Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing)


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Cure — To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent set-off. Curl — The distortion of paper due to differences in structure or coatings from one side to the other or from absorption of moisture on the press. Cursor — The blinking line approximately the length of one character that, as displayed on a computer screen, marks the current working position in a file and can be moved to any other point in the file by shifting the position of the mouse and clicking on the new position, by clicking on a command in a dialog box, or by executing function key commands.

Cutoff — Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore, the length of the printed sheet on roll to sheet presses or the length of the repeat pattern on roll to roll presses. Cutscore — A sharp-edged knife, several thousandths of an inch lower than the cutting rules in a die, made to cut part way into the paper or board for folding purposes.

Scoring reduces paper cracking. Cyan — One of the three subtractive primary colors used in process printing. Cylinder Gap — In printing presses, the gap or space in the cylinders of a press where the mechanism for plate or blanket , clamps, and grippers sheetfed is housed. A DCS1 file is composed of five files. The main file is a composite with a low-resolution preview and pointers to the separation files. There are four separations files, one for each process color. DCS2 adds spot color capabilities, and single file as well multi-file formats.

Dampening — Moistening non-image areas of lithographic plates with water-covered rollers. Dampening System — The mechanism on a press for transferring fountain solution to the plate. Data — Text, audio, video, and images stored in a form that can be understood by a computer.

Data Blocks — The maximum size of continuous data blocks that can be recorded as a single block of data. Larger data blocks transfer and store data more efficiently. Data Compression — A software or hardware process that reduces the size of images so that they occupy less storage space and can be transmitted faster and easier. This process is accomplished by removing the bits that define blank spaces and other redundant data, and replacing them with a smaller algorithm that represents the removed bits.

Data must be decompressed before it can be used. See also: compression. Data Conversion — Technique of changing digital information from its original code so that it can be recorded by an electronic device using a different code. Data created in one software format may be converted to another before printing.

Print publication - definition of Print publication by The Free Dictionary

Data File — Text, graphics, or pictures that are stored electronically as a unit. Data Integrity — 1 The fact that data are not modified. Data integrity can be compromised in a number of ways: Human errors when data is entered; errors that occur when data is transmitted from one computer to another; software bugs or viruses; hardware malfunctions, such as disk crashes; natural disasters, such as fires and floods. There are many ways to minimize these threats to data integrity. These include: Backing up data regularly, controlling access to data via security mechanisms, designing user interfaces that prevent the input of invalid data, using error detection and correction software when transmitting data.

Data Mining — The increasingly sophisticated practice of gathering, analyzing and identifying patterns in data to create advantage. Used in marketing to better define and develop a deeper understanding of target audiences for increased efficiency and effectiveness. Explosion of e-commerce and social media have exponentially increased the amount and depth of data available to marketers. Data Processing — 1 Changing raw data or information into a usable format by using a computer.

Data Shift — In process color printing, it describes a shift in one of the channels of data that comprise the image file and could cause inconsistent color in some areas in the image. Data Transfer Rate — The sustained speed at which data is transferred within a computer or between a peripheral device and the computer, measured in bytes per second. Database — An electronic program that is used to efficiently organize, store, retrieve, and modify information, such as a mailing list.

The data can be quickly rearranged and sorted or searched alphabetically or numerically. Database 2 — 1 Large compilation of information that can be immediately accessed and operated upon by a computer data processing system. Any organized collection of data, gathered and stored in a computer. Deckel Edge — The untrimmed feathery edges of paper formed where the pulp flows against the wire of a paper making machine.

Decompress — To return compressed data to its original size and condition. Default — A method or value that software will use in processing information unless the computer operator specifies otherwise. For example, a scanning program has default settings for variables like brightness and contrast that apply unless the user requests something else.

Delivery — 1 The section of a printing press that receives, jogs and stacks the printed sheet. Densitometer — Instrument used to measure density. The densitometer measures the amount of light received from a sample. Reflection densitometers measure light reflected from paper and other surfaces. Transmission densitometers measure light transmitted through film and other materials.

Desensitizer — Chemical agent used to make non-image areas of a printing plate repellent to ink. Desktop — 1 Any computer or peripheral small enough to fit on top of a desk, laptop computers may be counted as desktop computers. Desktop Black and White Scanners — Used to make black and white negatives or positives of images or line art. Introduced by Quark, now used primarily for specialized graphics work. Desktop Publishing — The creation of fully composed pages with all text and graphics in place on a system that includes a personal computer with a color monitor; word processing, page-makeup, illustration, and other off-the-shelf software; digitized type fonts; a laser printer; and other peripherals, such as an optical image scanner.

Completely paginated films are output from an imagesetter. The term was more popular when personal computers emerged in the s. Desktop Publishing Stripping — Electronic assembly of all elements in final imposition for direct output as composite negative or plate. Detail Enhancement — The technique of exaggerating picture image edges with unsharp masking or peaking, so the observer can easily see the detail of the original in the final reproduction.

Die — Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing or debossing. Die Stamping — Printing from lettering or other designs engraved into copper or steel. Also called the intaglio process, it is used for the production of letterheads, business cards, etc. Diecutting — Using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes from printed sheets. Diecutting can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses.

Digital — Method of representing information in numerical binary code. Digital Asset — Digital data stored in a file. It can be either data that was digitized, such as video frame data and audio samples, or data created in digital form, such as title graphics or animation frames. It can be stored in either a Media Data object or a raw data file. Also called Digital media data. Digital Camera — A photographic system that transforms visual information into pixels that are assigned binary codes so that they can be manipulated, compressed and stored or transmitted as electronic files.

Digital Media Data — Digital data stored in a file. It can be either data that was digitized, such as video frame data and audio samples, or data created in digital form, such as title graphics or animation frame s. Also called Digital asset. Digital Photography — Direct electronic capture of an image within a camera without using film and processing. Digital Plates — High speed or spark discharge plates that can be exposed electronically by digital data from a prepress system.

Digital Printing — Printing by plateless imaging systems that are imaged by digital data from prepress systems. Digital Proof — Proof printed directly from computer data to paper or another substrate without creating separation films first. Proof made with computer output device, such as laser or inkjet printer. Digital Soft Proof — A color video monitor display of a picture file, data file or text file.

Also known as a soft proof. Digital Workflow — In print publishing, using the computer to lay out text and illustrations prior to creating film negatives for every page or going directly to plate.

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Digitized Information — Text, photographs and illustrations converted into digital signals for input, processing and output in an electronic publishing system. Digitizing Tablet — A device using a stylus and an x-y coordinate system to trace or draw images for input to a computer graphics system. Dimensional Stability — Ability of a film to hold size throughout its cycle of use.

Polyester-based films are more dimensionally stable than acetate bases; glass is more stable than polyester. Direct Digital Color Proof DDCP — A proof made directly from the stored data file onto a substrate using a peripheral device such as a photographic exposure, dot matrix printer or ink jet printer without producing intermediate films. Direct Screen — The method of color separating which adds dots at the same time the transparency is being photographically separated into the four colors. Direct-to-plate — Often used as a synonym for computer-to-plate but less desirable to use because the acronym DTP can be confused with desktop publishing, which is also known as DTP see computer-to-plate.

Direct-to-press Imaging — Unimaged plates are automatically mounted on the plate cylinder and then imaged with laser beams from digital data. Disk, Hard Hard Drive — A platter-like magnetic storage device permanently encased in a computer system. Disk Track — One of several concentric circular recording bands where data is stored on a magnetic disk. Each track may consist of several sectors with a fixed memory capacity.

Dither — To fill the gap between two pixels with another pixel having an average value of the two to minimize the difference or add detail to smooth the result. Document — 1 Recorded information regardless of physical form or characteristics. Often used interchangeably with record.

A collection of information that is processed as a unit. Document Content — Document Content refers to the substance of the material or information within the document that is intended to be communicated. Dot Area — The size of the dot is indicated by the percentage of the area it occupies from zero to one hundred percent. Dot Etching — Applying chemicals by hand to either negatives for increasing dot size which adds color; or, to positives for decreasing dot size which subtracts color.

Dot Gain — The increase in the printing dot size from the halftone film to the printed substrate resulting in darker tones. Double Black Duotones — Image created from two halftones, one for highlights and the other for midtones and shadows. Both plates are inked with black for the most contrast. Double Burn — Utilizing two or more negatives to expose an image on a plate or positive print. Drawdown — Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job.

Drop Out — The technique that can give a mediocre photo greater contrast by photographically removing some dots to create highlights that show the actual white of the paper. Drum — The common name for the photoconductive cylinders used on scanners and plotters. Drum Scanner — Color separation equipment on which the original transparency is wrapped around a hollow, plastic rotary cylinder. Dryer — A unit on a web press that hardens the heatset ink by evaporating the solvent ingredient in it.

Drytapping — Printing one or more layer of ink and then letting it dry before printing additional inks or varnishes on the same area. Dummy — A layout showing the size, shape, form and general style of a piece of printing. Duotone — Two films are made by changing the screen angle for each and one plate is made for each film. A duotone is printed in two colors but both plates can be used for the same color ink for maximum contrast.

Dynamic Web Pages — Web pages, birthed at the time they are downloaded, often contain up-to-the-second data pulled into a template. Search engine results pages are dynamically generated. The term EPS usually implies that the file contains a bitmapped representation of the graphics for display purposes. In contrast, PostScript files include only the PostScript commands for printing the graphic.

Easter egg — A small cartoon, animation, or other feature hidden by a programmer in the code of a game or application and triggered by an arcane sequence of keystrokes or mouse clicks. Electronic Data Interchange EDI — 1 The communication or transmission of data as electronic messages according to established rules and formats in order to transact business. It covers many areas including, ordering, pricing, quoting, backordering, shipping, receiving, planning purchases as well as invoicing and payments. Electronic Dot Generation — Method of producing halftones electronically on scanners and prepress systems.

Electronic Publishing — A configuration of hardware and software used for digital page composition. The term includes desktop publishing and high-end systems. Electrophotography — Image transfer system used in copiers to produce images using electrostatic forces. Electrostatic Printing — A printing process that uses electrostatic charges to transfer images onto a surface which then attracts toner in only the charged areas. The toner is bonded to the sheet by heat.

Elemental Chlorine-Free ECF — ECF indicates paper made from either virgin or recycled fiber that is bleached using alternative chlorine compounds such as chlorine dioxide as a substitute for elemental chlorine. ECF bleaching reduces harmful byproducts, relative to elemental chlorine bleaching. Elliptical Dot — An elongated or oval halftone dot used to minimize the midtone jump in dot gain at the point where dots are large enough to connect. Em — A measure of space exactly as high and wide as the point size of the typeface being used.

Em Dash — A dash, one em long, used to separate parenthetical phrases within a sentence. Emoticons Emoji — A pictoral expression of a feeling in a message rendered as text or an icon, such as pleasure [:- ] or sadness [:- ]. Emulsion — The light-sensitive coating on photographic film, plates or stencils. En — A measure of space equal to one-half of an em space in the same point size and typeface. Enamel — A term applied to a coated paper or to a coating material on a paper.

EPS images can be sized without loss of quality at different resolutions. PDF files may be used for the same purpose. Encapsulation — In programming, the process of combining elements to create a new entity. For example, a procedure is a type of encapsulation because it combines a series of computer instructions. Likewise, a complex data type, such as a record or class, relies on encapsulation. Object-oriented programming languages rely heavily on encapsulation to create high-level objects. Encapsulation is closely related to abstraction and information hiding.

Encryption — To alter a file, for example using a secret code so as to be unintelligible to unauthorized parties. End Sheet — Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Engraved Cylinder — An image carrier with recessed image areas that are filled with ink, which is then transferred to the substrate. Engraved, or intaglio, cylinders are often used in the gravure process. Engraving — Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface. Estimate — A statement of what a print job will probably cost based on specified quantities, materials and labor.

Estimating — The process of determining approximate cost, specifying required quality and quantity, and projecting waste. Environmentally-friendly Processes — Reduced-chemical, silver and VOC-free processes for preparation of printed materials. Etch — To use chemicals to carve an image into plates and film or an acid solution used to desensitize the non-printing areas of the plate. Ethernet — The most widely used local area network LAN technology.

Defined as the Ethernet uses cables and cords. WI-FI is its wireless counterpart. Both technologies are used together. Exposure — The quantity of light that is allowed to act on a photographic material. The product of the intensity and the duration of the light acting on the emulsions. Fadeometer — An instrument used to measure the fading properties of inks and other pigmented coatings.

Fake Color — Producing a color illustration by using one image as a key and making the other separations from it manually. Fanout — Distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain. Feeder — The part of the press that separates the sheets of paper and feeds them into position for printing.

Fifth Color — Non-process or premixed ink color used in addition to the four process colors. File — A collection of digital information stored together as a unit on a computer disk or other storage medium and given a unique name, which permits the user to access the information. A file may contain text, images, video, sound, or an application program. File Server — A workstation primarily responsible for redirecting resources across the network. Dedicated file servers require that the computer running the server software not be used for other tasks.

Nondedicated servers permit the administrative tasks and the shared resources to be spread over various network nodes. Filling In Filling Up — A condition where ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs up fills in the type. Firewall — The layer of security that protects internal computer networks from outside intrusions, particularly from the Internet. Filler — Inorganic materials like clay, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, and other white pigments added to the papermaking finish to improve opacity, brightness, and the overall printing surface.

Fill-up — Occurs when ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs of the type. Film Assembly — Positioning, mounting and securing various individual films to one carrier sheet in preparation for platemaking. Fine Paper — Paper made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as opposed to coarse paper and industrial paper. Fingerprint — To test a printing press to determine its exact printing characteristics, such as its dot gain, ink density and trapping, for the purpose of customizing color separations for those printing conditions.

Finish — 1 General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post-press operations. Flat — 1 The assembled composite of negatives or positives ready for platemaking. Flatbed Scanner — A color scanner on which the original is mounted on a horizontal table instead of a rotary drum. Flat Colors — 1 Colors and tints that are not formulated from standard process colors. Flat Stamping — The simplest and most economical foil stamping process; it does not perceptibly raise the stamped area above the surface, and usually leaves no impression on the reverse side of the sheet.

Flexography — A printing process that uses a raised surface of flexible rubber or photopolymer printing plate mounted on a rotary drum and thin, fast-drying inks to print on almost any roll stock. Flocking — The application of fine natural or synthetic particles to an adhesive surface. Like thermographic printing, the fibers stick to the adhesive area and the rest is vacuumed away.

Flop — Reversing a transparency or negative so that what was on the right side is now on the left. Fly Leaf — The half of the end sheets not glued to the front and back covers of a case bound book. Flying Paster — An automatic pasting device that splices a new roll of paper onto an expiring roll without stopping the web press. Foil Stamp — To press a heated die onto a sheet of foil, releasing the foil from its backing and adhering it to a substrate.

Folio — In typesetting, the typeset page number. Right hand pages contain the odd number folios. Fold — Bending and creasing a sheet of paper as required to form a printed product. Foot Margin also tail margin — The distance between the bottom edge of the body of type text on a page and the bottom edge of the trimmed page. Form Roller — A roller which comes in contact with the printing plate, bringing it water or ink.

Format — 1 The sequential organization of data in terms of its components. Also: A specific arrangement of data. The shape, size, style, and general makeup of a particular record. In electronic records , the arrangement of data for computer input or output, such as the number and size of data fields in a logical record or the spacing and letter size used in a document.

Also called layout. In microform records, the placement of microimages within a given microform image arrangement or the arrangement of images in relation to the edges of the film image orientation. For Position Only FPO — Refers to inferior quality copies of photos or art used on mechanicals to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Fountain Solution — A mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the non-image areas.

Four-color Process — Use of cyan, magenta, yellow and black to create a full color image. Free Sheet — Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities. Frequency-modulated Screening FM — A computerized method for digital screening. See stochastic screening. Front End System — The computer hardware on which application software used to prepare pages of type and graphics is run. Fugitive Color — A color that tends to change or fade under different lighting, in the presence of heat or other changes in the environment, or over time—an unstable color. Fugitive Glue — Adhesive used to affix items to a printed piece such as plastic or paper cards, magnets, etc.

Allows for removal of the item without tearing the carrier piece. Also, the fulfilling by a vendor of a request received from a customer by phone, by mail or by electronic means. Full-scale Black — A black printer separation that prints dots in every part of the picture, from the highlight to the shadow. Also called full-range black. Galley Proof — A printout of text used for proofreading before final page assembly.

Gang — To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure. Also to print two or more finished products on the same sheet during one press run. Gapless Press — A web press with special blanket cylinders that, with each rotation, allow more printing per square inch. This larger print space plus a shorter cutoff point can save a significant amount of paper on large runs.

Gateway Router — Software or hardware that enables communication between computer networks that use different communications protocols. Gear Streaks — Parallel streaks appearing across the printed sheet at the same interval as the gear teeth on the cylinder. Ghosting — Phenomenon on a faint image on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear.

Fine art prints and posters for the most part. The main issue to consider is archival quality. Most of these inks are water-based and may fade over time. Some at least are pigment based and therefore more archival. Pictures and graphics you see on Web pages can be in GIF format because the files are small and download quickly. Goldenrod Paper — Specially coated masking paper in yellow or orange used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposure on plates.

Gradation — The relationship of the tonal values of an image to its intermediate films and reproduction as well as magnetic or optical representation. It may also refer to the tonal values within the picture. Grammage — The metric basis weight of paper. Weight is expressed in grams per square meter. Graphic Arts — The visual reproduction of type and images by any of the several printing processes. Graphic Communications — Allied industries, including printing, publishing, advertising and design, that participate in the production and dissemination of text and images by printed or electronic means.

Gravure — The process of printing from cylinders that contain cells that hold the ink for transfer to the substrate. In gravure color printing, each succeeding color is printed on a dry color, rather than one still wet as in letterpress and offset lithography. Gray Balance — The proper amount of cyan, magenta and yellow printing to produce a gray scale with no apparent dominant hue.

Gray Component Replacement GCR — A color separation process that uses the black printer for the neutral gray portion of any color. Instead of mixing cyan, magenta and yellow to produce those grays, they are replaced with black ink. GCR deepens the shadows in an image that lacks depth. GCR completely replaces the grays with process black, unlike UCR which reduces process colors in the neutral grays and adds black. Gray Stabilization — Ability to maintain neutral gray balance during a color reproduction. The use of GCR helps to stabilize neutrals.

Greenhouse Gas GHG — A collective term for the following gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride, which, according to most scientists, contribute to climate change. Gripper Margin — The unprintable area of the paper where it is gripped as it passes through a printing press.

Usually measures a half inch or less. Grippers — Metal fingers that clamp onto the paper and control its flow as it passes through the press. Gum Arabic — In offset lithography, used in platemaking and on press to protect the non-printing areas of plates. Gumming — In platemaking, the process of applying a thin coating of gum to the non-printing areas of a lithographic plate. Halftone — An image composed of tiny dots whose variations in size create the illusion of variations in tone. Traditionally, a halftone screen was used to convert a continuous tone image into a halftone; such screening is currently done electronically.

Halftone-based Digital Proofing — Producing a proof with reliable color and halftone pattern directly from a digital file, usually by electronic process, without producing a set of film negatives. Hard Copy — A printed paper copy of output in readable form. It is also a transparency film or photograph of an image displayed on the monitor.

Hard Dots — Second generation dots or laser-generated dots that have hard edges without any fringe. Hard Proof — A color proof made on a substrate from production films or on a substrate directly from the stored pixel data. The latter is usually referred to as a digital hard proof, and a video proof as a digital soft proof.

Hazard Communication Standard — An OSHA regulation that requires chemical manufacturers, suppliers and importers to assess the hazards of the chemicals that they make, supply or import, and to inform employers, customers and workers of these hazards through safety data sheets SDS , labeling and training. Heatset — Web printing process whereby non-absorbent paper goes through the press and the ink is dried by heat.

Hickey — Spot on a printed sheet usually due to dust, lint or bits of paper. Hickey — In offset lithography, spots or imperfections in the printing due to dirt on the press, dried ink skin, paper particles, etc. Highlight — The lightest area of a photograph that has the smallest or fewest dots when made into a halftone. These are different names for the same color-control options found in most desktop software.

Holdout — A property of coated paper with low ink absorption which allows ink to set on the surface with high gloss. Too much holdout can cause ink to rub off or mark the next sheet. Holograph — A three-dimensional image of an object that is captured on a photographic film or plate, using a laser as a light source. Horizontal Line Screen Straight Line Screen — Once a characteristic of graphic high-contrast black-and-white Kodalith film for printing, horizontal and vertical line screens are simulated today using a software filter. Hot Spot — Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete drawdown during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.

House Sheet — Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a wide variety of printing jobs. HP Indigo — A fully digital liquid-toner printing system that enables every element to be varied as required. A color space used in some graphic programs. HTML Hypertext Markup Language — Is used to structure text and multimedia documents and to set up hypertext links between documents, used extensively on the Web. Hue — The attribute of color that designates its dominant wave length and distinguishes it from other colors.

Hybrid Printing — Methods of printing that combine stochastic and conventional printing techniques to create the illusion of continuous tones. Although the techniques vary, they generally use stochastic techniques in the highlights and shadows and traditional screening elsewhere. Hypertext — A computer-based text retrieval system that enables a user to access particular locations in Web pages or other electronic documents by clicking on links within specific Web pages or documents. Icon — In a computer system, a picture or drawing, such as a paint brush or trash can that represents a file or function.

Clicking the mouse on the icon activates the procedure or opens the file. Image — The digitized representation of a graphic element photograph, painting, film bitmapped in computer memory for display on a video monitor for output in paper or film form. Image Area — On a lithographic printing plate, the area that has been specially treated to receive ink and repel water. Image Capture — The process of converting photographs or other artwork into digital data so that they can be used in computer-based layouts. Image Carrier — The device on a printing press that carries an inked image either to an intermediate rubber blanket or directly to the paper or other printing substrate.

A direct printing letterpress form, a lithographic plate, a gravure cylinder and a screen used in screen printing are examples of image carriers. Image Editing Software — Software programs used for working with pixel-based images to refine, enhance and manipulate them, as well as to create graphic elements. Image to Plate on Press — Technology that images one or more plates in position on press for color reproduction. Image Processing — The alteration or manipulation of images that have been scanned or captured by a digital recording device.

Can be used to modify or improve the image by changing its size, color, contrast, and brightness, or to compare and analyze images for characteristics that the human eye could not perceive unaided. This ability to perceive minute variations in color, shape, and relationship has opened up many applications for image processing. Imagesetter — A high-resolution laser output device that writes data on photosensitive paper or film.

The data is processed by a RIP and can record halftones and line images as well as type. Imposition — The process of placing graphics into predetermined positions on a press-size sheet of paper. Page layout is the process of defining where repeating elements such as headlines, text, and folios page numbers will appear on multiple pages throughout a document, while imposition can be thought of as defining where these completed pages will appear on much larger sheets of paper.

Imposition, Head-to-Head — Arranging pages on a form during stripping so that the top of one page is located adjacent to the top of the opposite page. Imposition Layout — A guide that indicates how images should be assembled on the sheet to meet press, folding, and bindery requirements. Imposition Systems — Step-and-repeat imaging cameras or computerized methods of assembling the units of pages into signatures for printing. The latter method is often referred to as digital imposition. Impression Cylinder — The hard metal cylinder that presses the paper against the inked blanket cylinder, transferring the inked image to the substrate.

The impression cylinder on most sheetfed presses uses paper grippers to hold the sheet through its rotation. Indexed Color Images — An image where each pixel value is used as an index to a palette for interpretation before it can be displayed. Such images must, therefore, contain a palette which has been initialized specifically for a given image. Infeed — 1 The section of a sheetfed press where the sheet is transferred from the registering devices of the feedboard to the first impression cylinder. In-line — Components of a system arranged in a logical production sequence and in such a way that materials are automatically fed to the next component.

An example would be a coating tower on a press to apply the lacquer or UV coating on the same pass as the color. Indirect Screen — The process of first separating a photo or artwork into the four process colors by creating continuous tones. The dots are then added using an additional process.

Ink — A printing ink is a dispersion of a colored solid pigment in a liquid, specially formulated to reproduce an image on a substrate. Antique Finish. Paper with a rough, sized surface used for book and cover stock. Antiskinning Agent. An antioxidant agent used to prevent inks from skinning over in the can. The white area of text or illustrations at the margins which form a foldout. Aqua Tint. A printing process that uses the recessed areas of the plate; ideal for graded and even tones.

The hand application of color, through stencils onto a printed picture. Aqueous Plate. Water soluble plate coatings, which are less toxic and less polluting. Arc Light. Those elements of letters that branch out from the stem of a letter, such as: "K" and "Y". Art Paper. Art Work. Any materials or images that are prepared for graphic reproduction. Art-Lined Envelope. An envelope that is lined with an extra fine paper; can be colored or patterned. As To Press. Assembled negative. Film negatives consisting of line and halftone copy which are used to make plates for printing.

Assembled view. In illustration, a term used to describe a view of a drawing in its assembled or whole format. Author's Alterations AA's. Changes made after composition stage where customer is responsible for additional charges. Autochrome paper. Coated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-colored printing jobs.

Any photo materials which provide positive images without a negative. The light blue color used in the nomenclature of "laid" and "wove" papers. Back Lining. Back Margin. A term referring to the margin which lies closest to the back of the book. Back Step Collation. Back To Back. Any type that tilts to the left or backward direction; opposite of italic type.

Backstep Marks. A term given to the procedure of drying coatings onto papers.

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In an illustration, any line which encircles copy, or dialogue. Bank Paper. A thin uncoated stock used for making carbon copies. Banker's Flap Envelope. Also called wallet flap; the wallet flap has more rounded flap edges. The primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page. Barn Doors. Barrier Coat. Baryta Paper. A coated stock barium sulfate compound used for text impressions on typesetting machines.

Bas Relief. Base Film. Base Line. Basic Size. Basis Weight. A design school in Germany where the Sans Serif font was originated. The adjusting of spacing of type in order to correct the justification. Bending Chip. A recycled paperboard product used for making folding cartons. Bible Paper. A thin but strong paper opaque , used for Bibles and books. Bimetal Plate. Binder's Board. A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback binding of books. Black Letter. Black Out. Black Photo Paper. A black paper used to protect photosensitive materials. Black Printer.

Blanket To Blanket Press. Blind Emboss. A design or bas relief impression that is made without using inks or metal foils. Blind Embossing. Blind Folio. Blind Image. Illustrations or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and used in letterpress printing. Block In. Block Resistance. The resistance of coated papers to blocking. Reference, blocking. Blocking Out. To mask a section of an art layout before reproduction. Body Size. Boiler Plate. Repetitive blocks of type that are picked up and included routinely without recreating them.


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Any type that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous. The edges of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off in the final stages of production. A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 17x22 inches. Book Block. Bounce 1. A pressure sensitive color film that is used to prepare color art. Box Cover Paper.

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A lightweight paper used expressly for covering paper boxes. Box Enamel Paper. Box Liners. A coated paper used on the inside of boxes, which are used for food. Break For Color. Bristol Board. A board paper of various thickness; having a smooth finish and used for printing and drawing. Broad Fold. A term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short side running with the grain.

Brownline Proof. Buckle Folder. A portion of the binding machinery with rollers that fold the paper. A coarse sized cloth used in the bookbinding process. A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight. A term used to define the number of pages per inch of a book relative to its given basis weight. A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance. Bump Exposure. A term used in plate making to describe the amount of plate exposure time.

Creating a polished finish on paper by rubbing with stone or hand smoothing a surface. Burst Binding. Cable Paper. Cadmium Yellow. A pigment made from cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide. Calendar Board. A strong paperboard used for calendars and displays. Calendar Rolls. The measurement of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch or mils.

A dull coated paper, which is particularly useful in reproducing halftones and engravings. Camera Ready. A term given to any copy, artwork etc. Canvas Board. A paperboard with a surface of simulated canvas, used for painting. Cap Line. An imaginary horizontal line running across the tops of capital letters. Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type. Carbon Black. Carbon Tissue. Carbonate Paper. A chemical pulp paper calcium carbonate , used mostly for the printing of magazines. Case Binding. A milk byproduct used as an adhesive in making coated papers. Casing In. The process of placing in and adhering a book to its case covers.

Cast Coated. Catching Up. Chain Lines. Lines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires of the papermaking machine. Chancery Italic. A 13th century handwriting style which is the roots of italic design. China Clay. An aluminum silica compound used in gravure and screen printing inks. Also called kaolin. Chrome Green. The resulting ink pigment attained from the mixture of chrome yellow and iron blue. Chrome Yellow. Circular Screen. Clay-Coated Boxboard.

A strong, easily folded boxboard with clay coating used for making folding boxes. Coarse Screen. Halftone screens commonly used in newsprint; up to 85 lines per inch. Coated Paper. Coated Art Paper. Coated Stock. Cold Color. Any color that moves toward the blue side in the color spectrum. Cold-Set Inks. To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order. Collating Marks. A printers or publishers identifying symbol or emblem. Color Bars. Color Separating. The processes of separating the primary color components for printing. Color Strength. A term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation in an ink.

Color Transparency. Transparent film containing a positive photographic color image. Column Gutter. Space between two or more columns of type on one page. Commercial Register. Color registration measured within plus or minus one row of dots. Condensed Type. Contact Print. A print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a negative or positive photograph. Contact Screen. A halftone screen made on film of graded density, and used in a vacuum contact with the film. Continuous Tone. The degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.

Contre Jour. Taking a picture with the camera lens facing the light source. Refers to any typewritten material, art, photos etc. A board upon which the copy is pasted for the purpose of photographing. Corner Marks. Marks on a final printed sheet that indicate the trim lines or register indicators. A term describing a general type of papers used for the covers of books, pamphlets etc.

To eliminate a portion of the art or copy as indicated by crop marks. Crop Mark. Elements that cross page boundaries and land on two consecutive pages usually rules. Marks of fine lines, which intersect to indicate accurate alignment of art elements. Cutting Die. Sharp edged device, usually made of steel, to cut paper, cardboard, etc. A shade of blue used in the four-color process; it reflects blue and green and absorbs red. Cylinder Gap. The gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or blanket clamps is housed. Dandy Roll. Deckle Edge. The rough or feathered edge of paper when left untrimmed.

Deep Etching. An instruction given to remove an element from a layout. A term that describes a standard sized printing paper measuring Die Cutting. Die Stamping. An intaglio process for printing from images engraved into copper or steel plates. Digital Proof. Dimensional stability. A fine paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas, certificates and documents. Direct Screen Halftone. Display Type. Distribution Rollers. Doctor Blade. Dog Ear.

Dot Gain. A term that describes any additives to ink which encourages the drying process. The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding. Drop Folio. Drop Shadow. Dry Mount. Dry Offset. Ductor Roller. The roller between the inking and the dampening rollers. Dull Finish. Dummy Model. Duplex Paper. Paper which has a different color or finish on each side. Any deckle edged paper, originally produced in the Netherlands. Reference, deckle edge. Dye-Based Ink. Any ink that acquires its color by the use of aniline pigments or dyes.

Reference, aniline. Eggshell Finish. Electronic Composition. Electronic Proof. Elliptical Dot. Halftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones. A method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into the paper when it is dry.

Attaching the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding. English Finish. A grade of uncoated book paper with a smooth uniform surface. One who computes or approximates the cost of work to be done on which quotation may be based. The process of producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.

Even Smalls. Expanded Type. Type with width greater than normal producing a rectangular effect. A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering. Fan Fold. Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel. Fat Face. Type that is quite varied in its use of very thin and very wide strokes.

Felt Finish. The smoother side of paper, usually a soft weave pattern used for book papers. Felt Side. Filling In. A fault in printing where the ink fills in the fine line or halftone dot areas. Film Coat. Also called wash coat; any thinly coated paper stock. Finish Paper. Flash Point. A term given to the lowest temperature of ignitibility of vapors given off by a substance.

Flock Paper. Paper that is patterned by sizing, and than coated with powders of wool or cotton, flock. Fluid Ink. Flush Cover. A bound book or booklet etc. Flushed Pigment. Fogging Back. Fold Marks. Markings at top edges that show where folds should occur. Folio or Page Number. The characters which make up a complete typeface and size.

Form Rollers. The rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press. Free sheet. French Fold er. Fugitive inks. Colors that lose tone and permanency when exposed to light. A term for the fibers that project from the paper surface. Galley Proof. A proof of text copy before it is pasted into position for printing.

Galley Slave. The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper. To assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books for binding. Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence; collating. Gloss Ink. Quick drying oil based inks with low penetration qualities, used on coated stock. An orange colored paper with gridlines, used to assemble materials for exposure for platemaking. Graduated Screen.

An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one density to another.

French to English Printing & Publishing Translation Glossary

Grained Paper. A paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather, alligator, wood, etc. Gripper Edge. The application of gum arabic to the non printing areas of a plate. Hairline register. Terms and Conditions. Style Book. Weather Forecast. Accessibility links Skip to article Skip to navigation. Saturday 06 July Related Articles. The first OED came out in sections from , completed in Book news. Related Partners. In Book news. Top Galleries.

Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing) Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing)
Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing) Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing)
Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing) Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing)
Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing) Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing)
Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing) Dictionary of Publishing and Printing (Dictionary of Publishing & Printing)

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