The last person in line then says out loud, what was whispered in his or her ear or rather what he or she understood. What usually happens is that the sentence changes a lot during the process of passing it on. Chinese Whispers playfully explores the relationships between original and forgery, authenticity and fake, beginning and end. The game proves that oral translation can never be one-to-one. Rather, the process of passing something on can be described as an act of translation that inevitably includes discontinuities in form of alternative interpretations, readings, or acts of understandings.
This game also demonstrates that the question of original or forgery is not so easy to answer, much like the difficulty in determining a beginning or an end, as this is likewise based on mutual agreement. While Chinese Whispers is more about translation in terms of word of mouth, the passing on of know-how, life experience, acquired knowledge, artistic choices or aesthetic style follows a different intent, namely one in which people seek to pass on everything as correctly as possible, hoping for it to be fully understood, accepted and assimilated by the recipient.
This act of passing something on - e. In the process of passing on material, the value of intangible goods - e. This is partially due to every individual attaching different levels of importance to what is being received and thus also assuming varying degrees of responsibility for the material.
Moreover, every act of passing something on also situates the intangible goods in new personal, life-world, historical and cultural contexts and these new framings continually generate new relevance, meaning and value. The relationship between translating and framing, in other words: the how, what, when, and in which direction a piece is translated, as well as the ways that meaning is generated in this process, are of great importance.
Unlike tangible goods, intangible goods are never the same when passed on. But like tangible goods, which may be reprocessed, renovated or restored during translation, aspects of intangible goods that may have been lost, can likewise be reconstructed in the process of passing them on, e. Passing something on therefore means more than merely transferring the same object or content. Rather, it is a process of translation exposed to a paradoxical relationship between identity and difference: the act of passing on material seeks to transport the identical, but can only do so via the simultaneous production of difference - and this paradox of identity and difference is exactly what makes the act of passing something on so culturally and artistically relevant.
The act of passing something on is based on a process of giving and taking. This process does not necessarily have to be consciously defined, as e. These decisions are usually more than a merely cognitive acts, since unconscious, emotional-affective and irrational factors tend to play a substantial role. Therefore, the practices of passing something on need people, who are prepared to accept material, to give it meaning, to attach value to it, to consider it important, to cultivate and lead it into the future.
Thus, the act of passing something on is related to practices of transfer, transmission, translation, dissemination and distribution, and these practices are related to ethical and moral issues, as well as to questions of social, political and cultural responsibility. These aspects of passing something on are incorporated in the work of the Tanztheater Wuppertal. In this company, which has worked together for more than forty years, it has always been everyday practice to pass on roles, scenes, solo dances to new and frequently younger dancers.
But this was also always an ambivalent practice in itself. On the one hand, it was a routine part of the rehearsal process. On the other hand, it always produced new unstable and uncertain situations Klein, b for the individual dancers passing on their solo parts or learning them from others. For Pina Bausch, passing on her choreographies to amateur dancers e. Although Pina Bausch never rehearsed one of her own choreographies with another company after becoming director of the Tanztheater Wuppertal , she did pass on two of her pieces to - just one - other company: Le Sacre du Printemps 6 and Orpheus und Eurydike 7 to the Paris Opera.
So how is it possible to pass something on when dealing with art, which can not easily been categorized or substantialized, but tends to be open, ambiguous, polysemous, sensual, emotional, affective? And: how is it possible to pass something on, when dealing with performance art, which is characterized by the momentary, the eventful and situational?
And how is passing on material accomplished when dealing with dances, which are considered to be ephemeral, transitory, inexpressible and the Other of language? Based on these initial considerations, passing something on can be described as an act of translation, understood here - in keeping with cultural studies, translation studies and postcolonial studies - as a theoretical concept used to analyze the how of transferring choreography and dance Klein, b ; c.
Translating choreography and dance is not about decoding motives or meanings of what was intended. In this sense, the dancers of the Tanztheater Wuppertal pass on their roles, e. Translating choreography and dance is especially sensitive due to the impossibility of translating movement - movement being ephemeral, existing only in the moment, while at the same time leaving a lasting trace.
In this respect, every act of passing something on is confronted with the possibility of failure. The productivity of translation - its poetic, social and cultural potential - lies precisely in this impossibility, determined by an oscillation between routinized practices and the constantly new. When describing the process of translation, the practices of translation and thus the question of the mode of translation comes into focus.
How does translation work and how can we study practices of translation and their performative effects from an approach that associates movement with more than just the individual body e. The research approach that such a form of reading dance paves the way for is a praxeology of the social and cultural translation of movement. It inquires into how these complex processes of exchange and negotiation take place in and as movement practices, by concentrating on the corporeal practices that the translations are based on.
Practices show themselves in their situatedness, their materiality and corporeality. Practical skill and implicit knowledge of bodies reveal themselves in such translation situations. This is very evident in the exemplary case of the Tanztheater Wuppertal : the bodies of the dancers are shaped by daily training and specific research methods, which produce specific practical skills. These are based on knowledge gained through experience and the knowledge is implicit insofar as the skills are not reflected in the situation.
This set of practices is organized along collectively shared, practical forms of knowledge about dance theater, which - as physical and implicit knowledge - always also produce difference. The execution of these practices itself in fact produces other bodies, habitual dispositions and subjectivities. Practices of movement translation must therefore be understood as a set of mental and corporal activities.
As a practice of translation, the act of passing something on can be summarized in five points, which I already formulated in more general terms above and will now use to clarify my argument:. The act of passing something on is based on practices of medial translation, which are subject to the paradox of identity and difference. The act of passing something on is related to ethnic-moral, social and cultural-political responsibility. Rehearsals then took a year and a half with breaks from autumn until April It was a process involving many people, including fifteen dancers of the Tanztheater Wuppertal.
And in the end, after all dancers of the Bavarian State Ballet had learned various roles, with over thirty dancers from Bavarian State Ballet forming two casts for the piece, as well as other artistic and technical staff, it added up to around one hundred people having been somehow involved in the process.
When choreographing classical ballet repertoire, most companies use notations. Neoclassical companies and some modern companies also work with notators and choreologists, who record the pieces in writing. This relationship between movement and writing - evident even in the very basis of choreo-graphy choros: to dance; graphein: to write and always situating choreography in relation to performance and writing Klein, d , p.
The auratic character of dance is here understood to lie in the eventfulness and singularity of every performance, which stands in contrast to a lasting text. However, contrary to this position, I argue that passing on pieces can be described as a paradoxical process of translation: on the one hand, it is intermediate, intersubjective and always different, and on the other hand, this same difference actually creates something identical.
The paradox of identity and difference in the translation process is particularly evident in the relationship between dance, visual and written media, video material and written notes, with the translation paradox anyhow specially ingrained in the specific mediality of pictorial and written recording media. This material is of various technical and aesthetic quality: the oldest videos, e. Moreover, in some recordings the camera hides more than it reveals especially of performances mainly filmed in medium close-up.
Since the pieces were performed with various casts, it not only becomes necessary to consult cast lists from nearly 40 years of dance history, but the pieces themselves also vary depending on their different casts. In other words: practices of passing on material are not solely based on the production as a whole, but on each individual separate performance. This means that the recordings of each and every performance are relevant for the transmission of the material.
Thirteen years later, only twelve of them still danced in Paris. However, five new dancers had meanwhile joined the ensemble and because two roles had been divided, the cast of previously fourteen dancers increased to sixteen. This is a perspective, which most dancers do not recognize, because they have always been dancing in the piece and have only observed it from the wings. Ultimately, video is moreover also only a two-dimensional medium that attempts to portray a three-dimensional art, one that is time and movement based - on the one hand, as a spatial and dramatic art, on the other as choreography.
The spatiality, which is of elementary importance to the dancer, is not clearly recognizable in the video itself, even with best image quality. Temporality is likewise a problem, because the camera has its own temporality, i. This different temporality of the film medium is further enhanced by shifts between close-ups and long shots, and even more so by editing.
In addition, lighting conditions appear different on camera and film than on stage which is also evident in photos of set design. Camera operation, settings and possible film editing may change the temporality and spatiality of the movements, making them appear slower or faster, smaller or larger. As these examples show, video does not replicate. In fact, due to its specific mediality, a difference is inscribed on what should be depicted. In this sense, the video promises an identical reproduction of reality, but produces a simulacrum.
Due to these medial failures of translation, video can be no more than an entry-point for passing on pieces, providing a first impression of the piece or a scene, and giving a general overview of a production. But there are a large number of written and figurative notes compiled by different people.
The written material available for one piece is therefore very different from that for another. Moreover, there is an enormous amount of annotated notes by Pina Bausch herself in her personal archive, which is not yet accessible.
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During rehearsals, Bausch sat behind at a big table, with not only coffee and cigarettes in front of her, but also a big pile of paper and pencils: she wrote everything down by hand. Considering that she asked around one hundred questions per rehearsal process for a new piece and ca. So we can imagine the extent of these notes just for one piece alone and then extrapolate that to a total of about fifty choreographies.
Despite asking questions in both German and English, she wrote her notes in German, in shorthand, using abbreviations and sometimes giving names to things observed during rehearsal. In other words, these are her private notes and they were written accordingly.
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She did not hand them over to anyone to read, but instead compiled and protected them in her bag during the production process. After that, they disappeared into her personal archive. Even if the Pina Bausch Foundation would grant access to this material at some point in the future, it would be an enormous challenge to decode and understand her subjective writing, which was never reviewed for intersubjective comprehension, but whose encryption was probably - quite the contrary - very much intended.
It would theoretically be possible to crosscheck her notes with rehearsal recordings, but not everything that happened in rehearsal was recorded on film. Another possibility would be to compare her notes to those written by the dancers, who participated in the same rehearsals.
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For the dancers themselves - in , the company consisted of thirty-two dancers from eighteen different countries, of these eighteen were women and fourteen men - also made notes during rehearsals. All of them had rehearsal notebooks. Some of them wrote down all questions and answers, others only noted the ones they thought would be interesting or had personally observed and some only made note about things to which they had given an answer to with their own bodies, voices, materials and props. Sometimes they wrote in German or English, and from time to time, they also wrote in their native languages, e.
Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese or Korean. If we look at the rehearsal books of some of these dancers, the problem of an individual dancer passing on choreography clearly emerges as a paradox of identity and difference between the piece and the writing. Apparently, none of the dancers were methodical in their notes, because - unlike in an academic research process - this was and is irrelevant for a process of artistic research and analysis, as well as for the development of a piece.
It also shows how they subjectively ascribed their own specific importance and meaning to them and eventually translated them into their own native languages, or into drawings, verse or poetry. In addition, some dancers did not keep their rehearsal books, and so these are now lost to us. Pina : dansez, dansez sinon nous sommes perdus by Germany Tanztheater Wuppertal Visual 3 editions published in in 3 languages and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Pina est un film pour Pina Bausch de Wim Wenders.
Kontakthof with ladies and gentlemen over "65 by Pina Bausch Visual 5 editions published in in English and German and held by 35 WorldCat member libraries worldwide A revival of Pina Bausch's dance piece is set in a dance hall, with the participants preparing for an encounter and hoping to find love. Against a background of sentimental German songs of the s, jazz, and tangos, the performers, all aged between 65 and 75, enact mating rituals and sexual frenzy apparently more suited to those less than half their ages.
Pina tanzt, tanzt sonst sind wir verloren Visual 3 editions published in in German and Undetermined and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide PINA ist ein atemberaubender Tanzfilm mit dem Ensemble des Tanztheater Wuppertal "Pina Bausch" und der mitreissenden, einzigartigen Kunst seiner grossen, im Sommer verstorbenen Choreographin.
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Quelle: Umschlagtext. Pina : danziamo, danziamo altrimenti siamo peduti Visual 1 edition published in in Italian and held by 19 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Wim Wenders directs this documentary paying tribute to the work of avant-garde German choreographer Pina Bausch. When Bausch tragically died of cancer two days before shooting began, the film, which was originally intended to follow Bausch at work in rehearsals and on tour, became instead an homage to her life and work, interweaving excerpts from her stage works and interviews with the dancers.
Le sacre du printemps by Igor Stravinsky Visual 4 editions published between and in French and German and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Registratie van Strawinsky's 'Le sacre du printemps' in de versie van de Duitse choreografe Pina Bausch. European Tanztheater by Germany Tanztheater Wuppertal Visual 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide "The story of the avant garde Tanztheater, past, present, and future, is told here through filmed performances, commentary and interviews with critics and choreographers.
Tanztheater, which had its roots in the s and the work of Rudolf Laban, strives to reflect the social and cultural climate of the time using many artistic elements, including dance, drama, and poetry. Follow Us. App Download. US UK. Thank you for subscribing! Please check your email to confirm your subscription. Our Stores. Apply Filter Remove Filter Categories. Wuthering Heights MYR Nude MYR L'art au point de vue sociologique Corpus des oeuvres de philosophie en langue MYR Announcements MYR All the latest offers delivered right to your inbox!
Related Le Langage chorégraphique de Pina Bausch (French Edition)
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