Il domino congelato del Karabakh , di F. I cerchiobottismi di Usa, Russia e Turchia in testa. Gli investimenti nelle Forze armate e il ferreo controllo della dinastia Aliyev. Ci scrive Antonella Napoli :. Il presidente uscente della Repubblica del Congo, Denis Sassou-Nguesso, ha vinto le elezioni dello scorso 20 marzo con il La Corte costituzionale ha convalidato oggi i risultati depositati dalla commissione elettorale nazionale.
Nonostante questi incidenti, gli altri contendenti alla poltrona di presidente hanno ammesso la sconfitta. Il mausoleo della vergogna , di A. Bracci Testasecca. Birra e fiume tra Kinshasa e Brazzaville , di M. La strategia della paura , il numero di Limes sugli attentati di Parigi.
Joseph Chamberlain was the personification of British imperialism at its best. The liberal evolution following the glorious revolution of was not meant for export. Therefore the British Empire suffered quite a setback with the loss of the American colonies. Imperialism had to do with the adoration of the Anglo-Saxon race , as super race destined to civilize its colonies , as an ideology. Chamberlain could boast that he split two parties , the Liberals in and the Conservatives in Chamberlain wanted to avert the weakening of the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean as a threat to the Suez Canal and, therefore, India.
The possession of a preponderant sea-power was the key to the survival of the British Empire. Responsibility for the Boer War , and the butchery that followed was orchestrated by Joseph Chamberlain. The concept of imperialism was total for him because he did not consider self-governing colonies as dependencies , but as part of the British Empire. He advocated a federation of the British race and alleged that this would not come by imposition , but by the voluntarily expression of his colonial fellow-subjects themselves.
His belief in British imperialism meant that no empire in the world could ever surpass it in area , in population , in wealth , or in the diversity of its resources. This was Joseph Chamberlain. Fortunato Mizzi , considered by his followers and their successors as padre della patria , must be credited as being a political giant for having confronted a person of such calibre as Chamberlain.
I think the Anglo-Saxon race is as fine as any on earth. Not that I despise other races. They have their several virtues and aptitudes , though I must admit that the aptitude of my own race appeals to me strongly.
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There is in fact , only one race that I despise — the Jews , Sir. They are physical cowards. Throughout the period , there were divergences with the British , over the maintenance of the Italian language , but never a real confrontation until the first bombs hit Malta on 11 th June The Italian Risorgimento attracted the arrival of both Italian patriots and reactionaries on the Maltese shores. Still these had never led to an irredentist character proper. If anything there was a sense of solidarity with the Papal Sates rather than the new Kingdom of Italy , except, of course , from a minority of the conservatives.
The irredentist movement in Italy was not really concerned about Malta. Their main objective was to rejoin those Italian provinces in the North , still under the Austrian rule. This agenda remained unchanged until Mussolini marched on Rome in It had an identical cultural agenda as the condemned society. Dr Fortunato Mizzi died in and his place was taken by Francesco Azzopardi. Azzopardi became unpopular as he resumed participation in the Council of Government , which was appreciated by Winston Churchill , under-secretary of the State for the Colonies.
The controversy of the substitution of Italian with Maltese in Courts promoted the creation of an alliance of all conservative forces including the clergy , nobles , lawyers , doctors , academics , university students and businessmen , as a crusade against this change. Enrico Mizzi , il cavaliere senza macchia e senza paura , son of Fortunato appeared on the scene. Mizzi was a born polemist. He attacked even moderate Italian journalists , such as Ugo Ojetti. Ugo Ojetti , born in Rome , was a writer , distinguished journalist , editor of the daily Il Corriere della Sera — 7.
He even quarrelled with his brother Giuseppe , who was editor of Malta. It was a case of parenti sepenti because Enrico accused Giuseppe as agent of Jesuits and the Government.
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Nothing would stop Mizzi not even the fact that in view of the First World War , censorship through the Malta Defence Regulations was particularly enforced. Although war brought devastating results everywhere, Malta suffered some dire harsh times.
The situation provoked the famed Sette Giugno riots. The rise of Mussolini to power complicated the situation because being culturally pro-Italian became equated with Fascism. The Politico-Religious controversy was mingled with constitutional impasse as well as the language question. The fascist government intensified cultural and political links with Malta.
The Royal Commission in designed to solve the array of conflicts served only to ignite the conflict even further. Unless one was close to the klikka tal-Palazz , one had no chance to advance outside the fortress economy. There was no technical education other than that needed for H. Philanthropists like Vincenzo Bugeja and later the Church were some viable alternatives. The same thing applied for arts. Mussolini remedied this by the creation of Umberto Primo which trained artisans.
He offered scholarships to artists and other students. He even endowed people on honeymoon. After the Risorgimento the new Kingdom produced an anthology of intellectuals , poets , inventors , artists and composers , as if was a miniature Renaissance. No wonder the Maltese inteligenzia looked at Italy for inspiration. They left Strickland and his thugs to terrorize anybody with dissident views. While the Italians were very active in promoting their language in Malta it was not before that the British established the cable radio , Redifussion.
Strickland did in the end institute St Edward Collage to promote English education. He even hired an eminent anti-fascist exile from Paris , Giuseppe Donati , who on his death was replaced by the colourful Umberto Calosso x. The Pro-British lobby fought the Pro-Italian lobby as if they were gladiators believing that they were doing a favour to their patrons , Britain and Italy respectively. Actually in Chamberlain days , in spite of Strickland , Britain was prepared to concede a proroga on the language question.
Some time later, this was reversed and Italy did nothing. When the First World War was approaching , Winston Churchill , then First Sea Lord of the Admiralty , on examining the possible scenarios of a European war , proposed to abandon Malta if Imperial interest dictated the need. At Munich , Mussolini behaved as if he was the arbiter who brought peace to Europe.
Since the Italo-Ethiopian conflict , the British had already taken all the irrevocable steps removing Italian , arresting pro-Italians , arresting people who did business with Italy , shutting down Italian schools , and removing Italian from Court , education and administration. The British did not exclude the possibility of evacuating from Malta in case of hostilities.
They were ready to negotiate handing over Malta to Italy if it stays out of the forthcoming conflict. Martin Gilbert xii in his biography on Winston Churchill omitted this categorical undertaking.
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Whether these assurances were made is for historians to find out. Still it is a fact that the British practically abandoned the Malta moving to Alexandria. Although Mizzi , claimed after the war , that he played a part in the rapprochement of Italy to Britain , this was not the case. Ciano was not impressed with Mizzi when he met him on 22 nd December It is highly unlikely that the agenda of Mussolini coincided with that of Mizzi.
After the War the matter was raised in the Legislative Assembly during a hot income tax debate. At times , especially during the times Malta had responsible government , British governors acted as referees.
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The conservatives , whether they truly believed or not officially expressed loyalty to the Crown. Their opponents accused them of disloyalty and despised anything that was Italian , not just the language. The Strickland Press affirmed that we should not learn Italian because Italian literature is obscene and there are many books that have been excommunicated , prohibited and condemned. Certainly , whatever considerations were at stake in the Anglo-Italian relations , the loyalty to the British Crown or to the madre patria was not worth prioritizing the affair after Malta secured limited self-government.
Whatever achievements were achieved by successive governments during the intra-war period , they were overshadowed by the language question.
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Actually, considering the limited resources the Maltese governments had at their disposal , these achievements in the fields of public works , health , and legislation were not irrelevant. The last sitting Enrico Mizzi attended at the Council of Government on the 9 th of May echoed on two symbols which were vivid throughout this long path of the language question.
The winds of war were on the air , rumours were abound that Mussolini was about to announce declaration of war. Roger Strickland said that as long as Malta would form part of the British Empire , Italian would never be spoken in the Assembly. As a matter of fact he declared in that meeting :.
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The advent of the Independence in would reinforce the irreversibility of the position of the language question xvii. One misconception of the language question was that being pro-Italian meant being anti-Maltese. Erin , the reputed lexicographer , was certainly not anti-Maltese. The author of the national hymn , Dun Karm wrote his first poems in Italian. It is an undeniable fact that Enrico Mizzi made a cardinal mistake , when the Maltese language received irreversible legitimacy , continued to refer to the Maltese language as dialetto Maltese , up to the eve of the Second World War.
This mistake was inherited by his party until , when Carmelo Caruana became editor of the Malta Taghna , and was the first one to print a Nationalist newspaper in the standard orthography , tal ghakda as they used to call it. The fratellanza , which was instituted in performed a particular function to cater for the spiritual and material needs of prisoners condemned to death. Mintoff made a U-turn in his foreign policy and switched to Italy for guaranteeing the independence of Malta. It is still a mystery up to-day , but some link it to Gaddafi revenge. This took place some months after Ustica.
Zamberletti claims in his book that he was silently humming the fascist song of his childhood :.
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