Eighteen months later, Neumann writes that Part One is essentially finished. He is about to send Jung a lecture that belongs to the third part. His revision of Part Two occupied him for the remainder of the war ibid. Based on a key statement in his letter to Jung on 1 October , he probably completed his work on Hasidism just as the war ended in Europe: But then. He begins with psychological anthropology, reviewing the history of ideas since the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, and showing how scientific advances have led to a shift in human consciousness.
On the basis of evidence from myths, rituals, symbols, and evolutionary science, he argues that the concept of humanity has become universal, embracing every period of history and every cultural, religious and national group. Roots I, p. He is then ready to introduce his primary topic, the inner and outer problems facing modern Judaism: Historically, we have reached a stage that represents a reversal of what happened when the Second Temple was destroyed.
At the time, there was a saying: the Jewish people may suffer, but Judaism must survive. Now the opposite saying is true: Judaism may suffer, but the Jewish people, the Jewish person, must live and survive. Today it is not about Judaism, but about the individual Jew. For Neumann, Jewish survival must be understood in psychological and spiritual terms, as much as physical. It entails an individual reconnection with the inner world of the divine—a fundamental reality that he says was understood by the ancient Jews but was largely lost during the Babylonian Exile and the Second Temple period.
Modern Jews, he suggests, may rediscover their psychological wholeness by reconnecting with the archetypal power in Hasidic teachings, Talmudic texts, Kabbalah, and in particular the Zohar. In the first chapter of his Part One, we read: This failure of the people as a collective must be compensated for by prophecy, as represented by.
Contrary to the later Levitical and priestly Aaronite—Zadokite tendencies, prophecy remains connected with the people and the collective. Indeed, it represents the potential of each member of the people to receive the gift of prophecy, i. He seems to have had different sets of reasons for withholding Part One and Part Two. When he completed Part One, in May , he still intended to publish it. But during the next few years, he apparently decided that this first part was unpublishable.
On 1 October , he wrote to Jung: After I had completed a rather large work on Jewish antiquity—On the Psychological History of the Jewish Person— it is now out of date and only useable as source material , I wrote a book on the psychological meaning of Hasidism for the modern Jew, by which I still stand. What made him call Part One out of date?
This teaching had provided Neumann with part of the theoretical scaffolding for his Part One. But now, because it was no longer supported by Jung, the foundation of Part One was shaken. She seems to miss the fact that, with independent reflection, Neumann, too, revised his thinking about the collective unconscious. Jung wrote in that, in the light of current events, the collective unconscious of Jews must be viewed as essentially the same as that of other groups: To be sure, there are specific Jewish traits in this development; but it is also a general one, which is happening equally for Christians.
It is a question of a general and identical revolution of minds. The specifically Christian or Jewish traits have only secondary meaning. The whole problem in itself is of paramount importance for humanity; for that reason, individual and racial differences play an insignificant part. Neumann wrestled for a year with the inconvenient implications of this theoretical revision. In November he wrote: In the meantime, I have also recognized that Jewish symbolism. Of course, I knew this before, but the problem of the singularity of the Jews would have been so much simpler if a specific symbolism could have been demonstrated.
But now he faced a deeper, more personal dilemma. His letter continues: I have got rid of all that and stand without preconceptions before something that is incomprehensible to me. My slogan—it is no longer about Judaism but about the Jewish person, about the individual as revelation-center and realization-center of the Self—seems to require and to signify, along with the abolition of the old Judaism, something like a new Jewish beginning. And how should I believe in that, why must I believe in it? Six months later, he offered to send Jung the first part, said he was busy with the second, and enclosed a lecture belonging to the third.
Then their correspondence underwent a five-year break. Neumann may indeed have felt abandoned by Jung for a time, but this disappointment did not stop him from writing. Between and , he completed his work on Hasidism. When he wrote to Jung in October , he declared himself satisfied with it. During the war years, when he and Jung were out of touch, he wrote most of Depth Psychology and a New Ethic. Likewise, when he revised Part One of the present work, he wove a universalist definition of the collective unconscious into his.
Like Jung, he emphasizes the individual quality of spirituality and the profoundly ambiguous nature of all religious experience. Neumann also frequently refers to central Jungian concepts in the symbolic and archetypal realm, including the Self, the anima, and the shadow. In this regard, a point that Neumann and Jung share is the complexity of the Self. For Jung, the inner God-image has a shadow. The numinous the holy is by its nature a source of fear; thus any direct encounter with the God-image can be terrifying. The unity of good and evil in God is a recurring theme in Hebrew scripture and Jewish tradition.
Neumann carries this paradoxical perspective into his discussion of the unitive Hasidic vision of good and evil, a theme on which he touches in the fifth chapter of New Ethic, and develops more fully in Volume Two of the. Like Jung, Neumann warns that the unconscious, as a force of nature, is neither good nor bad. Neumann highly respects the ethical role of the conscious ego, and emphasizes that the moral canon must be protected by a stable egoconsciousness against the unbridled power of the unconscious.
But this also implies, for Neumann, that ego-consciousness has a responsibility to discern the tendency of the unconscious and to respond to it with conscious moral judgment. Those that he declined to change, in almost every instance, concerned the autonomy and moral. On this subject, Jung and Neumann carried on a vigorous debate in their letters. We can only learn how a grain of corn must behave between hammer and anvil.
New Ethic, p. Volume Two approaches the ego—Self axis more directly, both in the context of spiritual maturation Roots II, p. The essence of this offering is that ego and Self, I and God, are joined, thereby removing the wall that separates the system of consciousness from the one outside this working center. He could read and translate Hebrew, but he always wrote in German. He wrote that he was willing to talk further with Neumann about his valuable work, but there is no record of further correspondence between them. Other scholars of Jewish mystical tradition, including Samuel Horodezky.
Horodezky, a generation older than Buber, is represented through references to his encyclopedia articles on the Baal Shem-Tov and Lilith. Two of his books in Hebrew, one on Dov Baer, the Great Maggid, and the other on Rabbi Nachman,41 are also frequently quoted, in German translations that may have been written by Neumann himself. Buber and Scholem, two eminent teachers of Jewish mystical tradition, both German educated, both Zionists, were separated by a generation and occupied distinct scholarly territories. She also recalls that his distrust of Jung partly reflected a general distrust of psychology.
She remembers no meetings in Israel between Scholem and her father, but only their yearly encounters at Eranos. Still, it seems clear that, if Scholem had expressed an opinion about these two volumes, he might have voiced misgivings about both Buber and Jung. In his independence of spirit, Neumann would not have bowed automatically to the opinion of a colleague, but as time went by, he may have internalized aspects of these implicit critiques.
According to the first-person account that Dreifuss later published, in he tried to persuade Neumann. He lacked the strength and freedom to immerse himself for years in the Jewish material and the Hebrew language. It now seemed to him, however, that this material was inadequate; for Buber had very much shaped his selection and translations to fit the general heritage of European thought. Depth psychology and Hasidism, he writes, are such highly developed and specialized fields that almost no one can claim mastery in both.
The decision to publish Writing nearly forty years after Dreifuss, I will employ the liberty of the editor and go further than he did. I will say, first, that Neumann himself held. He did not publish it. It is the voice of a passionate and brilliant young writer, who dares to embrace and interpret the entire history of his people, invoking the prophetic spirit of Moses in confrontation with the Divine Presence on Sinai.
But all this time, there was a gap in the record, for The Roots of Jewish Consciousness is the only full-length writing of his that can properly be called his Jewish work. Now that it has been released for publication, thanks to the wisdom and dedication of Erel Shalit and Nancy Furlotti and the generous permission of Micha Neumann and Rali Neumann-Loewenthal, that gap can be filled. If I may be allowed a personal comment, I occupy a position outside of, but also—by personal inclination, ongoing study, and several important relationships— increasingly connected with aspects of Jewish tradition.
In the process of preparing the present project for publication, I have been and remain only a journeyman student, constantly learning. Thus, we are daring to publish a work that Neumann valued but about which he expressed misgivings. Knowing the scope of his misgivings, readers will be able to make their own judgment. Ann Conrad Lammers June That word —or phrase, in English—is now firmly associated with his title, Ursprungsgeschichte des Bewusstseins Origins and History of Consciousness hereafter: Origins and History , which properly stands as an independent volume.
When Neumann was writing Hasidism, numerous related writings by Scholem were published and available, as shown in the Bibliography of the Writings of Gershom G. Scholem , pp. Most of these were in Hebrew, making them less accessible to Neumann. Appendix B, Roots II, p. Analytische Psychologie, Vol. German: academic preparatory school. Neumann returned to Eranos in He lectured there in and every year until his death in Neumann wrote most of this essay in ibid. Liebscher, ed. McCartney, trans. As the McCartney translation sometimes lacks accuracy, alternate translations, as noted, are based on the Patmos edition: C.
With few exceptions, Neumann quotes the Buber and Rosenzweig translations of the Pentateuch,. Rosenzweig, who died in December , collaborated with Buber on the Pentateuch and five other books, through Isaiah. Buber alone then translated Jeremiah. He finished translating the Scripture in These volumes included the volume Lambert Schneider edition, the textually identical Schocken edition, a volume Schocken set which followed, and a 3-volume set, comprising the same 20 books, published by Schocken in Jahrhundert Mystical and religious trends among the Jews of Poland in the 16th to 18th centuries.
IV, Roots II, p. That is, during his time with Jung, Neumann himself resolved to undertake this work. The publication of the present work coincides with a current Jewish resurgence, in some quarters, of vivid interest in charismatic prophecy. Zvi Leshem kindly directed me to a collection of passages on this topic, published in by Bezazel Naor.
Prophecy is viewed as typical and central in Judaism. The Holy Scriptures are viewed almost as an expression of a spirit which pervades all paths of Judaism, rather than a one-time happening. Lichtenstein, Shivhey Qol ha-Nevuah, p. Hebrew: lit. According to Jewish tradition, there are Zaddikim of the nations. Later he wrote to Jung of his distress and asked him to justify his behavior.
Jung replied that he had offered only limited support because he had felt that Kirsch needed to rely on his own libido when making such a momentous move Jung, 20 February , J-K Letters, p. In a footnote to his first edition of New Ethic, Neumann notes that he completed most of the book in Neue Ethik, , p.
Therefore I feel sorry for those who go under. In Roots I, cf. In New Ethic , cf. Although in Neumann probably expected his New Ethic to be published promptly in English, in fact the English edition appeared only two decades later. In , Neumann wrote a preface, but the English edition was still delayed. A later reprinting Harper Torchbooks, includes a third foreword, by James Yandell. There one may locate all the passages he asked Neumann to revise.
The Place of Creation, W. McGuire, ed. Neumann had approached this concept even earlier in his essay, Jacob and Esau. In this respect, Neumann was not alone. The concept of the unity of Scripture, central for both Buber and Rosenzweig, is discussed in their essays on biblical translation. Tamar Kron, interview, Jerusalem, 29 April The generic title is used here because, when referring in his text to this important. For a polemical but informative overview of their debate, cf. Catane, ed. Scholem Jerusalem, , pp. Scholem to J.
Kirsch, 3 November , unpublished correspondence, the James Kirsch archive. In addition, according to Rali Neumann-Loewenthal, he disliked psychological hermeneutics in general. Dreifuss, , op. Unless otherwise noted, works previously unpublished in English are translated by Mark Kyburz and Ann Lammers in collaboration. Hand-bound typescripts of the work were sold at auction in None of them, however, is hand bound.
The discovery of mythical prehistory The revolution that has transformed the mental situation of the western world in the past years1 has assigned to human beings a surprising new position in the cosmos, utterly unlike any they have occupied so far. What we are talking about can be summed up as the emergence, in all areas of life, of a tremendous prehistoric and primordial world, which places the individual within an infinitely ramified context.
In this context, human history represents only one part of the evolution of living beings, this evolution is only one part of the history of the earth, and the earth itself represents only one part of the history of the cosmos. This process signifies much more than a development in natural science, although science has played a considerable role in remaking the world edifice.
We must remember that the past years have bestowed on human beings a biological relationship with the animal kingdom, thus restoring humanity to the lineage of natural creatures. By contrast, medieval people, as lonely sons and daughters of God, were cast out into an alien and hostile world of temptation. But also, during these last years, a human consciousness, as the selfconsciousness of the human species, has actually begun to form for the first time.
Based on their unconscious assumptions, they each considered themselves the center of the world. The first Indian text came to the western world at the end of the. In the various cultural orientations of all these groups, the expression of a great development may be seen: the developing consciousness of the human species. The positive meaning of this fact remains unaffected by the political landslides engulfing peoples and nations. These upheavals are ephemeral symptoms of a major historical transformation, in which for the first time the subject of humanity is starting to emerge as a reality.
This was the unrecognized meaning signaled by the French Revolution. Nations, as specific configurations of the human race, can now claim for themselves only relative importance. The nationalist obsessions of our time are, in part, an understandable reaction to this relentless development. The justification for this temporary nationalization, or renationalization, is that, with the emergence of the perspective of humanity, every people must reflect upon its own voice, which it is destined to play in the human orchestra.
Quite independent of this development, the emergence of classical studies means that the prehistory of the western world is now also starting to be discovered. This involves, first, the study of pre-Hellenic antiquity, which teaches one to recognize and understand the rise of Greece as the end point of both a larger context and a longer historical process, and, second, the discovery of pre-Christian and preJewish antiquity.
Knowledge of the ancient Orient, biblical criticism, and comparative religious studies, taken together, undermine the singular, pivotal status held by Christianity during the Middle Ages. Christianity now coexists with Asian religions, and also with Islam and other world religions, past and present, all of which have their particular strengths and weaknesses. The history of religion provides evidence for the close interrelationships of various religions, where one developed in the seedbed of another.
For instance, the Indo-Aryan Renaissance suddenly establishes completely different interrelationships than those previously at work in history. Christianity, as a transnational religious entity, is undermined by nationalist4 connections, which are thought to link the Germanic-Christian peoples to Indo-Brahman and Buddhist ones. Nevertheless, the rediscovery of the mythical world is crucially important for the history of ideas, from Romanticism through to the present.
The discovery of the mythical and later of the primitive world provided material for a fundamental adjustment in human consciousness, creating a new familiarity with the preconscious world, that is, the world of the unconscious, which precedes that of consciousness. The history of human evolution, as a sequence of developmental stages, does not necessarily result in greater consciousness. Only by considering all cultures and all peoples can we gain an overall view. Such a perspective enables us to recognize what human consciousness has achieved for itself so far.
Over time, individual groups of the human species have specialized, so that each group attained particular achievements. Western humanity, for instance, turned its consciousness more toward the outer world, whereas eastern humanity turned more toward the inner world. Taken together, they reveal the actual scope already attained by human consciousness.
Neither group, however, can claim the entire scope of the conscious world as its own. In cultures shaped by specific human groups, we find extremely diverse stages of consciousness and varied forms of unconscious reality, such that the history of humanity could be said to constitute the development of human consciousness. In Asia or Europe, America or Africa, a particular group unknowingly took the lead, only to relinquish its leadership, still unknowingly.
Then this hidden leadership passed to another group, again without its knowledge. The past years have taught western humanity and western Christian culture that any standpoint is relative, and that knowledge is contingent on. This insight also underlies, as effect or cause, the fact that today there is one world, with one monetary policy, one world economy, and one world war.
The new orientation given by depth psychology The relativizing integration of these developments into a larger human context reaches its peak in two discoveries: the discovery of prehistory, which everywhere conditions human consciousness, and the discovery of the world of the unconscious. From a perspective that regards human history as the history of human consciousness, the manifold paths that the past years have blazed into unexplored terrain are unified, in a highly characteristic fashion.
Evolutionary history and geology, the history of antiquity and ethnology, the study of language and religious studies, anthropology, and psychology are all merely different methods, perspectives, and materials enabling an understanding of the prehistory of human consciousness. The manylayered complexity of the unconscious structure of the psyche, together with its symbolism, reveals traces of the development of consciousness from our animal ancestry through the psychology of the primitive, all the way to the modern individual.
The archetypal symbolism of the unconscious is the mother of all mythical, cultic, and religious concepts and images discovered and compared by the history of religion, classical studies, and ethnology. Therapeutic work done with the modern individual provides evidence for the existence and effects of the collective unconscious, that is, a human unconscious the images of which precede the formative influences on individual peoples and their conscious attitudes.
This therapeutic work has liberated the scientific research of the past years, which is otherwise of merely antiquarian interest, and given it vital importance. Gnostic symbolism,7 for instance, becomes highly relevant if it proves to be at work in the modern unconscious. The study of primitive psychology also loses its specialized character if this psychology still largely determines the.
The existence of a universal human psychic structure, viewed in terms of evolutionary history, manifests itself in the identical symbolism and fundamental notions that we find among all peoples and at all times. It also becomes self-evident to what extent the universal structure of the human nervous system, as the embodiment of ancestral experience, expresses itself in the experiences made and formulated everywhere by the human species.
Races, peoples, and groups are distinguished by the constellations of archetypal contents that have assumed importance for them, rather than by different contents of the collective unconscious. A time of self-reflection will be needed by the peoples, in order to work out how these constellations act in history. We must not forget, though, that these constellations are merely variations in how the universal human heritage is assimilated.
Essentially, this development amounts to a change in consciousness. It also reveals not only how, but also how far, consciousness works through unconscious contents. These unconscious contents remain unchanged as elements, as archetypes, over great expanses of time. Even if the approach seems unhistorical at first, this fact is important because it allows us to assemble texts from different times and different peoples, in which the same images occur. Unquestionably, the conscious working-through of an archetype may be entirely different from one people or epoch to another.
Thus, for instance, medieval Christianity condemns as a witch the same feminine aspect of the magically powerful woman that India worships as a dangerous aspect of female magical power. And yet the archetypal image of the woman capable of magic appears both in India and in Europe.
Astonishingly, as already noted, the modern unconscious also conveys these images in unaltered form, thus permitting them to ascend through consciousness largely undisturbed. Ultimately, however, the identical functioning of the psychic structure is just as extraordinary, and just as ordinary, as the fact that today the autonomous nervous system governs human breathing and digestion exactly as it did 5, years ago, whether in southern Africa or in northern India. And yet human bodily identity strikes us as unproblematic and self-evident, whereas psychic identity does not.
Amid these developments, the Jewish situation has become particularly confused and catastrophic. The previous phase of western Jewish intellectual history involved a strong and largely successful assimilation into the western world, as well as the separation from the primordial religious and collective situation of Judaism. So whereas the ecclesial development of Christianity made room for a growing number of pagan elements, a strong bias12 against the Old Testament emerged in the last century.
Biblical criticism and research into the ancient Near East climaxed in a deliberately disillusioning and often highly anti-Semitic aggression against the Old Testament. For obvious reasons, some theologians were forced to exercise greater caution. Ultimately, however, neither was this process arbitrary nor did it amount to a conspiracy of evil-minded antiSemites. Rather, these traits are integrated into the intellectual revolution of the western world, which is now overcoming its Christian and classical assumptions.
Highly interesting in this respect is the new discovery13 of heresy, from. Particularly the rediscovery of Gnosticism,14 with its strong rejection of the Old Testament, is immensely significant, because its reemergence brings forth exactly those problems that were contested during the rise of Christianity and finished with the victory of the Church. It almost seems as if this ancient process were being revived. Just as the motifs of Hellenism, Judaism, the Near-Eastern religions, Gnosticism, and Zoroastrianism collided at the beginning of Christianity, so the subcurrents and secondary currents ousted by the dominance of Christianity are now resurfacing, because Christianity appears to have lost its power to shape human life and history.
Without even the slightest idea about the future direction of this process, in which new Indo-Aryan groups and their worldviews may stake out an utterly new intellectual continent against the peoples of Asia, and indeed without even knowing whether such groups represent only temporary worldviews, one fact remains unalterable amid these developments: the reality of the Jewish problem.
The revolution of the western world excludes Judaism precisely because it has assimilated itself to that form of the western world that is currently undergoing total and relentless transformation. The western world, for the assimilating Jew, meant humanism in the sense of a universal human consciousness. It meant transnationalism and internationalism. Indeed, in part, it also meant what the intellectual revolution now unfolding will bring at some stage: the self-consciousness of the human species.
Tragically, however, the process in which the western world finds itself presupposes a reconnection with the pre-Christian, that is, the pagan collective unconscious. The self-examination engaged in by peoples and by individuals must include the unconscious worlds that preceded, indeed opposed, the conscious orientation at the time. The western world must become conscious of its pre-Christianized layers, precisely because its consciousness was Christianized.
Likewise, the individual must become conscious of the unconscious layers excluded from conscious orientation. Economic developments that run parallel to these intellectual processes, having been directed by them, lead likewise to an elimination of the Jewish element. The frivolous bestiality with which this process is sometimes carried. Not because economic or political expulsion is at stake—this, of course, is the Jewish fate, although previously it never spelled an existential crisis—but because Jewish religion is no longer an effective force in the world, just as little as, or even less than, Protestantism.
This situation affects modern Jews and modern western Christians alike, because currently emerging developments in their unconscious will prompt new philosophical and religious influences. Whereas all other peoples continue to exist, and have time to undergo such developments, the rootless and homeless Jew faces the danger of not surviving this age.
think jung how i found meaning in my life a memoir Manual
And there is a danger that Judaism will perish as a result. Today, however, it is not about Judaism, but about the Jew as a person. Historically, we have reached a stage that represents a reversal of what happened when the Second Temple was destroyed. Whereas the beacon of an abstract Judaism shone above the martyred Jewish destinies burned, broken on the wheel, lynched, and impaled, now what proclaims itself is the right of the Jew as an individual, who must realize that what is at stake is his life, his blood.
Today, it not about Judaism, but about the individual Jew. Therefore, the therapies for ancient sufferings are ineffective for the sufferings of the modern Jew. Beyond the paralysis of dogmatic Judaism, innumerable hidden creative tensions exist within the Jew. These tensions must be identified and kindled, so that the old sources of living water will once again flow from the seemingly lifeless stone.
Contrary to what one might think, however, the argument that it comes. As this work attempts to show, the Jewish historical process inexorably moves in this direction. This, in turn, explains why only the individual can rescue and regenerate Judaism. Later we discuss the fact that individuals, as members of their people, must exist under natural living conditions, that is, under conditions that also permit their unconscious to live, and not merely their stomach and their business. Our present attempt starts from the unconscious problem of the modern Jew. This set of problems, as far as it is rooted in the Jewish collective unconscious, requires an in-depth study of the basic problems and contents affecting Jewish existence and its history.
We shall understand the difficulty at the depths of the modern Jew only if we fathom those problems and contents. The theme Our central theme, of course, is the relationship between consciousness and the unconscious. This problem is closely entwined with the problem of revelation theologically defined, that is, with the rise of new and normative contents from the unconscious into consciousness.
Our endeavor, it should be noted, is psychological. Thus, we need to review the great problem of the ancient Jew, solely to establish how it persists as the inner problem for the modern Jew. The problem of inner experience is a central problem of the modern Jew and of the Jewish person in general.
For this reason, our recourse to history is anything but antiquarian. Given our particular starting point, we are aware that our thematic emphasis is somewhat one-sided and idiosyncratic. Nevertheless, we believe that we have not violated historical truth in this book. We must remember that everything confronting us as biblical criticism, for instance, is contingent upon history.
By no means do we mean to. We are still following in its footsteps, because at a time of Jewish disintegration and Jewish self-neglect, generations of biblical researchers17 undertook in all earnestness those tasks that we left unattended, being fully occupied with our assimilation into the western world. No depth psychology of the modern Jew can ignore the historical antecedents that have determined the structure of the Jewish person18 to this day.
This explains why our inquiry into the structure of the ancient Jew is so intensely topical. The end point of our study, whose primary concern is the modern Jew, will reveal just how topical this inquiry really is. We shall consider two great historical epochs and their offshoots, in order to trace the development of this problem, at least as far as it is relevant to understanding the psychic background of the modern Jew.
The first epoch is Jewish antiquity, where we focus on prophetism19 and the opposition between YHWH and the powers of nature. Subsequently, we discuss the psychology of the apocalyptic writers and the psychic transformation that occurred at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. The second epoch of concern to us is Hasidism, the late eighteenthcentury religious movement that established, it seems to us, a new basis for resolving the essential problems of the Jewish person.
We shall also discuss emancipation and assimilation, as constituting the Jewish psychology of the nineteenth century. These themes lead to the third part of this study,21 which attempts to describe the existential problem of modern Judaism directly, on the basis of the unconscious material of the modern Jewish person, that is, of his dreams, fantasies, and images. This part also attempts to trace the lines of development arising from this unconscious material. It is widely known that Jewish existence exhibits a crucial break, but the actual meaning of this event and its full implications have not become clear, either in the non-Jewish world or in Jewish self-consciousness.
The inner transformation of the ancient Jew into a galut Jew22 is not bound to the. It corresponds instead to a process that had essentially already taken place between the destruction of the First and Second Temples, and that merely reached its most obvious climax after the destruction of the Second Temple. The psychology of Jewish antiquity and the psychology of the galut are incommensurable.
In falsely claiming continuity, Jewish self-interpretation has been self-deceiving, obsessed with the dogma of a stable Judaism. For too long, this self-deception has prevented, indeed thwarted, Jews from understanding their own fate. Up to now, this dogma has formed the basis of Jewish existence. For orthodoxy, as the existential attitude of the Jews, insisted until about years ago that the revelation on Sinai was identical with the entire oral doctrine that emerged from the process of historical change.
Thus, ultimately, it insisted on the artificial exclusion of historical reality in its endeavor to create, through the Law and its fulfillment, a level of existence possessing absolute validity. This permitted the Jewish people, despite the vicissitudes of world events, to persist in claiming exceptional status, as originally guaranteed by revelation.
The Jewish people simply had to survive the triviality of historical events in order to be restored, on the arrival of the messianic era, to its original, central, never-relinquished place in the world, which it has maintained through its insistence on continuity. It is striking, of course, that the destruction of the Temple and the beginning of the galut represent a decisive turning point in the selfconsciousness of the Jew, leaving its mark on Jews down to the smallest minutiae and symptomatizing itself in a total adaptation of life and also of the Law.
Despite this, however, that is, despite all consciousness of the galut, there was a refusal to see that continuity with the pre-exilic state was illusionary. On the contrary, every effort was made to strengthen the consciousness of continuity and to consolidate it through the establishment of traditions. Whereas the real character of the mid-eighteenth-century Jew differed, crucially and catastrophically, from that of the ancient Jew, Judaism remained almost unchanged.
Essentially, this Judaism remained as it had been two thousand years before, or at least, if it had developed, it had developed only in nuances. It still upheld the same eschatological concepts of. To establish a genuine sense of the actual psychic situation of the ancient Jew, that is, the Jew living before the destruction of the First Temple,24 we must depart from the notion commonly held by theology, to a degree not attempted hitherto.
Indeed, the reality of the Jewish person has—more or less understandably—never been a focus of research, except insofar as Judaism provided material for the theological concerns of a particular age, from the Church Fathers to the German Faith Movement. Today, however, matters are different. The surging hatred of the Jews is a powerful driver of history, isolating the Jewish people. Our present attempt, including all the back roads and detours that seem necessary, is intended to approach this self-meditation from. The plight of modern Jews—who like all modern humans lack direction, yet find themselves caught up in an age shaken to its foundations by catastrophes, lacking historical continuity, and plunged into a bottomless sociological pit—compels us to try to reconnect with the past in our own way.
By assembling a wide-ranging collection of texts and interpretations, diverse conceptions of history, and individual studies, we attempt here to reveal basic psychological attitudes and work out forms of psychic behavior and outlooks on life, which, related to the unconscious problem of the modern Jew, can perhaps illumine his dark path. Jung hereafter: CW , v. Here, used ironically, the second meaning applies. Written before World War II. EN: Despite its misinterpretations, psychoanalysis has compared vast amounts of material to establish common symbolism among the nations and peoples of the world.
See also the historical references in C. The Eranos-Jahrbuch hereafter: EJ is the annual volume of papers from the interdisciplinary Eranos symposium, started by Jung, which has been held every August since in Ascona, Switzerland. Neumann sees the post-Enlightenment period as crucial to the experience of Jews in western Europe.
Tendenz: lit. This remark predates the historic discovery at Nag Hammadi, in , of ancient papyrus scrolls containing Gnostic texts. One scroll, Codex I, bought in by the C. Neumann alludes to contemporary events, in Germany and elsewhere, expressing neo-paganism. EN: R. Wilhelm and C. English edition, The Secret of the Golden Flower, p. When using the term Struktur structure , Neumann sometimes adds a modifier, such as die Struktur der Psyche the structure of the psyche. When he leaves the term unmodified, as here, it may generally be read as a synonym for psyche. Prophetismus: the practice or system of biblical prophecy, as distinct from particular prophetic sayings or actions.
He did not complete his planned third part, but its themes are sketched out in his letter to Jung on 5 December cf. J-N Corresp, pp. His lecture of April , which he sent to Jung ibid. Roots II, Appendix B. The collective exilic experience began, he explains, with the destruction of the Solomonic Temple, bce, marking the beginning of the Babylonian Exile, and it culminated with the destruction of the Second Temple, 70 CE.
EN: Baer, Galuth, p. In the English edition, cf. The destruction of the First Temple, with the exile of Israelites and Judahites into Babylon, occurred in bce. German Faith Movement: a racialist—nationalist religious system, founded in by Jakob Wilhelm Hauer — Hauer, a German Indologist and professor of religious studies, had taught a weeklong seminar on yoga at the Psychological Club in Zurich in A year later, he began reshaping his professional life consistent with the direction set by National Socialism.
Again, Neumann sees the post-Enlightenment period as having special application to the experience of the Jews. Moses and the revelation on Sinai The Near East and the significance of the Mother Goddess The transformation of the psychology of the Jewish people by the men who wrote and redacted the Bible should not cause us to forget that they stood against what the Jewish person actually was. We shall need to discuss not only the fact that, but also how and why, these men went on to shape history.
First, however, we must attempt to deduce the psychology of the ancient Jew from the negative of the picture created by—to put it briefly— the prophets. Greatly simplified, this psychology reveals a highly belligerent, cruel, and primitive group, whose defining characteristic is that it is powerfully possessed by the earth. Quite possibly, this hunger for land corresponds to the transition from nomadic life to a settled, agricultural life. Here, however, we come up against unresolved problems, because nomadic peoples loathe settled forms of life.
Thus, we would need to assume that, in their hunger for land, the psychology of the nomadic Hebrew tribes differed from that of other nomadic Semitic peoples. This assumption coincides with the fact that. This exceptionally strong tension of opposites characterizes the Jews still to this day. A fanatical attachment to the land is evident in all ancient accounts, a determination to claw oneself into the earth and cling to its fertility. Several fundamental motifs emerge repeatedly in these narratives: fertility of the soil, the land of milk and honey, fertility of the herds, fertility of the tribes, becoming like the dust of the earth, like the stars of heaven, like the ocean sand.
These elements surely correspond to what is usually called paganism. At this point we must point out that, in its depths, the psychology of the still largely unconscious Hebrew tribes strongly resembled, and had to resemble, the psychology of the related Semitic tribes and their surrounding world. It is beyond our present scope to consider the surrounding pagan religions.
Nevertheless, we must emphasize the significant role played by the cult of female deities among the Canaanite and Syrian peoples and those of Asia Minor. Paganism, in its Near-Eastern form, is characterized by the predominance of nature, of earthy femininity, and the orgiastic sexuality that accompanies it. The omnipotent goddess and ruler, celebrated in orgiastic intoxication, governs all creatures through the fecundity of earth and womb, and in the overwhelming power of sexuality. This powerful sensuality and primitive attachment to the forces of nature continue to this day to be one of the dangers for the Jew.
Although Jewish development has taken a different course over the past 2, years, a curious Dionysian tendency remains evident, as manifest in Near-Eastern festivals, Hasidic circle dances, and the night-long Hora dancing of the modern Jew of Eretz Israel. Until late antiquity, the Baal—Astarte side of Canaanite religion was an essential part of folk religion. Here, we also find the cult of the chthonic deity, of the earth and its central symbol, vegetation, plant and tree. Behind all these forms of religion, however, stands always the image of the Great Mother, beside whom the brother—son—husband is merely secondary.
He may occupy an important role as the darling and object of the mysteries, because he kindles the hope of rebirth and immortality, yet he remains surrounded by the powerful and superior figure of the Great Mother, who embodies nature and the soul, whether as Ishtar or Isis, Anat or Artemis. Her overwhelming powerfulness encompasses death and life, fertility and dying. The Baal religions, too, remained religions of merely cosmic forces.
Whether the power of the womb and the earth prevails, or the power of the phallus and heaven, this opposition is maintained. What is celebrated is the dominance of these only-natural forces, to which humans subordinate themselves. These forces of natural existence give life to the pagan pantheon. Prophetistic and yahwistic religion must grapple with the celebration and worship of these powerful, life-determining forces, in whose midst the Hebrew people is situated.
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The prophetic conception rests on the tension of YHWH and earth, the opposition between these polarities, and their close association. We can only fully grasp the significance of Hebrew prophecy if we understand the contrast between Canaan and Israel, through prophecy, as a conflict situated within Israel itself. In this internal conflict, the universal and fundamental tension between YHWH and earth has attained its specific and historical effectiveness, particularly if the early soothsayers must be assumed to have been influenced by the forces of nature.
As much is suggested by their. One distinctive feature of early navitum,8 widespread also in Israel, is the ubiquitously chthonic character of such ecstasy. This earthy character is associated with a certain layer of the unconscious, which comes out in ecstatic states and governs consciousness. This layer is known to us from the psychology of the modern individual and from comparative folk psychology, where it plays a particular role, for instance, in Kundalini yoga in India. One part of this layer is fertility symbolism; another part, directly linked with it, are orgiastic sexual cults, at whose center stand fertility symbols.
This explains why, for a land-cultivating, agricultural population, these cults worshiping the forces of the earth are not only understandable but also characteristic. These phenomena were symptomatic both of a conflict that needed to be overcome and of the struggle against the dangerous power of the sexual earth-sphere, which was manifest in the infectiousness of the cults of the surrounding Canaanite peoples.
We must re-emphasize, once again, that the strong energy of the instinctual sphere meets its correlative in the compensatory opposition of what we are calling, in brief, prophetism. This is the essential aspect of these basic texts: in them we can discern the structure of. Not only the past and the history of the Jews, but also their present and future, or lack of it, are still being decided on Mount Sinai, as the living revelation still meets with acceptance or nonacceptance.
Note: This figure is shown in color on the front cover of the paperback edition and can also be found in the eResources for this book: www. The revelation on Sinai, like all forms of revelation, must be seen as an irruption of the collective unconscious. On the primitive level, this phenomenon is always experienced as a real event that is projected onto the outer world. Such mass visions are known to have occurred as recently as the World War,14 when whole military units experienced the same vision.
This phenomenon—the projection of the unconscious, which is the fundamental psychic fact underlying manifestations of ghosts, visions, etc. Strikingly, however, the danger posed by these invasions of the numinous is familiar to all primitive peoples and forms an essential part of ritual.
Cases of such deaths are well transmitted from primitive psychology. These accidents, which happen when taboo-laden contents are not properly handled,17 found their strongest representation in the revelation on Sinai: a. This is the somewhat violent procedure with whose help humanity has brought about the introversion of libido and an awakening of the unconscious. Withdrawing libido from the outer world compensatorily awakens the collective unconscious.
This method is therefore used everywhere, whenever a revelation from within is necessary. All these measures, familiar to us from magic, the mystery cults, initiation rites, ecstasy, and so forth, involve two seemingly opposing tendencies. On the one side, we have the awakening of the unconscious, which occurs through introversion or through stimulating the unconscious with music, for instance. On the other side, we have an increase in ego-stability. Egostability, with the capacity for concentration and the exertion of willpower, is increased by all measures that are ascetic or aimed at overcoming pain.
The practice of simultaneously increasing ego-stability and awakening the unconscious produces a heightened psychic tension, which is then released by a vision or revelation. Another, somewhat inferior measure simply aims to awaken the unconscious while diminishing, altering, and shutting out consciousness. These measures include the widespread use of narcotics and mass ecstasy. At the higher range of these cultic practices, aimed at achieving ego-stability, measures like the magical circle are often added.
The manifestations of the unconscious are viewed from the center of the circle, where one is protected against being torn apart and flooded by the unconscious. But such preparations, which enable the awakening of the collective unconscious and thus also theophany, release forces that can cause the average person, coming into contact with these phenomena, to perish from the psychic blow.
The effect of these irruptive phenomena evidently. An adequate consciousness experiences such phenomena as revelatory; one that is too small bursts madness, schizophrenia, Pardes19 ; and one that is even smaller dies from the psychic blow, either quickly or after lengthy suffering.
But although they are observed, and although the distance from the site of the theophany becomes greater and greater, the psychic shock of the people is tremendous. Those who are waiting are gripped by such fear, lest the theophany address them directly, that they ask Moses to block its path to them. They want to receive the revelation from him as a report and no longer to experience it directly Ex At first it was still believed that the people could enter the place of theophany at a certain point in time, that the priests should later be involved in the revelation Ex , and finally Aaron as well Ex In the end, however, Moses went alone.
These stages of the text are not different sources, but all represent points on the scale of resistance to revelation. Or, alternatively, the sources are composed so that they produce such a scale. It is decisive for the history of Judaism that the whole people could not be involved in the smelting furnace at Sinai Ex Though one midrash22 reports that, when the revelation occurred, Sinai was placed over the people like a pot, precisely this did not happen. Instead, direct theophany revealed its meaning and revelatory character only to Moses.
The people, who could not cope with the tremendous collective force of this irruption, were seized, trembling, only by the external phenomenon. They said to Moshe: You speak with us, and we will hearken, but let not God speak with us, lest we die! For it is to test. This rejection of direct revelation by the people, who were unable to cope with it, is a central phenomenon of Jewish existence, irrespective of whether we regard the text as a core account, which its psychological consequence suggests, or whether we assume that its writers were aware of this central phenomenon and, guided by it, redacted the report.
And YHWH said to me: They have done-well in their speaking; a prophet I will raise up for them from among their brothers, like you; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will speak to them whatever I command him. Deut —18 Moses, at least, representing prophethood—in contrast to priesthood—did not agree with this fact,27 a point that emerges mostly clearly from the account of the two men in the camp who are seized by the spirit Num The extraordinary, revelatory invasions of the collective unconscious are so forceful that the individual can often barely endure the whirlwind of experience Is , not to mention that delivering the message involves the greatest, life-threatening risk.
If even the great prophets, from Moses to. This connection between the two polarities— YHWH and the mountain—takes place amid the thunder, lightning, and fire of the revelatory explosion. But as the leader-God of the Semitic peoples, this folk-God is characterized by his primary alienation from nature. Baudissin has observed that the tribal god, as the direct ruler of the tribe, is a phenomenon whose power operates within the specific community he leads, that is, within a human group and its psychic foundation. For them, the natural powers are gods only as they exist for the human being, not insofar as they belong to nature.
Here, in regard to the Sinai experience, we must consider to what extent the. Fire-symbolism has the character of spirit and light, and also of affective kindling. Thus it corresponds to the typical form of prophetic possession, which is a state of being emotionally seized and consumed by a prevailing, spiritual, inner force. We shall later discuss what makes this phenomenon both characteristic and highly significant. For the moment, this brief comment may illustrate the explosive character of the revelation on Sinai, in its symbolic and structural meaning.
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