La Reina mártir. (Anotado) (Spanish Edition)

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Ordenanzas de la ciudad de Zaragoza by Zaragoza Spain Book 2 editions published in in Spanish and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Estatutos y ordinaciones de los montes y huertas de la ciudad de Zaragoza by Zaragoza Spain 2 editions published in in Spanish and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

Estampas de la guerra by Spain Book 1 edition published in in Spanish and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Origen y estado del colegio de los notarios del numero de Zaragoza. Las ordinaciones de el, y rubrica de los colegiales, y notarios, con sus indices, y nombres by Zaragoza Spain 2 editions published in in Spanish and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

El registro del merino de Zaragoza, el caballero Don Gil Tarin, Ordinaciones de la imperial Ciudad de Zaragoza by Zaragoza Spain Book 2 editions published in in Spanish and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. This explains the interest in making available at least some of the first-hand documents that allow us to appreciate the originality, richness, and vigour of Tridentine Catholicism.

The Catholic Renaissance The Catholic Renaissance is amenable to two historical readings that are in certain respects contradictory. According to one, it was a period of hardening of the structures, a regimentation of the masses, and an attempt at total catechizing, and all that thanks to the support of the state.

But on the other hand it was sanctity, beauty, and piety. These two aspects, which might appear incompatible, cohabitated in reality in everyday life. And if an effective and quantitatively important Christianization resulted from the methodical and powerfully orchestrated action of the Church of Rome it was because this action was quantitatively doubled, supported, and vivified from within by the treasures of devotion, heroism, charity, spirituality, and creative imagination.

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Without these, the great clerical machine would not have accomplished any more than putting a ponderous bureaucracy in place. The spirit of organization With the Catholic Renaissance appeared a new characteristic in Christian history: the spirit of organization. On the whole this constituted an enrichment of the mental equipment of Western man at the beginning of the early modern period.

From that time on the churches, and especially the Church of Rome, both profited from this enrichment and gave it new impulses. Preaching, teaching, and devotion became more methodical and more efficient than in the past, making possible - among other results - a veritable planetary expansion of Catholicism. Never in the past had Christianity spread so rapidly over such vast territories. A religious conquest A religious conquest comparable to that of apostolic times recommenced on the scale not of a Mediterranean empire but of the inhabited universe.

From being on the defensive toward the Turks, the Roman church passed over to the spiritual offensive in the pagan world that was opening up to it.

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In many ways, therefore, the Catholic Reformation appears to us as a major phenomenon in the world history of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Jean Delumeau. Author: Martin. The unnamed volume must have been the eal;n. Retana, W. Hill, a wellknown chronicler, from which we quote the following extracts:1' "Few know much about Pedro Bukaneg, who he was or what he did. Yet in his day and generation, the name of this blind convert was carried as far as Madrid and Rome. The incidents of his life parallel those of Moses to a certain extent; and even if he did not write the Tables of the Law, his labors to convert his countrymen to a better creed, resemble those of the Hebrew lawgiver.

An Ilocano by birth, his story dates back to about twenty years after the conquest, ancient enough, historically speaking. On one of the days of March, , Maria went to bathe in a small tributary of the Abra River, a short distance from the convent itself. Her attention was attracted to an object, floating down with the current, which turned out to be a woven basket, and which drifted into a little cove in the river bank Wading out to satisfy her curiosity, she found a newlyborn baby lying on a roll of dangling bark in the basket, like the Moses of Biblical lore. Where it had floated from she could n6t imagine.

It was not likely to have come through the turbulent current of the gap, but had probably been set adrift a short way up the river.

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Maria took up the basket and its contents and carried it to the convent of Bantay. The good friar out of compassion arranged for a nurse to look after the infant, who in spite of his rude start on the journey of life, lived, thrived, and was baptized with the name of Pedro and the surname of Bukaneg. They attempted to educate him and succeeded to such an extent that he not only mastered Ilocano and the Tinguiane dialect, but was able to converse fluently in excellent Castilian. His mastery of the simnle faith and his homely way of stating it, converted thousands of his fellow countryrien.

In the streets of Vigan, crowds gathered at his appearance and, listening to his teachings, 'joyfully accepted the creed of Christ'.

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From Ilauag in the north to Aringay in the south he taught the new life, and his Tersonality, and maybe his unfortunate history, brought many into the fold who otherwise might have remained conscientious objectors. A class was formed for the instruction of newly arrived friars and Bukaneg was placed at the head.

His duty was to instruct the newcomers in vernacular Ilocano, prenaratory to their life labors. Time added to his usefulness as a liaison officer between the clergy and the converts. See "The Greatest Ilocanos", cited above. His simple appearance in a. Scraps of history regarding him bear this out. His name was remembered by the kailanes who till a very late date had carved images called Bukanegs to which they paid the same respect as to the sacred images of the Church.

Centuries passed, bishops and governors came and went, and the name of Bukaneg is but a memory in the country he helped convert to a gentler creed, a creed that remains today the same as in , when this Philippine Moses was found floating in his bamboo cradle amongst the reeds of the Abra River. These works, together with those in other Indonesian tongues, served as a foundation on which the modern scientific study of the Austronesian family of languages was built. Without them Austronesian linguistic studies would be much more undeveloped than they are now.

It is possible that there may have been earlier works but the first published linguistic work on Iloko was the Arte de ta lengua iloca by Fr. Francisco Lopez which was printed in the year Lopez as a linguist or, rather, philologist, Fr. Cipriano Marcilla, himself a student of linguistics, says:'5 "No otra cosa pretendemos al dar hoy a luz el Arte de la lengua iloca compuesto por el P.

Predicador Fr. Francisco Lopez, contribuyendo con esto, al estudio de la ciencia filologica a la vez que levantamos en la literatura linguistica un glorioso monumento al sabio e ilustre misionero cuyo nombre ponemos de manifesto a presentes y venideros filologos". Lopez, in collaboration with Bukaneg, wrote a dictionary Frank R. Blake and Ferdinand Blumentritt write of a certain Juan de Ayora as the author of two manuscript volumes on Arte Ilocano and Vocabulario ilocano.

If this was the same Franciscan Fr. Juan de Ayora whom we mentioned above as having been called the first Apostle of the Ilokos, then certainly his works antedated Fr. Lopez's Arte Blake also cites a certain P. See his Bibliography of Philippine Languages, p.

Beyer has said above, it is of pre-Spanish date, and for a few other scattered secular poems, all the poems produced during the century were of a religious character. The poems printed in Fr. Lopez's version of Bellarmino's Doctrina cristiana were merely translations from the Spanish or Latin of some religious poems.

A poem which appeared in Fr. Lopez's Arte de la lengua iloca and which Isabelo de los Reyes attributed to Pedro Bukaneg, is a meditation on life and death from the Christian point of view. As we have seen, Fr. Antonio Santos Mejia's Pasion de N. Jesucristo, both in Iloko verse, contained a religious theme. The Biag ni Lam-ang is believed to be among the oldest some people consider it the oldest Filipino poems in existence, many writers and scholars —among them Renward Brandstetter22 and H.

Beyer-assigning to it a pre-Spanish date. The poem is evidently of pre-Spanish date, but since, in its present form it already has some Christian atmosphere, it was not con' sidered in the previous chapter but will be taken up in the present chapter. Controversy has arisen over the authorship of the poem,2' but it is generally agreed now among many Iloko writers and among some other non-Iloko scholars that the poem existed in oral form before the Spaniards came to the Islands and that it was handed down orally from generation to generation till, some time in the seventeenth century, it was committed to writing by certain writers who infused some Christian element into the story.

Rosa F. Javier also mentions a poem the title of which is translated as "Lines by a Skeleton", supposed to have been written by Bukaneg. This possibly is the same poem reprinted by de los Reyes. Brandstetter on Indonesian literature in the possession of Dr. Cecilio Lopez, the poem is referred to as throughout pagan with a wedding ceremony resembling that of the Catholic church.

Manila, , p. Except for the first three or four and the last two or three stanzas and some lines here and there, which are not worded indentically, they are all alike, word for word. The La Lucha version differs from the first three to a rather marked degree. Being a composite edition of the first four versions, the version by the writer is naturally the longest and the most complete. Each of the first four versions contains not more than stanzas, but the composite edition contains stanzes of varying length, ranging from four to seven lines.

The total number of lines is about The number of syllables to a line varies from six to twelve. The poem is heavily interlarded with overstatements the humor of which would seem vulgar to the ears cf dilettanti. Throughout the poem one frequently comes across characteristic passages sparkling with wit and humor.

A considerable number of Iloko writers claim for this poem epic status. Others would consider it only a metrical romance. In a very strict sense it cannot be called an epic because it lacks such important elements of the epic as profundity of theme and sublimity of thought and language. It would be ridiculous to assign it a place beside such works as the Aeneid. It would not even be justifiable to compare it with the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf.

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It attains the nobility and beauty of this epic only at very rare intervals. But its hero possesses the qualities of an epic hero: he is a prodigy of courage and strength, and his deeds are supernatural, incapable of achievement by an ordinary mortal. It is on the line between epic and romance, to assign it to its proper place.

A comparison between this poem and the Tapalog Florante at Lauzra will reveal many striking differences. In purely literary value, the Iloko poem does not equal the T'agalog. It has not the beauty and richness of expression, the nobility of sentiment, and the dignity of thought-essential qualities of all great poetry-of the Tagalog poem. It is written in much the same way as the familiar corridos and aunts legendary and religious poems , the only big difference being that it is not an extravagant fantasia on a foreign theme.

It is, unlike the popular awits, "Bernardo Carpio" for one, genuinely native-in atmosphere, in setting, and in characters. Another essential difference between the two poems lies in the theme. Baltagtas' masterpiece is an attack, subtly disguised, on Spanish misrule in the Philippines; the Iloko poem is purely legendary, its chief purpose is entertainment. The former is permeated with an intense feeling of patriotism we were not aware of this and the highly seditious character of the poem until Epifanio de los Santos discovered and pointed them out ; the latter is practically devoid of patriotic feeling.

The two poems, however, are similar in one thing; both are melodramas, both are "and-they-lived-happily-ever-after" stories. The poem is often sung to the tune of the dallot during wedding and baptismal feasts among the peasantry, usually by old men who know the poem by heart. Many old men and women who can neither read nor write can recite it from beginning to end without error.

It is popular among the people, the common people particularly, because it reflects the life, culture, and ideals of the ancient Ilokos. It glorifies the courage and bravery of the Iloko, his unfailing valor as a fighter, his rugged honesty, and the adventurous spirit that goads him to leave home and fireside to better his fortune. It is about the only work in the vernacular which gives any first-hand information about how the ancient northern people lived. The epic is based upon a popular Iloko legend of the early days of the Spanish occupation.

The theme concerns the successful wooing, by an Iloko youth of superhuman courage and strength, hero of many battles, of the most beautiful Iloko maiden of the time, daughter of the richest and most influential native family in northern Ilokos, over scores of other rivals, many of whom were Spaniards of great wealth and handsome features hailing from different parts of the region. Summarized briefly, the story runs as follows: Lam-ang, a youth of superhuman strength, is born to Don Juan and his wife Namongan, of the town of Naguilian somewhere in the valley of the Naguilian River, east of Naguilian, La Union , the richest native born citizens in southern Ilokos.

Still a babe, but already possessed of tremendous strength, he sets out for the Igorot country, high up in the mountains to the east, in search of his father who, he learns from his mother, had departed for the highlands before his birth to fight the Igorots. On his way he falls into a deep slumber and in a vision he sees the Igorots, arch-enemies of the lowlanders, feasting around the head of his father whom they had murdered in cold blood.

Reaching the land of the Igorots, he takes revenge, and alone, single-handed, engages practically the whole tribe in a bloody battle, from which, with the aid of his talismans,. He kills and maims thousands of the wild people with his magic spear, and works such havoc and destruction that the land becomes a desolate waste. He returns home, satisfied tht he was revenged the murder of his father and with a bevy of beautiful girls, goes bathing in the Amburayan River, situated about fifty kilometers to the north.

His hair has become so dirty during his war against the Tzorots that the bath the girls give him in the river kills many fish. He encounters a huge crocodile and fights it. After a hard-fought battle the crocodile is killed, and Lam-ano carries it victoriously ashore on his shoulders amid the plaudits of his girl companions. Having heard of a beautiful girl, Ines Kannoyan by rame, of the townm of Kalanutian new a barrio of Sinait, Ilokos Sur.

He mTnos with discour. He nevertheless dons his best clothes and taking with him, among other things, his pet rooster and his hairy white do. About the middle of the journey he meets Sumarang, one of the suitors of Kannovan, who is returning home from Kalenutinn.

Suma,'sn tells him derisiroly that he had better not continue his jcurnev, for Kannoyan would surely not accept the love of such a person as he. Larr,-ang, keenly insulted, engages hint in a duel. The fight at the beginnirg is about even, but gradually Lam-ang gets the better of his enemy, ond in the end thoroughly defeats him, hurling him away over nine hills with a spear. Resuming his journey, he passes by the house of Saridangdang, a woman of easy virtue who, with wiles and deceptions attempts to cajole him into remaining a while to partake of the biyo she says she has prepared especially for him.

Lam-ang, however, refuses her, gently but firmly. When he reaches the home of Kannoyan, he finds a big gathering of suitors-wealthy natives and Spaniards from all over the region-entertaining themselves in the yard, so big a crowd that he can hardly manage to get through. Undismayed in his hope of winning her, he edges his wav toward the house and bids his rooster the crow, and a small outhouse topples down. Disturbed by the noise, Kannoyan lays aside her work, looks out of the window, and sees the new suitor.

In the meantime, his hairy white dog begins to growl, and in a moment the fallen building arises reconstructed. The other suitors look on shame-faced and crestfallen. Through his rooster, which does the speaking for him, Lam-ang makes known the reason for his coming. The parents of the girl tell him. They show him their riches: utensils and furniture wrought in pure gold, and point to vast fields which they have inherited from their ancestors. Lam-ang tells them that all this wealth they are showing him represents only a small fraction of his riches. Satisfied, they grant his suit.

Lam-ang goes home to Nalbuan to prepare himself for the wedding which is to take place at Kalanutian. He and his townspeople sail on two golden ships-tradeships owned by Lam-ang plying regularly between. At Sabangan 2, the port nearest Kalanutian, they fire a salvo to announce their arrival. They are warmly welcomed. The wedding, which is solemnized according to the rites of the Catholic church, is celebrated amid splendor befitting the two richest native families in the Ilokos.

There is feasting and dancing, and much merriment. After the festivities, the married pair, together with their townspeople, embark on the ships for Nalbuan, where the festivities are resumed. Lam-ang undergoes one more crucial ordeal. Shortly aft'r the departure of Kannoyan's people for their own town, he is informed by the incumbent town head that it is now his turn to go fishing for rararng 27 every male inhabitant of the town has his own turn to fish.

He communicates to his wife a premonition that he will be killed and eaten by a monster fish called berkakan28 in the vernacular. Lam-ang's rooster, however, assures the sorrow-stricken wife that her husband can be restored to life if all his bones are found. All the bones, fortunately, are recovered by a certain Marcos, a skilled diver. After a series of encantations performed by the rooster and the dog at which Kannoyan assists, Lam-ang is brought back to life. It is the safest port of Sinait, Ilokos Sur.

Its contents are edible. Religious ceremonies, rites that caught the eye, songs, lights, images decked with gold, worship in a strange language, legends, miracles, and sermons-all these hypnotized the already naturally superstitious spirit of the country, but did not succeed in destroying it altogether in spite of the whole system afterwards developed and operated with unyielding tenacity.

Most of the works that have been recorded were not published at all or were published only during the following century. Some of the printed works were written during the previous century, and only a few were written and published during the same eighteenth century.

Literary development did not receive any impetus; on the contrary it was retarded. Possibly this was chiefly because of the numerous uprisings that occurred in the region during the century, and secondarily because of the distance of Manila where the printing presses were located. History records several uprisings during the century, the most serious and widespread of which was the Ilokos revolt of led by Diego Silang.

Silang made himself master of the region for some time and but for his assassination, he could have made the situation harder for the Spanish authorities. These revolts, and the epidemics and famines which ravaged the region,2 plus the great distance of the region from the printing presses in Manila, naturally dampened the spirit of the writers to write and publish works. As in the previous century, most of the writers were friars.

Very few native writers are recorded to have done any writing. It is, however, believed that the friars were aided by native writers, but their collaboration was not acknowledged most possibly because of race prejudice. In Fr. Guillermo Sebastian's Escudos del cristiano, written toward the end of the previous century, was printed. About the opening of the century Fr. Luis F. Juan Nufiez Cep-da, who died in Jose Herice, who lived in the Ilokos for some time where he died in , wrote "in correct and elegant Iloko" six manuscript volumes of Sermones morales and one of Conf essionario.

Jacinto Rivera's Sumario de las indulgencias de la Correa, in Iloko, which was reprinted in Madrid in Rivera also wrote in the vernacular La cuaresma reformada, in two manuscript volumes, and Luz de verdadera crzstianos, in one volume. A friar who was also interested in linguistic studies, Juan Serrano, wrote a Catecismo ilocano. Jesucristo, in verse, and Explicacion de los Evangelios y Metodo de confesar para los rusticos.

Among the first novenas on record written in Iloko Was the Novena de Ntra. Juan Bautista Arenos who died in It is believed that the first edition of this work appeared in About the middle of the century Fr. Juan Olalla wrote a volume of Sermones morales, two volumes of Sermones panegiricos, a volume of Cofradias de la Santa Correa. The last two works were printed in Madrid in Pedro Vivar, and Andres Carro. Carbonel, who died in Candon in , arranged the unfinished work of Fr. Francisco Lopez, Vocabulario de la lengua: —Perez, E. See his Historia de Ilocos, v. Vicente Barrantes says Fr.

Garriz died in See his El teatro tagalo, Madrid, Tip. Hernandez, , pp. See his Histogria de Iloco. Olalla died in Miguel Albiol, who died in Bacarra in , revised and expanded the same work. Pedro Vivar, who also wrote a historical work on the Silang revolt of , is reported to have made additions to the same work. The work is believed to have been put into final shape by Fr. Andres Carro, born and died , and was published for the first time in under the title Vocabulario de la lengua ilocana. Lopez and Pedro Bukaneg, Fr. Carro contributed most to the early Iloko linguistic literature.

In addition to the above work, he also corrected and expanded Fr. Lopez's Arte de la lengua ilocana, first published in , and printed for the second in Juan Serrano, who died in Manila in POETRY Religious Poetry:-Other than the poetry contained in folksongs and in metrical romances, research work has not yet brought out any examples of lay poetry produced during the eighteenth century.

The written poetry of the century was predominantly religious. Garriz's and Fr. M'ejia's versions of the Pasion constituted the main bulk of the poetry. A native poet of considerable merit, Pablo Inis, a son of Sinait, Ilokos Sur, is believed to have lived during the eighteenth century. The exact dates of his birth and death have not been ascertained, but a close examination of the only extant piece of work by him will lead one to the conclusion that he lived either late in the seventeenth century or early in the eighteenth century.

Inis shows some poetical talent, and it is unfortunate that not more of his works have been preserved.

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He was chiefly a religious poet. In this connection, W.


Retana notes that Fr. Vivar, not Fr. Carro, expended more labor upon the work and attacks Fr. Carro for appropriating the work to himself. See his Aparato bibliogr6 -fico Fansler is of the opinion that metrical romances have been popular among Filipinos since the early days of the Spanish occupation. The poem Life of Lan-ang is in many respects a metrical romance, but is genuinely native unlike the other romances.

The Vida de San Barrldn y Josaphat, written some time during the first three decades of the seventeenth century, is obviously the first example of a metrical romance in Iloko on record. It has been definitely established that these metrical romances were of European origin and that they were brought to the Islands by the Spaniards and translated into the vernaculars chiefly by the friars. A rather unsympathetic description of these stories is made by T. Pardo de Tavera "The corridos are stories in verse about historic events, falsified and fanciful, and love tragedies full of wonderful events mixed with divine prodigy and diabolical magic-all lengthy, exaggerated, puerile, and absurd in the extreme.

No one of the characters is native. All are Turks, Arsbs, knights-errant. All the characters are at variance with Philippine life; for they are only the senilances of the real and true beings of unknown lands and of prodigious races Burgos comes to the conclusion that "though the method and vogue of the metrical romances are immediately from Europe, they are of Oriental origin indirectly". And to prove his thesis le cites the use in these stories of magics, enchantments, and other divine and supernatural powers, which he believes to be characteristically Oriental. Foi instance the hero fights with lions, giants, and other animals and invariablv wins; he suffers from lone famine: or because of his sincere devotion to the object of his heart he willingly offers to give up his life, but by the help of some power, either divine or magical, he is saved at the end There is apparent on the part of the authors Thesis for M.

He would have been nearer the truth if lie had said that these stories, though of European origin, have been so thoroughly acclimatized that they are as much Filipino as the proverbs and the riddles. And in many cases the author, when he comes to the end of his story, advises the readers to heed the gospel of his tale The most prevalent figure is simile and the most oft-repeated bases of comparison are the three luminaries-the sun, the moon, and the stars; the goddess Venus and sometimes Diana; the diamond and the pearl; the wind, thunder, lightning, typhoon, and squall; and the white lily, the jasmine, and the rose.

The moro-moro is an eighteenth century development of the drama. According to Barrantes,22 this melodrama originated from a war dance executed by some Moro warriors to celebrate the christening of their king Ali Mudin in Paniqui, Pangasinan now a town in Tarlac , in April, This play followed practically the same line of evolution among the 'Tagalogs and the Ilokos, differing only in non-essentials. At present only the barrio-folk in the Ilokos find much enjoyment in witnessing such plays in town fiestas. The comedia was introduced early into the Islands. Antonio de Morga, a well-known chronicler of the early years and one time a member of the Audiencia, reports that the native boys of those years "presented dramas and comedies, both in Spanish and in their own language, very charmingly".

Clark Co. The poetic sentiment of the Filipinos poured itself with princely munificence on the Fatherland enthralled. Even the love-ditties quivered with the longings for home and country, and so strong was this feeling of patriotic fervor that. Its output was more than twice the production of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries taken together.

Although religious literature still constituted more than half of the total production, purely literary works showed a very appreciable increase over those of the former centuries. The Iloko novel and the Iloko short story saw their births during this century. In poetry the century produced some of the greatest figures in the literary history of the Ilokos.

The drama has never been very popular among the Ilokos, as it has been among the Tagalogs, but during this century it showed better signs of life than at any other time in the past. Works on history, folklore, science, and sundry other subjects also began to appear. Evidently the people were caught up with the same spirit as the other peoples of the country, particularly the Tagalogs and the Bisayans.

Their vision began to widen. They had long been insulted and oppressed by their masters, and now they sought means to free themselves of the oppression. The more vocal writers frankly aired their grievances and met with punishment from the civil or ecclesiastical authorities. The more wary ones masked their attacks against the abuses of the rulers. Hence a considerable part of the literature of the century was propaganda in falseface. Unlike Filipino literature in Spanish, however, Iloko literature did not reach its highest development during and shortly — "Spanish Poetry in the Philippines", in Quirino and Hilario, Thinking for Ourselves, pp.

This period is usually referred to as the Elizabethan or Agustan age in Filipino letters in Spanish, but in Iloko literature that is not the case. Not that there were no able Iloko writers. Other able writers of the period preferred Castilian to Iloko as their medium of expression. An important development of Iloko literature during this century was the emergence of several native writers. In the previous centuries very few names of native writers appeared in written works; in this century the native writers cutnumbered the writers of Spanish blood.

They tried their hand at almost every form of writing and in most cases did better work than the Spaniards. Surely, as T. Pardo de Tavera3 has pointed out, these stories had a "detrimental influence" upon the people. To these and to the novenlas he traces the Filipinos' heritage of ignorance. Indeed, a people whose intellectual exercise consisted of nothing other than the reading of the novenas and the fanciful and falsified stories of the panagbiags could not be expected to achieve any respectable degree of culture and progress.

Many of these stories were translated from the Tagalog versions or directly from the Spanish. Some of the translators displayed an amazing lack either of common sense or of a knowledge of history. For instance the metrical romance dealing with the life of Richard Coeur-de-Lion was rendered into Iloko as Historia a panagbiag ni Ricardo nga puso iti pagarian sadi Francia Life of Richard the Heart sic!

Possibly because England was under the French during the times of Richard the Lion-Hearted, he was erroneously identified as king of France. Among the most popular of these exotic stories in the late nineteenth century, according to old people in the Ilokos. One characteristic common to these poets is the spirit of religion pervaaing most of their poetry. Jacinto Kawili:-Not very much is known about the life of this writer and poet.

The following biographical notes are based on bits of biography culled from different sources. He showed an early interest in his boyhood surroundings, and due to his desire to acquire an education, he went to Manila and was taken care of and educated by a friar. He proved to be an intelligent student and soon acquired an easy command of Spanish. The friar's trust in him was such that he was made to take charge for some time of the printing press of the Colegio de Sto. Tomas, then the biggest printing press in the Islands.

He was both a prose writer and a versifier. His principal prose work is his Iloko translation of Castro's chef-d'oeuvre. His extant poems-"Ti tao quen ti lubong Man and the World ", "Agbabaoica! He is looked up to as one of the chief figures in Iloko letters. Leona Florentino:-As there have not been many important women fiigures in world literature, so in our own literature-in the vernacular, Spanish, and English-the only woman writer worthy of note is Leona Florentino,5 and hence she may be called our foremost, or national, poetess, just as Balagtas is usually referred to as our national poet.

Leona Florentino did not have a very colorful career. Her mother Dofia Isabel Florentino, a cousin of her father, was also of wealthy parentage. Young Leona, however, had many brothers and sisters and was not spoiled, and her mother, an industrious woman, did not allow her to grow up in idleness. Leona's parents had more than enough money to spend on her education, but as women then were not permitted by social 4-These notes are based mainly on the biography written by Jose Castro.

See Pichay, L. She learned her letters from her parents and from a Filipino clergyman, Rev. Evaristo Abaya, curate priest of Vigan, to whom she owed her excellent command of Spanish. This clergyman was the first to discover the literary talent of the little girl and did all within his means to develop it. She was unusually precocious and even before she reached her tenth year she was writing poetry. She preferred to write in Iloko, and most cf her works were in after years written in the vernacular. It has been said that "she could dictate at once to three amanuenses on as many different subjects" and at the same time jot down a composition herself.

Dolia Leona did not write for publication but only to please herself and her circle of friends. But as true merit cannot be hidden, her name as a poetess spread far and wide in northern Luzon during her lifetime and after her death it reached Europe. TIer works were voluminous, believed to be even more so than those of Bukaneg. Her writings, extant and lost, if they had been collected, would probably have filled ten good-sized volumes.

She was never robust. As a child her health was delicate and was the cause of frequent anxiety. The duties of motherhood and her activity as a writer soon told on her, and at the youthful age of on October 4, she died of tuberculosis. Unfortunately only a small portion of her writings has been saved. A number were exhibited in the "Exposition Internationale" held in Paris in and in the "Exposicion General de Filipinas" held in Madrid in A French woman writer, Mme.

Andzia Wolska, in recognition of Dofia Leona's literary ability, included her name and some of her works in the Bibliotheque Internationale des Oeuvr. Several glowing tributes have been paid her. In a statement to the writer Isabelo de los Reyes, her son, declared the story as true. Browning and Amy Lowell, is going too far.

Editorial Board "Spanish issue"

She is the only notable versifier we have produced among the fair sex, but her poetry is not great in the strict sense of the term. A critical examination of her verses will reveal that the thought is often trivial and the workmanship clumsy. In fact no poem of hers can be singled out as truly notable, as Florante at Laura can be singled out as the most notable of Balagtas' poems. She was not a mere imitator and wrote in a style distinctly her own and therefore distinctly Filipino. If her workmanship was sometimes clumsy it was because she disliked to revise her poems, believing that the best poetry is that which is couched in easy, natural language, and that revision only destroys this.

She wrote on a variety of subjects, but mostly on love, morality, and religion. Most of her poems are didactic, interlarded with moralizings. Like Balagtas and Bukaneg, she saw beauty as goodness and goodness as beauty. Some of her love poems are truly beautiful-in feeling, verbal melody, and imagery. Her poems felicitizing affianced lovers and newly-wed couples are especially interesting. But many of her poems on unrequited love have that fundamental defect-sentimentalism. Nevertheless, she was also a satirist, perhaps a better satirist than a poet of love.

Her satire is so gentle and so subtle that its keenness is all the more cutting when one recognizes it. The absence of a spirit of revolt against political and social oppression is, for that time, notable. She did not belong to the oppressed masses and did not feel their sufferings. She was a devout Catholic, and this explains the religious feeling expressed in much of her poetry. Her writings are valuable as studies in the life of her time. In them we can see reflected the life of the higher class of Iloko society during the second half of the nineteenth century, when a young woman was a princess, seemingly unattainable, and See the writer's "Our National Poetess", already cited.

If she did not produce literature of the first order, it was not because she was not endowed with rich poetic talent, but because she lacked the advantages of a broad education and because she wrote for a public that was not highly cultured. Justo Claudio y Fojas and Isabelo de los Reyes:-These two native writers were probably the best rounded writers in Iloko during the nineteenth century.

Claudio y Fojas, a priest, wrote novenas, prayer books, catechisms, metrical romances, lyric poetry, dramas, biographies, a Spanish grammar, and an IlokoSpanish dictionary. De los Reyes wrote poems, folk-lore stories religious works, and political articles; and in addition he was an able newspaperman.

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