GA is pronounced like the ga, in garden. GO is pronounced like the go, in goblet. GU is pronounced like the goo, in goose. G, followed by E or I, has a soft sound. GE is pronounced like the ge, in gem. GI 1 is pronounced like the gi, in gin. H, hardens the sound of G before E and I. GHE is pronounced like the ga, in gate. GHI is pronounced like the gi, in gimlet.
GLI is pronounced like the illi , in postillion. Notice, however, that "gli" is pronounced like the gli, in glimmer, in the words " Anglia," England," anglicano," Anglican, " geroglifico," hieroglyphic, hieroglyphical, " negligenza," negligence , and in the verb " negligere ," to neglect. GN is pronounced like the gn, in design. H has no sound by itself, and may be considered as an auxiliary letter. The principal use of the letter H in Italian is, as already explained in rules 17, 18, 30, 31, to give to the letters c and g a hard sound, when they are followed by e or i.
H is also used at the beginning of the words "ho," I have, "hai," thou hast, " ha," he has, and "hanno," they have; in which words the h is retained only to distinguish them from " o," meaning or, " ai," to the, "a," to or at, and " anno" year. The h is further used in the interjections " ah!
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QUA 1 is pronounced like the qua, in quality. QUE is pronounced like the que, in question. QUI is pronounced like the qui, in quick. QUO is pronounced like the quo, in quotation. S has two different sounds ; a sharp hissing sound, and a soft one. S, at the beginning of a word, and followed by a vowel, has a hard sound, like the S in the English word spirit.
S, at the beginning of a word, and followed by one of the consonants c, f, p, q, t, has a hard sound, like the s in the English word spirit. S, at the beginning of a word, and followed by one of the consonants b, d, g, I, m, n, r, v, has a soft sound, like the s in the English word rose. S, between two vowels, has, as a rule , the soft sound of the s in the English word rose.
Throughout this grammar a dot is placed under the s, thus s, when it has the soft sound of the s in the English word rose. When the s is doubled it always has a hard, hissing sound. Z has two sounds ; one sharp, like that of the ts in the English word wits. ZZ have two different sounds ; one like that of the ts in the English word wits. Throughout this grammar a dot is placed under the 2, thus z, when it has the soft sound of the z in the English word zeal; and dots are placed under the two zz, thus zz, when they have the soft sound of the zz in the English word muzzle.
Except when the stress of the voice, or what is called the " Tonic Accent," falls upon one of the vowels ; in that case that vowel marks the end of the syllable. But if the second of the two consonants is either 1, m, n, or r, the two consonants are united to the following vowel. Except in compound words. In pronouncing most Italian words the stress of the voice, or what is called the " Tonic Accent " falls upon the penultimate, or last syllable but one. These words are called "parole piane ," flat words.
In some words perhaps one out of every eighteen the tonic accent falls on the ante -penultimate , that is to say, on the last syllable but two. These words are called "parole sdrucciole ," slippery words. In about eighty words third persons plural of verbs of the first conjugation, see rule the tonic accent falls upon the last syllable but three.
There are besides the " parole piane," " sdrucciole," and " bisdrucciole," some words which have lost the final syllable, and are therefore called" parole tranche," curtailed words. The tonic accent in these words falls upon the last vowel, which is always, marked by the grave accent v , and is strongly pronounced. No difference is made in the type on " parole piane," and " tronche.
There is only one written accent in Italian orthography, namely the grave accent, marked thus x , and which is written on the final vowel of the " parole tronche " curtailed words , which have been explained in rule 62, such as " carita," 1 charity, " crede," he believed, " fini," he finished, "parlo," he spoke, "virtu," virtue. The grave accent is also written on the words " piu," more, "puo," he or she can, "gia," already, of course, "giu," down, below, to prevent them being mispronounced.
Notice that there is no need of writing the accent on mono- syllabic words, such as "re," king, "fu," he was, " su," on or upon ; except however on the following monosyllables, to distinguish them from others spelt in the same manner, but written without accent , and which have a different meaning. E means he is, E means and.
Di means day, DI means of. Di' means say thou. LA means there , LA means the, art. LI means there , LI means them, conj. NE means neither and nor, NE means of it, us, to us, pron. SE means one's self, conj. SE means if. Si short for cosi means yes, si means one's self, conj. TE means tea, TE means thee , conj. BALIA, f. The apostrophe ' in Italian takes the place of a final vowel, preceding a word beginning with another vowel.
In a few words the apostrophe takes the place of a syllable. It is to be observed that in poetry the apostrophe is sometimes placed before a consonant, in the place of a vowel which has been left out. All Italian words except " il," the, "un," a or an, "in," in, " per," for, through, " con," with, " non," not, end with one of the vowels a, e, i, o, u, and this vowel indicates the gender, number, and verbal inflection of words.
In Italian the names of the months, the names of the days of the week, and adjectives begin with a small letter, when not at the commencement of a sentence. Ex Mi mando la grammatica francese lunedi. He sent me the French grammar on Monday. They also suppress the final vowel in many words, especially in the infinitive of verbs. There is no rule for these curtailments ; the judgment and ear decide. Now that the student is in possession of the rules for the pronunciation of Italian words, he should read aloud to his teacher, and by himself. As far as reading goes, the Italian language is most attractive ; it offers no serious difficulty to the English student, who, under the guidance of an able teacher can, after two or three hours' practice, read it far better than an Italian could possibly know how to read English after as many weeks' or months' practice.
Which must be pronounced as if it were written thus: " ParleroaCarlo , eglidirolaverita. It is characteristic of the Italians to express a great deal more emphasis than the English in pronouncing phrases in the interrogative and exclamative forms. Ha Carlo portato il mio libro? Che bel cavallo! Carlo 12 ha 35 trovato il libro nella 77 mia camera Charles has found the book in my room. Ho sempre 5 creduto che fosse italiano. E 69 vestito come mio nipote. He is dressed like my nephew. Vostro 9 padre non ha cura 14 della sua salute , Your father does not take care of his health.
La sua tema di mostrarmi il suo tema e ridicola. His fear of showing me his exercise is ridiculous. Ci sono quasi venti nomi di diversi venti. There are nearly twenty names of different winds. Hanno fatto un buca nella porta del foro They have made a hole in the door of the Foro. Quandodiede il suo voto il Senato era quasi Voto When he gave his vote the Senate was almost empty. Tua sorella 1 ha una bella voce 15 di soprano.
Si, tu dici 16 Your sister has a fine soprano voice. Yes, you say la verita II fanciullo era nascosto 21 nell' armadio. Enrico the truth. The child was hidden in the cupboard Henry 14 e un uomo 2 di buona natura.
Hanno portato la mia cena? Have they brought my supper? No, non ancora. Ora il cielo e sereno. Mi piace tanto respirare No, not yet.
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Now the sky is bright. I am very fond of breathing l'aria della mattina. Nell' autunno 2 l'aurora non e mai molto the morning air. In autumn the dawn is never very lucente. Ella comincio 79 a parlare con una certa autorita. She began to speak with a certain authority. Che 17 bel libro! Veramente non saprei What a fine book! Whose is it? Really I cannot dirlo ; ma credo che sia di Odoardo Le antiche cronache say ; but I believe it belongs to Edward Ancient chronicles give istruiscono molto. II Vostro fanciullo non ha piu 69 paura del much instruction.
Your child is no longer afraid of mio cane. Dov' e la chiave 18 della mia camera? II facchino my dog. Where is the key of my room? The porter l'ha attaccata al chiodo. Mio fratello ha veduto tutte le principali has hung it on the nail. My brother has seen all the principal citta dell' Europa La Maria ha scelto 19 un bel colore. Antonio cities of Europe. Mary has chosen a beautiful colour. Anthony sciupa 20 tutti i suoi abiti. C'erano cento uomini nella miseria. There were a hundred men in poverty. I have male alia gola II generale 28 e un uomo giusto 29 ; a sore throat.
The general is a just man ; he compro le ghette 30 , e le pago una ghinea La geografia bought the gaiters and paid a guinea for them. Geography 15 e la cronologia 21 sono gli 32 occhi della storia. Guglielmo e and chronology are the eyes of history. William is andato nel giardino a Cogliere dei fieri. Che bel giglio! What a beautiful lily! Cio accadde al tempo degli dei falsi e bugiardi.
II Lago Maggiore. That happened at the time of the false and lying gods. Lago Maggiore. I miei fratelli hanno viaggiato in Italia e in Francia durante i My brothers travelled in Italy and France during the months mesi di maggio , giugno 34 e luglio. II postiglione fu molto of May, June and July- The postilion was negligente 33 verso la mia famiglia. Chi puo sciogliere il very negligent towards my family.
Who can untie the nodo? Voglio del caffe di buona knot? I ; see I have already untied it. I want some coffee of a good qualita Giuseppe ed io siamo stati alia campagna ; abbiamo quality. Joseph and I have been in the country ; we walked camminato tre leghe Questa 40 e la quinta 41 questione three leagues. This is the fifth quarrel che i miei fratelli hanno avuta insieme. Un sogno di buon augurio. A dream of good omen. Questa signora 44 ha molto spirito. Abbiamo udito uno This lady is very witty.
We have heard squillo 45 di tromba. Alio sbocco 40 del fiume l'acqua e molto a trumpet peal. At the outlet of the river the water is very turbata. Suo suocero ha mostrato tropposdegno 46 ; cio e uno muddy. Your father -in-law has shown too much anger ; that is a sbaglio II prato era smaltato 46 di fiori. Questo giovinotto 1 mistake. This young man is e svelto E venuto a dirmi che ha disegnato il suo quadro. He came to tell me that he has drawn his picture.
Non e lecito di susurrare in compagnia. Tutto l'edificio risonava 2 16 It is not proper to whisper in company. The whole building resounded di applausi. Stefano ha disigillato 2 la mia lettera. Stephen has unsealed my letter. Che cosa c'e? La casa del pievano e incendiata. II riso rallegra. What is it? The parson's house is on fire. Laughter cheers. Mi piace il riso. Ho desiderio di vederlo. Non e cosi facile di I like rice. I wish to see him.
It is not so easy punirlo. La Giovanna portava una vesta di raso. Egli e molto to punish him. Joan wore a satin dress. He is very geloso. Questo Inglese 2 ha jealous. His jealousy will be fatal to him. This Englishman has sposato una Francese 2 Abbiamo fatte molte spese. We have incurred a great deal of expense. Vo altiero della sua amicizia 50,53 per me. La bellezza 52, 53 I am proud of his friendship forme. The beauty della natura. Non vanno mai in carrozza. Ho comprato quattro of nature. They never go in a carriage. I have bought four fazzoletti danaso.
Ammiro la sua presenza di spirito e la sua pocket-handkerchiefs. I admire his presence of mind and costanza. Ho incontrato mio zio nella piazza di San Marco ; mi constancy. Che scherzo! Non Voglio questa pera perche e mezza. What a joke! I will not have this pear because it is over -ripe. La Signorina Bianchini ha una bellissima voce di mezzo-soprano. Miss Bianchini has a beautiful light soprano voice. La rappre- Midway the journey of our life.
The repre - sentazione dell' opera "La Gazza Ladra " del Rossini duro due ore sentation of the opera "La Gazza Ladra" of Rossini, lasted two hours and e mezzo. Egli ha scelto una magnifica statua di bronzo. He has chosen a magnificent bronze statue. Quest' Uomo e molto bizzarre e rozzo ; non ha il menomo zelo per il This man is very eccentric and rude ; he has not the slightest zeal for suo lavoro. L'orizzonte era del colore azzurro del piu purozaffiro. The horizon was of the azure colour of the purest sapphire. The definite article The is translated into Italian by "il" in the singular, and "i" in the plural, before masculine nouns beginning with a consonant.
The is translated by " lo " in the singular, and " gli " in the plural, before masculine nouns 2 beginning with an s followed by another consonant , or with a z. Lo sperone ,3 the spur, gli speroni , the spurs. Lo zingaro , the gipsy, gli zingari , the gipsies. The is translated by "lo," 4 or rather " 1' " in the singular, and " gli " 5 in the plural, before masculine nouns 2 beginning with a vowel ; the " i" of "gli " may be replaced by an apostrophe before a noun 2 beginning with an " i.
L'albero, 6 the tree , gli alberi , the trees. Lidolo, the idol, gl' idoli, the idols. The is translated by " la" in the singular, and "le" in the plural, before feminine nouns 2 beginning with a consonant. If the feminine nounf begins with a vowel, the a in " la " is suppressed and replaced by an apostrophe ; the e in " le " may be replaced by an apostrophe before a nounf beginning with e. La penna, 7 the pen, le penne , the pens. L anima , the soul, le anime , the souls. L elegia 8 the elegy , Felegie , the elegies. Nearly all nouns ending in o are masculine, and form their plural by changing o into i.
During the time of the false and lying gods. The preposition " di " corresponds to the preposition of. II padrone di questa casa. The master of this house. II regno di Spagna. The kingdom of Spain. II duomo di Milano. The cathedral of Milan. II regno d' Italia. The kingdom of Italy. The English possessive case, expressed by 's, as Peter's book, is rendered in Italian by inverting the position of the two words, and placing the preposition " di," between them. The preposition " a " corresponds to the prepositions to and at. Vado a Parigi. I am going to Paris. Ho parlato a Carlo. I have spoken to Charles.
Mio padre e a casa. My father is at home. Sono stato ad Atene. I have been to Athens. The preposition " da " is used in the sense of from. Vengo da Firenze. I come from Florence. The a of " da " is never replaced by an apostrophe in Italian prose. E partito da Edimburgo. He has left Edinburgh. The preposition " da " is also used in the sense of by, when preceded by a past participle. He is esteemed by everybody. The preposition " da " is also used in the sense of fit for, like a. Carta da scrivere. Writing paper.
Egli combatte 69 da eroe. He fought like a hero. When " di," " a," " da," and the prepositions " in," in, " con," with, "per," for, " su," on, and " fra " or " tra," among, between, are followed by the articles " il," " lo," "la," "1'," " i," " gli," " le," the two words are contracted as shown in the subjoined table : Di il into del, and dii into dei, 1 of the. Ail al, a i ai, to the.
Dail dal, da i dai from the by the. Inil nel, in i nei, in the. Conil col, con i coi, with the. Peril pel, per i pei, for the. Su il sul, su i sui, on the. Alo alio, a gli agli, to the. Ala alia, ale alle, to the. Dil' dell,' di gli degli, of the. The girl's exercise. The branch of the tree. The woman in the garden. The bird in the cage. The woman with the bread. The book on the table. The birds 85 among the branches of the trees. See rule Avere avuto, to have had. Avere, to have. Avuto, had. Avendo avuto, having had. Besides a Gerund, most Italian verbs have a Present Participle, ending in " ente ," and " end," or in " ante," and "anti.
A window which had paper, instead of glass. But as this form of the verb is seldom used, it is not given in the verbal paradigms, in this grammar. The rules for the Past Participle are given further on. For the present the student had better to leave it invariable , in o. If I had money , I should have friends. Se io avessi avuto del danaro, avrei avuto degli amici If I had had money , I should have had friends. Henry, the lesson, the pen. Oggi, to-day. Gia, already.
Domani, to-morrow. La grammatica, Lo 82 scrittoio, Accanto a, by the side of. Charles has the paper. Mary had Imp. We had Henry's 92 writing-desk. William and John have the ink-stand. Yesterday Elizabeth had Imp. William and Charles will have the slate and 8 ink-stand. The man has the key of the house. The men have had Past Ind. We have John's paint-brushes in the writing-desk, under the table.
The Italians have three ways of addressing one another; they employ the second person singular, " Tu," thou, or the second person plural, " Voi," you, or the third person singular, feminine , " Ella," she. The second person singular, " tu," is used by parents when they speak to their children, and when husband and wife, brothers and sisters speak to one another.
This form is used also when speaking to very intimate friends. Amo la tua conversazione. I like your thy conversation. In Italian " tu " is further used, as thou is in English, in poetry, and sometimes to express anger or scorn towards the person addressed. The second person plural " voi," is used by ladies and gentlemen towards their inferiors. It is also employed in commerce. Voi parlate troppo You speak too much. But when the Italians wish to show respect to the person they address whether man or woman instead of " voi," you, they use the third person singular feminine, " ella," she, which pronoun in that case stands for " Vostra Signoria " your Lordship, or Ladyship.
The words spoken are supposed to be addressed to the title and not to the person. In speaking to more than one person " loro," or " elleno" see rule , they, which stand for " le Vostre Signorie," or " for Signori," or " for Signore " your Lordships, or Ladyships , are used. In writing the exercises in this grammar, the student is strongly advised to write as many sentences as he can in the three forms ; that is, in the second and third persons singular, and in the second person plural, as explained in rules , , and , thus : Hai tu tuo Ha ella mandate il suo quadro all' esposizione?
Avete voi Vostro Have you sent your picture to the exhibition? To a woman : " E Ella stata invitata al ballo? In Italian, a verb is conjugated interrogatively, simply by placing the mark of interrogation after it ; 1 and, in speaking, by raising the voice towards the end of the sentence. Have you William's book? A verb is conjugated negatively, by placing the negative particle " non " before it. Carlo non ha 1' oriuolo. Charles has not the watch. It is very important to notice that in Italian the Present of the Infinitive is used instead of the second person singular of the Imperative Mood, when the verb is used negatively.
Non avere il cappello. Do not thou have the hat. Non abbiate il cappello. Do not you have the hat. A verb is conjugated interrogatively-negatively, by placing the negative particle " non " before it, and the mark of interrogation at the end of the sentence ; in speaking the voice must be raised towards the end of the sentence. Have you not Charles' book? La sciarpa II giornale La vesta Si William has Henry's 92 coat. Has Elizabeth the money? We have neither the newspaper nor the postage stamp. Have you , a Charles' grammar? No, I have not the books.
When shall we have the dictionary? To-day or to-morrow. Do 4 not have the bonnet, but have the dress. Mio padre, Mia madre, Tuo fratello, Tua sorella. Suo figlio, my 1 father, my mother, thy brother, thy sister. Nostro cugino, Vostro zio, La canzone, Linchiostro. Eccole, f. Prima di, before , here they are Dopo, after. I Mentre , whilst. My sister has the ink-stand, but she has not the ink. Charles has my money. My brother has Henry's song.
The woman had Imp. We had already had Pluperf. Have you , the postage -stamp, for the newspaper? Yes, here it is. Have you William's exercises ? Yes, here they are. Has John my pupil's pens , ? I shall have the time for my lesson to-day. Their nephew shall have my coat 29 and 4 hat after May. We should have had the ink. The partitive articles some and any, are translated into Italian by " del," " dello," " della," to express quantity. Ho comprato della carta e dell' inchiostro.
I have bought some paper and ink. The partitive articles some and any are translated by"dei," " degli," " delle," to express number. Gli mandai degli abiti francesi 1 e delle armi inglesi.
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I sent him some French clothes and English arms. When some means a limited number, 2 it is translated either by " qualche," which is invariable, and is followed by a noun in the singular, or by " alcuno," which agrees in gender and number with the noun to which it refers. Vado a comprare qualche libro spagnuolo. I am going to buy some a few , Spanish books. He only had with him some a few friends. The partitive articles " del," " dello," " della," " qualche," " alcuno," " alcuni,"" alcune," must be repeated before each noun, when there are several. Ho comprato della carta e dei libri. I have bought some paper and books.
When some and any are omitted, or could be omitted in English, the partitive articles are omitted, or could be omitted in Italian. V'erano uomini , donne , e persino fanciulli. There were men, women , and even children. Ho veduto in Inghilterra cavalli bellissimi. I have seen in England very fine horses.
Ha, or ha ella del denaro? Have you any money? Si, ne ho. Yes, I have. Avremo dell' acqua? Shall we have some water? Si, ne avremo. Yes, we shall. I An s dotted thus s, has the soft sound of the s in the word rose. Egli aveva pochi amici. He had few friends. I have some silver. Has your brother any iron? Yes; he has some iron, copper, and brass.
Charles has neither the grammar, nor the dictionary. My father has some money. We have not any ink. Have we any postage -stamps? Yes, we have Yesterday we had Imp. Have you any pencils? No, I have not any.
Henry and William have money, but John has not any The indefinite article a or an is translated into Italian by " un," 1 before a masculine noun beginning either with a consonant or a vowel. Un giorno felice. A happy day. Un Uomo amabile. An amiable man. The indefinite article a or an is translated by " uno " before a masculine noun beginning with an 5 followed by another consonant , or with a z.
Uno scolare diligente. A diligent pupil. Uno zio ricchissimo. A very rich uncle. The indefinite article a or an is translated by " una," before a feminine noun beginning with a consonant. Una signora francese. A French lady. The indefinite article a or an is translated by " un'," before a feminine noun beginning with a vowel. Un' anima sensibile. A sensitive soul.
Ha ella un dizionario? Have you a dictionary? Si, ne h o uno. No, non ne ho. Yes I have. No, I have not. Ella ha due libri, ma io non ne ho che uno. You have two books, but I have but one. L'aria, 1 air. L'acqua, water. La luce, light, il fumo, the smoke, il fuoco,2 fire, il vento, 3 the wind. Un secolo, a century. Un anno, a year. Un mese, a month. Una settimana a week, Un giorno, di, a day. Un' ora, an hour, Un minuto, a minute. Una chiesa. Non verb mai, never. Sempre, always. Fra Poco, very soon. Una stanza, Una camera, La sedia, Monday.
Sunday a room, a room, the chair. Perche, because. No, mai, giammai, never. Spesso, sovente, often. Subito, at once. Mary has a pencil. We have a writing-desk. Have you ever had a lesson from my master 4? Charles has never had a penknife. When shall I have my dictionary? Very soon, on 5 Friday, or Saturday To-morrow Elizabeth will have a dress, and Mary will have a bonnet. Henry shall not have my brother's slate. Shall we not have some water? Yes, we shall William, do not have thou any fire in your thy room 33 to-day.
He had Imp. We shall have the book at once. L'ho trovato sur una tavola. I found it on a table. Essere, to be. Essere stato, 1 to have been. Essendo, being. Stato-a-i-e, been. Essendo stato, having been. Sard, Sarei,. No first person. Imperative is I shall have been, I should have been, seldom used. Sono stato, or stata no a Parigi. I have been to Paris. Uno, 1. Felice, 1 happy. Secondo a, II. Tre, 3- Ill, Piccolo, small, little. Cinque, 5- V. Orgoglioso, proud. Sesto a, VI. John is tall, but his brother Charles is little. This church is beautiful.
Where is Elizabeth? She , a is here. These tables are small, but they are good. Where are Henry and John? They are not here ; they are in our uncle's garden. Where shall we be on Thursday? We shall be in our , cousin's room. Where have you been , ? I have been in my brother's room.
Will you be here on Wednesday? Yes ; I shall be either here, or at my sister's house. Where are my pens? They are in that writing desk. Be good, William, and you will be happy. Do , , not be proud The verb " Essere " is very often employed as an impersonal verb, with the adverbs " ci " and " vi. Ci or vi sono? II castello, the castle, II salotto the parlour, La torre, the tower.
II fanciullo, the child. Poco, 21 a little. Troppo, too much. Lo stesso, the same. Molto, very, much. Troppo poco, too little. Charles is the first, I. My brother's house is too large. Where is Mary? She is in my sister's room. Is there a man in the street? Yes ; there is a man and a child. Is there a table in our parlour? No ; there are three chairs, but there is no table. There was a small inkstand in my uncle's room. There is too much ink in this pen. Is there a pencil in my brother's writing-desk? No, there are three pens and some paper. Si abbracciano. Sogna quello che fa il bambino malvagio.
La primavera parte pianto degli uccelli sugli alberi e lacrime negli occhi dei pesci. Trovato il secondo personaggio di Volare : un signore della guerra europeo. Milioni hanno dovuto abbandonare le loro case durante il processo di pulizia etnica. Secondo numerose associazioni i morti sarebbero stati oltre I militari olandesi del DUTCHBAT stazionati per proteggere la popolazione locale musulmana, consegnarono persone rifugiate nella loro caserma alle truppe serbe.
Sembrerebbe un Brecht contemporaneo. O sono io che interpreto male? Le Monde , 3 agosto Molti anziani rifiutano e vengono fucilati. Migliaia di donne e bambini sono rapiti, dati come bottino a soldati jihadisti o venduti come schiavi. Le donne sono violentate, spesso esaminate prima da dottori per controllare se sono vergini o incinte. Chi sono questi yazidi?
La loro religione combina elementi zoroastriani, manichei, ebraici, cristiani e islamici Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ancora due personaggi di Volare. Sono due monaci yazidi che, nel loro eremo nel deserto della Siria, scoprono che gli uccelli sono volati via. Lo curano con acqua, concime e preghiere. I due monaci si affannano per riportarlo in vita, farlo fiorire e dar frutta. Cantano, fanno penitenza, costruiscono nidi, si dedicano ad arcaiche cerimonie di magia. Intorno a loro, gesta di guerra, obbrobri e barbarie si avvicendano imperturbabili.
Quotidiano danese Politiken , 21 gennaio Dimostrazioni contro la Francia in Pakistan, Iran, Cecenia, e in diversi paesi africani a causa dei disegni su Maometto pubblicati su Charlie Hebdo. A Gaza viene bruciata la bandiera francese per strada. In Niger si appicca fuoco alle chiese cattoliche e si uccidono i cristiani per strada. Prime prove di Volare Colombia, febbraio. Guardo i miei attori svolgere il loro lavoro.
Erano i mapuche o gli haida che dicevano: gli alberi sono le colonne del mondo. Tu vedi lo spettacolo e lo spettacolo vede te. Questa doppia visione - relazione o consapevolezza appena intuita - illumina e disturba.
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Questa giungla di dettagli genera la vera visione dello spettacolo, una visione sconnessa , che non si lascia addome- sticare a spiegazioni concettuali. Questa visione appartiene al dialogo solitario dello spettatore con se stesso durante e dopo lo spettacolo. In che consiste il training del regista? Rispondo: leggo molto e di tutto. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Enaudi, Torino Il treno era una massa di metallo sballottante. Olanna fu scaraventata contro la donna accanto a lei, contro una grande ciotola, una calabasse.
La donna la teneva in grembo coperta da una stoffa punteggiata da macchie che sembravano sangue. Aveva i capelli spessi. Dopo aver scritto questa pagina, l'autrice ricorda le donne tedesche che abbandonarono Amburgo con i corpi carbonizzati dei loro bambini nelle valigie, e le donne in Ruanda che raccoglievano i brandelli dei loro bambini fatti a pezzi. Si guarda bene da fare paralleli. Cerca scampo per se stessa e per la testa della figlia. Alberi in Cina. Africa: alberi e rituali. Lo scopo era far dimenticare la loro terra, le loro case, la loro famiglia e anche le molte occupazioni che avevano conosciuto.
Questi mercanti di carne della loro gente erano consapevoli che il loro atto costituiva una trasgressione profonda e cercarono di prevenire rappresaglie attraverso un rituale. Come rituale, fu un fallimento completo. Gli schiavi non dimenticarono mai. Quanti di questi alberi - anche simbolici - esistono, nei panorami degli altri popoli, delle altre razze e nazioni? Ho la sensazione che fa parte della condizione umana essere in famiglia con gli alberi che cambiano le foglie e conservano le radici.
Cerco di cambiare le idee, esprimerle in forme, ritmi e modi diversi, usare quello che so in modo paradossale. Ogni creazione procede attraverso una successione di distruzioni, diceva Picasso. La parte essenziale del processo teatrale avviene in un segreto impenetrabile persino ai suoi autori - attori e registi. Bambini-soldato e cannibalismo.
I giovani non immaginano minimamente che possono morire. Hai sparato loro? Quei ragazzi credono che i miei proiettili non li possano ferire. Insomma Frans, tu pensi a loro come ragazzi che potrebbero giocare con i trenini. Fondamentalmente buoni. Sono stati incitati a stuprare donne adulte rapite dai loro stessi villaggi. Sono stati obbligati al cannibalismo. Si mangia la carne dei nemici caduti per acquisire il loro potere.
Evita di affermare che tu la pensi diversamente. Tu non credi che i bianchi possano fare queste cose? Sei un giovane uomo, sano e vispo. Non hai soldi per sopravvivere; meno di un dollaro al giorno. Non conosci nessuna persona influente. Quindi che fai? Violenti e uccidi, ovviamente. Noi li teniamo in pugno. Quali ribelli? Ci sono sempre dei ribelli. Settembre Donne che trainano valigie, padri con infanti in braccio, vecchi in un ultimo sforzo di vita, ragazzini che dovrebbero giocare in un kindergarten: li vediamo alla televisione, sui giornali, nei social media. Riempiono le autostrade e i sentieri campestri.
Ci comporteremo come Creonte o come Antigone? Seguiremo le leggi dello stato o della nostra coscienza? Una foto pubblicata in numerosi giornali mostra il cadavere di Aylan Kurdi, un bambino siriano di tre anni, sbattuto dalle onde sulla spiaggia turca di Bodrum. Wroclaw, ottobre. Riprendiamo le prove di Volare.
Sono circondato da una mente collettiva , che oltre ai miei attori, consiste di una trentina di registi e attori invitati. Seguono le prove durante la giornata, e la sera si riuniscono con me per commentare, chiedere, suggerire. Il giorno dopo, provo regolarmente alcune delle loro proposte. Batuan, Bali, gennaio-febbraio , prove di Volare. Mi avvio alle prove stordito dalla fragranza che la natura spande nella stagione delle piogge.
Scrivo su un argomento che non piace a nessuno. Neanche a me. Ci sono temi che non piacciono a nessuno Li Po. Anche i due monaci mi hanno aiutato con il loro eroismo ingenuo di piccole azioni. Ai Weiwei sta preparando una serie di progetti sui profughi in Europa. Varsavia, maggio Lange Margrethe. Ingrid Hvass, la contastorie di Holstebro, ha letto la mia intervista in Holstebro Dagbladet.
Vi racconto dei vari personaggi del nuovo spettacolo, tra cui il signore della guerra Joshua Milton Blahyi che sacrificava un bambino e ne divorava il cuore prima di una battaglia. Nella brughiera intorno a Holstebro viveva Lange Margrethe, una donna che capeggiava una banda di delinquenti. Scuoto la testa, ne sto immaginando un altro.
Un giovane si sveglia una mattina e vede rosso, come se gli avessero incastonato due rubini negli occhi, o si trovasse al riparo in una lussuosa, stretta tenda di porpora. Sta annegando in un mare di sangue? How should we represent a human sacrifice in theatre? Why should we do it at all? To exorcise our anguish?
To show our indignation? As a kind of professional challenge? Because it is a fact defying our comprehension? A man immolates coldly another man, a woman, a child: I want to make a performance which deals with this situation we read daily in the newspapers. It opens up new ways of thinking as well as fresh images that might inspire actors and director in the first phase of rehearsals. The title of a performance is its premise. It should also be a promise and an invitation to flutter high up.
Theatre allows us to leave what we have and are familiar with for what we wish and what we ignore we know. It is a technique that helps us run away from home, and this fleeing builds a new home. One would imagine that the performance is the home, transient and capable of being moved to different places. And yet this is only the mirage of a home, an illusion like love or fame. The home of which I speak has flexuous foundations: the working relationships that ripen and evolve, regardless of time. The home is built with bursts of passion for the living and the dead. The passing of the years and experience transform these passions into confidence, tenderness and a feeling of belonging.
It is a nomadism of bonds that time calcifies. Noted for his brutal and eccentric ways, he led the attack of his young troops while totally nude, wearing only a pair of shoes. He sacrificed a human victim before going into combat, usually a child, whose blood would appease the spirits and render both himself and his young warriors invulnerable. Blahyi took time to reflect when the nine members of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission inquired as to the number of his victims. I instilled violence in them by explaining that what they were doing was a game. Whenever I wounded or killed an enemy, I opened his chest and devoured his still beating heart.
I left the rest of the corpse to my child soldiers who would then cut it to pieces so as to become insensitive towards the enemy. They would then slash open the belly to see who was right. After the civil war, Blahyi converted to Christianity and became an evangelical minister. He is currently the president of Endtime Evangelical Ministries Inc. He is married to Pastor Mrs. Josie and has four children. Stephen Ellis, in his book The Mask of Anarchy. The generals of the various factions take their names from the world of film, newspapers and religion: General Rambo, General Bin Laden, General Satan.
Part of their preparation consisted of rituals reminiscent of traditional ceremonies of initiation. The young warriors got tattoos on their foreheads or slashes on their cheeks so as to make themselves invulnerable. Sometimes they were shot at with blanks they thought were real, to convince them of the efficacy of this form of protection. Nando Taviani, our literary adviser, tells me the story of a farmer who has a pear tree that no longer bears fruit. He fells the tree and constructs, from its wood, a crucifix with the Saviour upon it.
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His son becomes gravely ill. The farmer kneels before the cross and implores Christ to save his sick son. The son dies. The crucifix flowers and is covered with pears. First narrative sketch: A farmer believes he is Christ and plants a pear tree. The tree grows although it is dead. The farmer makes a cross out of its wood and crucifies himself. The mother of a child soldier carries her dead son and begs him to revive him. Blahyi, the warlord of the Liberian war, arrives. It grows before the eyes of the spectators, like a standing corpse.
A girl climbs among its branches, playing, dreaming, gazing towards the horizon, speaking to the birds. The tree is felled by an ax. A broken branch, somewhat askew, like a cross lying in wait for the first innocent who might come along. The tree groans when it is struck. It bleeds: white blood, thick and slimy like pus. A child soldier appears. He oozes white blood. He embraces the tree. The tree flourishes. It could be the tree of goodness.
A good little boy is chained to it like a dog. He dreams of what a wicked child does. The good child is the voice of hope. A little girl in the tree plays with her dolls, telling them fairy tales and singing a lullaby to make them fall asleep. I have found the second character of Flying : a European warlord. A killer for the secret police in the former Yugoslavia, his job was to liquidate exiled enemies of the regime living abroad.
Arkan was regarded as the most ruthless and powerful of all the Balkan warlords. The United Nations accused him of crimes against humanity. He was assassinated in Over , civilians were killed in Bosnia and Croatia. Tens of thousands of women were raped, some more than a hundred times, while their husbands and sons were beaten and tortured in the concentration camps of Omarska and Manjaca. Millions abandoned their homes during the course of the ethnic cleansing.
The men were separated from the women and, during the single day of July 11, over 8, males were summarily executed. According to numerous international organi- sations, the number of male deaths probably exceeded ten thousand. The Dutch troops Dutchbat , stationed there to protect local civilians, handed over, at the request of Serbian troops, some Muslim refugees who were subsequently massacred.
According to witnesses, the Dutch battalion assisted the Serbians in separating women, children and the elderly from the men who were murdered. During the s, the Dutch press brought a number of heated accusations against Dutch troops stationed in Bosnia.
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Many soldiers suffered from post-traumatic stress syndrome upon their return to the Netherlands. On December 5, , the Dutch Minister of Defense awarded some medals to peace-keeping troops whose task it had been to protect the civilians of Srebrenica. On July 16, , a court in the Netherlands ruled that the Dutch battalion of blue helmets, deployed to protect the Muslim enclave, failed to adequately protect civilians.
The Dutch state could therefore be held responsible for the ensuing deaths. A bit of philosophy. The role Aristotle assigns to theatre: to confront the spectators with the compassion and horror of the human condition. He almost seems to be a contemporary of Brecht. Or do I perhaps misread something? My whole culture is full of heads that have been cut off. I have admired them as works of art in museums that are the pride of the European capitals. Considered both speedy and without disgrace, in ancient Rome decapitation was a form of execution granted only to Roman citizens. For slaves, thieves and foreigners was reserved the punishment of crucifixion.
Le Monde , August 3, The soldiers of IS are burying alive women and children, slaugh- tering men and the elderly in a massacre that is called genocide. About , people seek refuge in the mountains, with no food or water. In the village of Kojo, the population has been given an ultimatum by the jihadists to either convert or to die.
Many elderly citizens refuse and are shot. Thousands of women and children are kidnapped, given as war booty to jihadist soldiers or sold as slaves. The women are often raped; they are checked by doctors to determine whether they are virgins or pregnant. Who are these Yazidi? Two more characters of Flying. Two Yazidi monks, who live in a hermitage in the Syrian desert, discover that the birds have flown away. To entice them to return, they plant a tree that will give both nourishment and shade. They water it, fertilise it and pray for it. The tree grows, mighty and majestic.
But it is a dry tree without life. The two monks busy themselves with the task of bringing the tree back to life so that it will flourish and bear fruit. They chant, do penance, build nests and dedicate themselves to archaic rituals of magic. Around them, feats of war and shameful barbarity unfold imperturbably. The Danish daily, Politiken , January 21, In Gaza, the French flag is burned in the streets.
In Niger, Catholic churches are burnt and Christians killed in the streets.
Related Fuga nella brughiera (Italian Edition)
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