 27 Aug. It was agreed that Fort Panmure at Natchez should capitulate also. The campaign of Galvez was glorious, and the greater part of his army was composed of Louisianian creoles of French origin, and of Acadians who wished to take vengeance upon the British for their cruelties against them, when they were so ruthlessly torn from their homes in The heroism of Galvez and his army in inspired Julien Poydras to write a short epic poem, "La Prise du Morne du Baton Rouge par Monseigneur de Galvez", a work which was published in New Orleans in , and was the first effort of French literature in Louisiana.
In Galvez attacked Fort Charlotte at Mobile and captured it, and in he resolved to make the conquest of Pensacola and to expel the British entirely from the country adjoining New Orleans. He went to Havana and obtained men and a fleet for his expedition. When an attempt was made to cross the bar and enter the harbour of Pensacola the "San Ramon" ran aground. Irazabal, thereupon, refused to allow the frigates of his fleet to cross the bar.
Galvez, who understood how important it was that the fleet should enter the port, in order that the army should not be left without subsistence on the island of St. Rosa, resolved to be the first to force entrance into the port. He embarked aboard the brig "Galveztown", commanded by Rousseau, a Louisianian, and which was directly under his orders, and, followed by a schooner and two gunboats, he boldly entered the port. Cangelosi, November 19, Webre, The Times-Picayune , December 29, Carll, Times-Picayune , October 22, Carll, Times-Picayune , January 15, Bourgoyne, Times-Picayune , February 23, Tammany: Photos" Tammany News , April 18, Buildings" by J.
Bourgoyne, n. Campbell, Sunday Magazine , September 14, Carll, Times-Picayune , November 3, Carll, Times-Picayune , November 20, Bernard: close and friendly" by Angela M. Carll, Times-Picayune , October 23, Carll, Times-Picayune , November 24, Bernard: A vital family parish filled with history," Times-Picayune , May 18, Carll, Times-Picayune , January 26, Carll, The Times-Picayune , Sept. Charles Hotel]? Charles Hotel]" Dixie , March 2, Uncertain Future" by J.
Bourgoyne, The Times-Picayune , May 5, Perry, The Times-Picayune , November 28, Simmons, Advocate , December 7, Description of National Register of Historic Places—tour information, regulations, and available services. Superdome still a wonder 15 years later," Sunday Advocate , August 19, Smith, Dixie , August 3, Zollman, Times Picayune , Aug. Will, The States-Item , August 6, Fleming, This Week , Jan. Bourgoyne, The Times-Picayune , January 21, Snodgrass, The States-Item , Dec.
Carll, The Times-Picayune , August 7, Bourgoyne, Times-Picayune , May 23, Sorenson, Louisiana Heritage Magazine , Vol. Celestine M. Carll, The Times-Picayune , August 14, Carll, The Times-Picayune , July 16, Carll, Times-Picayune , October 29, Carill, The Times-Picayune , April 10, Charles Avenue. Streetcar signaled by plaque," Times-Picayune , October 17, Claude Avenue.
Claude Avenue: Shooting the Breeze with the neighborhood crowd" by. John Riddell" by Hubert C. Skinner, Linn's Weekly Stamp News , n. Graugnard- What do you think" Morning Advocate , May 25, Miller- What Do You Think? George Pugh- What do you think? James Bolner- What do you think? Edwards told constitutional convention," Morning Advocate , Jan 11, Ben R.
Miller Sr. Of the New Constitution? Conrad, Carl A. Warren Robison,Series 1. Spedale, Sunday Advocate , June 12, Are you? Approved" by Larry Michaud, n. Kane, Morning Advocate , October 21, Shrub," The Times-Picayune , March 2, Jeffries, Dixie , August 17, Hall of Fame" The Times-Picayune , n. Vidacovich, Dixie , September 18, Hargroder, The Times-Picayune , Feb.
Carter, Courier , September April 10, Landry, Dixie , January 15, Perry, The States-Item , April 4, Roch" by Joan Kent, Dixie , October 26, History," Times-Picayune , September 7, Louis" by Damon veach, Advocate , July 28, Crawford, Sunday Advocate , April 15, Campbell, Sunday Magazine , November 29, Joseph's Abbey. Louis Cathedral. Patrick's Church of New Orleans.
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Patrick's polishes up dusty jewel," The Times-Picayune , February 27, Croix" by D. Eric Bookhardt, Dixie , October 31, Wright, Dixie , August 17, Steptoe, FUN , Dec. Perry, The States Item , May 28, Wilson, Sunday Advocate , May 13, Kenneth Holditch, Lagniappe , November 24, Lepoma, Sunday Magazine , August 23, Tillman, Sunday Advocate , October 3, What to Wear to the Carnival Ball.
Mint," Morning Advocate , Feb. Advocate , March 29, Chris Miller, The Times-Picayune , Folder 38 - Program for the Tangipahoa Bicentennial Folder 40 - Bicentennial, Daily Star , July 2, Tillman, Sunday Advocate , July 13, Moore, The Daily Star , June 30, Friedlander, Dixie , April 30, Bruce, Sunday Advocate , July 29, Heffron, Times-Picayune , May 9, Carll, The Times Picayune , October 17, Hoeschen, CityBusiness , December , George B. Crump, reprint from the Daily World , October 10, Buddy Roemer's inaugural address," Morning Advocate , March 15, Tammany Bureau, The States-Item , Owens, n.
Discovery" by Monroe Labouisse, Jr. Schneider, The Times-Picayune , April 3, Jordon, The Times-Picayune , May 11, Brockway," Advocate , May 7, Schneider, Times-Picayune , May 26, Clement, Dixie , December 15, XII, September XII, October XII, November XIII, June XIII, July XV, February
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