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Often, such frames are based on previous debates over other novel technologies. Three technologies currently provide frames for discussing SB: green biotechnology, nanotechnology and information technology. In the biotechnology debate, risk has long been emphasised over economic benefits. More recently, nanotechnology has been referred to mostly in terms of benefits, while risks tended to be an issue for scientific discourses.
This has frequently been related to the many outreach activities around nanotechnology. The technology itself is taken for granted and only the consequences of particular applications have been up for discussion.
Download Technikgestaltung Zwischen Wunsch Und Wirklichkeit 2003
Kastenhofer, Karen Synthetic biology as understanding, control, construction and creation? Techno-epistemic and socio-political implications of different stances in talking and doing technoscience. It is the aim of this paper to illustrate these stances in detail and to discuss more generally their techno-epistemic and socio-political implications. Torgersen, Helge , online: Knowing differently — Over time. Rheinberger Duke University Press, Bechtold, Ulrike; Sotoudeh, Mahshid Assistive technologies: Their development from a technology assessment perspective.
Gerontechnology, Bd. A three country comparison of words and actions in participatory local climate protection projects. International Journal of Electronic Governance, Bd. Informatik-Spektrum, Bd. Global Environmental Change, Bd. Allhutter, D. The interventionist turn in science and technology studies STS increasingly involves researchers with practices of technology development and thus entails the need for appropriate methodologies.
After discussing its foundation in deconstructivist feminist theory, the author illustrates how the method is applied by drawing on selected empirical results. This paper deals with the potential of focus groups in concern assessment. It presents results from two focus group discussions on nanoparticles with laypeople in Karlsruhe and Vienna. In our case, the participants were quite aware that both chances and risk have to be taken into account in order to make individual judgments and choices.
But a reasonable balancing was perceived as impossible due to the lack of knowledge and clear information. With regard to risk governance, the value of focus group discussions is rather informational: The results can broaden the perspective of various actors involved in risk governance and are useful to inform concern assessment.
Looking back on the many prophets who tried to predict the future as if it were predetermined, at first sight any forward-looking activity is reminiscent of making predictions with a crystal ball. A key motivation to undertake forward-looking activities is broadening the information basis for decision-makers to help them actively shape the future in a desired way.
Experts, laypeople, or stakeholders may have different sets of values and priorities with regard to pending decisions on any issue related to the future. Therefore, considering and incorporating their views can, in the best case scenario, lead to more robust decisions and strategies. However, transferring this plurality into a form that decision-makers can consider is a challenge in terms of both design and facilitation of participatory processes.
Experts then translate these visions into practical recommendations which the same citizens then validate and prioritise to produce a final product. The following paper will highlight the added value as well as limits of the CIVISTI method and will illustrate potential for the improvement of future processes. A review of in vivo and in vitro experimental evidence. Possible health consequences of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields ELF-MF have received considerable interest during the last decades. One area of concern is neurodegenerative diseases NDD , where epidemiological evidence suggests a correlation between MF exposure and Alzheimer's disease AD.
A firm conclusion regarding this hypothesis is difficult to draw based on available studies, since there is a lack of experimental studies that have addressed the question of ELF-MF exposure and NDD. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of the performed studies regarding, e. Nevertheless, the investigated evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that short-term MF-exposure causes mild oxidative stress modest ROS increases and changes in antioxidant levels and possibly activates anti-inflammatory processes decrease in pro-inflammatory and increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines.
The few studies that specifically have investigated NDDs or NDD relevant end-points show that effects of exposure are either lacking or indicating positive effects on neuronal viability and differentiation. In both immune and NDD relevant studies, experiments with realistic long-term exposures are lacking. Importantly, consequences of a possible long-lasting mild oxidative stress are thus not investigated. In summary, the existing experimental studies are not adequate in answering if there is a causal relationship between MF-exposure and AD, as suggested in epidemiological studies.
Mager, Astrid Algorithmic Ideology. How capitalist society shapes search engines. This article investigates how the new spirit of capitalism gets inscribed in the fabric of search algorithms by way of social practices. Drawing on the tradition of the social construction of technology SCOT and 17 qualitative expert interviews it discusses how search engines and their revenue models are negotiated and stabilized in a network of actors and interests, website providers and users first and foremost. It further shows how corporate search engines and their capitalist ideology are solidified in a socio-political context characterized by a techno-euphoric climate of innovation and a politics of privatization.
It shows that a shift of perspective is needed from impacts search engines have on society towards social practices and power relations involved in the construction of search engines to renegotiate search engines and their algorithmic ideology in the future. Mager, Astrid Search Engines Matter: From educating users towards engaging with online health information practices. While the internet is often discussed as empowering or endangering patients due to broadening access to medical and health-related information, little is known about the way patients actually get informed about medical conditions and how the technology shapes their practices.
This article draws on 40 user observations and 40 qualitative interviews to explore how users employ the web to obtain knowledge about a chronic disease in the Austrian context. This analysis exemplifies that search engines are no passive intermediaries, but rather actively shape how users browse through, select and evaluate health information in the context of their own bodies of knowledge.
Accordingly, new skills are required on the part of users, but also on the part of medical professionals and policy makers. Mager, Astrid Health information politics: Reconsidering the democratic ideal of the Web as a source of medical knowledge. First Monday, Bd. An ongoing trend in technology policy has been to advocate participation. That is, lay participation as currently organized by professional participation experts under controlled conditions rarely is linked to public controversies, to the pursuit of political participation or to individual concerns.
Derived from qualitative research on two citizen conferences, the author shows empirically that in practice, this laboratory participation leads to paradoxical effects: successfully carrying out the experiment results in a systematic disappointment of the hope for gains in rationality typically attached to lay participation. Finally, the author relates this result to sociological debates about new modes of knowledge production. Under such a perspective, the author sees a paradoxical development: while society at large is becoming a laboratory in which knowledge is produced, participation practice is retreating from society into the lab.
In: Tambouris, E. The paper reviews various eco-feedback systems including carbon calculators and discusses how different disciplinary approaches conceptualise and explain anticipated impacts of these systems. The European collaborative research project e2democracy investigates how citizen participation combined with long-term CO2 monitoring and feedback can contribute to achieve local climate targets. Empirical results from local climate initiatives in Austria, Germany and Spain show positive effects in terms of learning about CO2 impacts, increased awareness, enhanced efforts and guidance as well as individual empowerment leading to slightly reduced CO2 emissions.
The Social Shaping of Technology: A New Space for Politics?
The OAW has been operating an institutional repository for years, its pub- lishing house is a Romeo green publisher and many OAW publications are freely available in digital format. In the OAW presiding committee adopted an explicit open access policy, advising its scientific staff to self-archive their publications according to the green road principle.
Various organisational and technical measures aim at increasing the self-archiving rate considerably in the future. Will synthetic biology elicit controversies similar to genetically modified crops before? Maybe, but where exactly are the analogies, and how can we gain substantial insights rather than mere guesses? We argue that apart from the intrinsic properties of the technologies at stake, the context of their implementation is decisive.
To assess mechanisms of past and potential controversies, an investigative tool is presented. The Gate Resonance model, derived from older models of societal conflict, allows identifying key elements of conflict generating processes. Monitoring the developing debate on synthetic biology using this model, analogies to the case of genetically modified crops appear less suggestive. So far, there are only few indications that a controversy is imminent.
Sustainability , Bd. The transition to a sustainable energy system faces more challenges than a simple replacement of fossil energy sources by renewable ones. Since current structures do not favor sustainable energy generation and use, it is indispensable to change the existing infrastructure.
A fundamental change of the energy system also requires re-organizing spatial structures and their respective institutions and governance structures. Especially in Austria, urban sprawl and unsustainable settlement structures are regarded as one of the main developments leading to increased energy demand. One of the aims within the project E-Trans was to identify socio-economic constellations that are central to the further transformation of the energy system and to focus on actors and their socio-technical framework conditions.
Based on a sustainable future vision for the year a backcasting workshop was conducted to identify necessary steps for the envisaged transition to a more sustainable energy system. The results shed light on the necessary changes for a transformation towards sustainability in the specific Austrian situation.
Critical issues are region-specific production of energy and its use, settlement and regional structures and values and role models, which all have a determining influence on energy demand. Combining the knowledge of extensive energy use with available energy resources in spatial planning decisions is a main challenge towards a long term sustainable energy system. Kastenhofer, K. Contemplative, interventionist, constructionist and creationist idea l s in technoscience. The following paper focuses on this nexus drawing on theoretical conceptions as well as empirical material.
To allow for a more differentiatedanalysis, three modes of power are discerned: interventionist, constructionistand creationist power. Against this background, the paper describes the emergenceof a late-modern technology that relates to a convergence of biology, physics andengineering as well as a distinct techno- science-power constellation. The conclusioncalls for a technoscience assessment that goes beyond traditional technologyassessment. Bogner, A. Im Umweltbereich kommt es dabei, so unsere These, zu einer Experimentalisierung von Partizipation.
It comprises not only a focus on problem situations where facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent, but also tries to develop epistemic approaches that allow for sound scientific answers.
Such challenges include a epistemological problems intrinsic to the task of proving the absence of risk, b problems related to the multi-sited production of evidence and the multitude of epistemic cultures involved, c the incompatibility of the various implicit objectives and d the complex actor constellations, that shape not only the way scientific knowledge is translated into action, but also which kind of knowledge is produced and which experts are listened to.
To illustrate and discuss these characteristics, the paper draws on an empirical study of risk research in the fields of agri-biotechnology and telecommunication technology in Germany. The emergence of identity management indicates that the process of identification has reached a stage where analog and digital environments converge.
This is also reflected in the increased efforts of governments to introduce electronic ID systems, aiming at security improvements of public services and unifying identification procedures to contribute to administrative efficiency. Though privacy is an obvious core issue, its role is rather implicit compared to security. Based on this premise, this paper discusses a control dilemma: the general aim of identity management to compensate for a loss of control over personal data to fight increasing security and privacy threats could ironically induce a further loss of control.
Potential countermeasures demand user-controlled anonymity and pseudonymity as integral system components and imply further concepts which are in their early beginnings, e. Gaskell, G. Degelsegger, A. Here, participation often gets framed as a form of PR and a sensor for public sentiments rather than as a forum of multiple rationalities and co-development of policy projects. This understanding can be related to underlying conceptions of democracy and the public. As a conclusion, governance styles would have to change before pTA was to become more than a laboratory experiment.
Ecological Economics, Bd. The establishment of new interdisciplinary fields such as ecological economics, human ecology or technology assessment can be interpreted as a logical consequence of striving for new sustainability sciences that address current global, multi-dimensional and multi-scale challenges. They set out to bridge the gap between the natural and the social sphere, between scientific analysis and societal action.
This papers aims at re-assessing the contribution of established inter-disciplines to sustainable development. Journal articles of ecological economics, technology assessment and science and technology studies are analysed and compared along several proposed features of sustainability science. The results converge in two crucial aspects.
In: Gutwirth, S. The emerging paradigm of ubiquitous computing promises unprecedented levels of support of human activities by information technologies working invisibly in the background and provid-ing their services in an unobtrusive and effortless manner. At the same time, these systems will bring about so far inconceivable levels of surveillance, collection of personal data, their merging and continuous transfer and processing, creating unprecedented threats to privacy and data protection.
As a consequence ubiquitous computing is also challenging central human values that are affiliated to privacy, embracing items like individual autonomy, democracy or societal sustainability. The inherent threats to privacy have been recognised from the very beginning of the develop-ment of this vision and numerous attempts have been undertaken to reconcile the obviously conflicting objectives of ubiquitous computing and the principles of current data protection.
The core of contemporary data protection is based on a general limitation of the generation, processing and use of personally identifiable data, supplemented by sets of rules which define exceptions from the general prohibition and regulate these specific cases. A major stream of efforts to preserve privacy under the new technological regime focused on the integration of privacy protection principles into ubiquitous computing technologies; in more recent times, the suitability of current regulatory framework for the emerging new paradigm of information technologies moved closer to the centre of attention.
Both directions, the development of pri-vacy enhancing, ubiquitous computing technologies and adaptations of legislation to accom-modate the enormous threats for privacy possess certain mitigating potentials, but are either insufficient or incompatible with the core objectives of the new technical paradigm. Measures that are sufficient to confront the vision of ubiquitous computing with more than an illusion of privacy will probably also require changes in the paradigm of current data protection principles and a reshaping of the vision towards societal sustainability.
REconciling sCience, Innovation and Precaution through the Engagement of Stakeholders
Part Fibre Toxicol. Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: A critical review. This review focuses on the unintended human exposure of ENPs. In particular, possible effects in the brain are discussed and an attempt to assess risks is performed. Animal experiments have shown that investigated ENPs metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes can translocate to the brain from different entry points skin, blood, respiratory pathways.
After inhalation or instillation into parts of the respiratory tract a very small fraction of the inhaled or instilled ENPs reaches the blood and subsequently secondary organs, including the CNS, at a low translocation rate. Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that several types of ENPs can have various biological effects in the nervous system. Some of these effects could also imply that ENPs can cause hazards, both acutely and in the long term.
The relevance of these data for risk assessment is far from clear. There are at present very few data on exposure of the general public to either acute high dose exposure or on chronic exposure to low levels of air-borne ENPs. It is furthermore unlikely that acute high dose exposures would occur. The risk from such exposures for damaging CNS effects is thus probably very low, irrespective of any biological hazard associated with ENPs. The situation is more complicated regarding chronic exposures, at low doses.
The long term accumulation of ENPs can not be excluded. However, we do not have exposure data for the general public regarding ENPs. In general, the present state of knowledge is unsatisfactory for a proper risk assessment in this area. Crucial deficits include lack of exposure data, the absence of a proper dose concept, and that studies often fail in adequate description of the investigated ENPs. Over recent years, science and technology have been reassessed increasingly in ethical terms.
Particularly for life science governance, ethics has become the dominant discourse.
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Ethics experts have become subject to traditional warnings against expertocracy: they are suspected to unduly influence political decision-making. However, any reliable ethics expertise has to reflect societal disagreements in moral issues. Therefore, expert dissent is a normal feature of legitimate ethics expertise. Based on theoretical considerations we argue that in principle, expert dissent does not cause problems for political legitimacy; rather, it enhances the salience of politics: obviously decisions on ethical issues cannot be taken on the basis of expert knowledge alone.
We therefore conclude that expert dissent, not consent, supports politics. Focussing on Germany and Austria, we show how politics deal with expert dissent in practice. While in Germany politics acknowledge dissent and use it to foster a fundamental political debate, Austrian politics attribute authoritative power to ethics expertise and try to construct an overall consensus. This illustrates how the drawing of boundaries between politic and expertise differs. Talking Ethics in Technology Controversies. My main thesis is that from the perspective of conflict theory, this appreciation of ethics means disagreement is being recognised and stabilised.
In ethically framed value conflicts, no-one can — with good cause — expect a genuine agreement to be reached on the level of personal moral reasoning apart from basic values such as those expressed in the universal declaration of human rights. It is shown that this cultivation of disagreement has considerable implications for the political management of controversies about technology.
Peissl, W. Communication technologies, biometric methods, the capabilities of sensors and the technical potential to analyse huge amounts of data are progressing constantly and quickly. Technical progress allows for ever deeper views and intrusions into private life. Apart from economic interests, applications of these technologies in the context of security do specifically represent a major driving force behind excessive use of these opportunities at the cost of the fundamental right of privacy.
The major objective of the EU-project PRISE was to develop criteria and recommendations for security technologies and security research in line with human rights in order to allow for privacy enhancing implementation and use of security technologies. The results of the PRISE-project are based on the combined application of different research approaches: apart from traditional TA-methods, participative processes played a central role.
Stakeholders and users of security technologies as well as citizens from six European countries were involved in the participatory activities of this research project. Aichholzer, G. Web 2. The emerging field of electronic identity management e-IDM addresses these issues, while governments are introducing e-IDM systems at national level to support service provision. This paper conceptualizes the transition to such a system in Austria as a "system innovation" and uses the approach of "actor-centered institutionalism" to analyze the innovation process and its outcome. It identifies major particularities of the Austrian system such as the technology-neutral approach using multiple tokens and an ID-model with special provisions for privacy protection, traces their origin in the interplay of institutional context and actor constellations and assesses the pattern of this transformation.
The current system represents a niche innovation, indeed with a transformation pattern implying considerable change for public administration as well as for citizens. Still controversial privacy implications and insufficient user value, reflected in slow take-up, remain the challenges. The system innovation perspective proved particularly valuable in identifying demands for adaptation by revealing barriers in the transition process towards the e-IDMS. Suschek-Berger, J. Open House International Vol. This article deals with the increasing demand for participation in sustainable refurbishment projects.
Based on a recently finished study and some conceptual considerations we present a flexible model for involving occupants and other stakeholders in large-volume residential refurbishment projetcs. The study draws on fifteen interviews with refurbishment experts and three focus group discussions with occupants of recently finished projects. The article shows that in practice it is important to offer approriate opportunities for participation at each phase of the process.
Mannerling, A. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics Vol. Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between exposure to low-level extremely low-frequency ELF magnetic fields MF and certain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental studies have not provided any mechanism for such effects, although at flux density levels significantly higher than the ones encountered in epidemiological studies, radical homoeostasis and levels of stress response proteins can be affected.
Here, we report on the influence of MF exposure Hz sine wave; 1 h; 0. The positive control heat treatment 42 degrees C, 1 h did not affect either cell proliferation or superoxide radical anion production but caused accumulation of cells in the G2 phase and increased the stress protein HSP MF exposure 0. Addition of free radical scavengers melatonin or 1,phenantroline inhibited the MF-induced increase in HSP Furthermore, the results suggest that there is a flux density threshold where Hz MF exerts its effects on K cells, at or below 0.
Schreuer, A. This chapter presents a critical approach to software development that implements reflective competences in software engineering teams. It is grounded within qualitative research on software engineering and critical design practice and presents conceptual work in progress. Software development is a socio-technological process of negotiation that requires mediation of different approaches.
Research on the co-construction of society and technology and on the social shaping of technological artefacts and processes has highlighted social dimensions such as gender and diversity discourses that implicitly inform development practices. Taking the convergence of science and technology seriously.
Hofmann, R. Constructive technology assessment aims at anticipating societal impacts of technological innovations and suggests incorporating reflexivity and social learning into technology development. Social learning involves fostering the ability of diverse social actors to cultivate sociotechnical critical skills, thus allowing technological and social change to be governed with consideration for social values and diverging interests.
Based on this demand, our paper presents a discourse-theoretical, interventionist approach to software design introducing deconstruction and un- learning as reflective practices to guide development processes. The underlying deconstructivist methodology refers to practice-based concepts of situated learning. Identity in the Information Society Vol.
Sotoudeh, M. GAIA, Bd. DuD — Datenschutz und Datensicherheit Jg. Frahm, J. Toxicology Letters Feb. The interaction of extremely low frequency ELF magnetic fields MF with cells can induce alterations in various cell physiological processes. Here, we present evidence that exposure of mouse macrophages to 50Hz, 1. The levels of the NAD P H oxidase subunit gp91phox oscillated between increased and normal levels compared to controls. The stress proteins Hsp70 and Hsp exhibited increased levels at certain time points, but not generally.
This suggests that ELF MF interacts with other cellular constituents than these chemicals, although induced pathways at least partially converge. Schmidt, M. Systems and Synthetic Biology vol.
work in progress Sustainability integrated Design Thinking
As synthetic biology develops into a promising science and engineering field, we need to have clear ideas and priorities regarding its safety, security, ethical and public dialogue implications. Based on an extensive literature search, interviews with scientists, social scientists, a 4 week long public e-forum, and consultation with several stakeholders from science, industry and civil society organisations, we compiled a list of priority topics regarding societal issues of synthetic biology for the years ahead.
The points presented here are intended to encourage all stakeholders to engage in the prioritisation of these issues and to participate in a continuous dialogue, with the ultimate goal of providing a basis for a multi-stakeholder governance in synthetic biology. Here we show possible ways to solve the challenges to synthetic biology in the field of safety, security, ethics and the science-public interface.
Torgersen, H. Drawing an analogy to past debates over biotechnology, some stakeholders fear that synthetic biology SB could raise public concerns. Accordingly, 'lessons from the past' should be applied to avoid controversies. However, biotechnology in the s is not the only possible comparator. The potential to become contested has been attributed to a number of other novel technologies. Looking at nanotechnology for example, controversies have not materialised to the extent predicted.
The article discusses factors relevant for controversies over technologies as well as differences to the situation when modern biotechnology began to proliferate. Certain properties attributed to SB in the discussion so far indeed suggest a potential for controversies, but perceptions may follow those on other aspects of biotechnology subject to local contingencies. Finally, it is questioned whether ELSI research should see its task in applying lessons from the past to ease technology introduction.
Rather than being embedded in a linear model of technology development, social scientists take an interest in developments 'upstream' where technologies take shape. A Case-study on Austria. In: Dini, O. In: Macintosh, A. This paper assesses the status of eParticipation within the political system in Austria.
It takes a top-down perspective focusing on the role of public participation and public policies on eParticipation. The status of eParticipation in Austria as well as of social and political trends regarding civic participation and its electronic embedding are analysed. The results show a remarkable recent increase of eParticipation projects and initiatives. A major conclusion is that eParticipation is becoming a subject of public policies in Austria; however, the upswing of supportive initiatives for public participation and eParticipation goes together with ambivalent attitudes among politicians and administration.
Ardil, C. Mild, K. Cell Biology International Vol. Extremely low frequency ELF magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc.
We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures. Towards a flexible model of participation. In: University of Technology Delft, Hrsg. Mager, Astrid Mediated Health. Sociotechnical practices of providing and using online health information. While most of the existing research about online health information focuses exclusively on either the provider or the user side of communication circuits, this article aims to integrate and discuss both sides and their mediated relation to one another.
Drawing on actor-network theory, it conceptualizes the provision and use of online health information as sociotechnical. It questions concretely how website providers position their websites and information, how users browse through the web and assemble information, and interrogates the various concepts of online health information these different practices imply. Further, it asks how search engines, and Google in particular, come to play such a dominant role in the way health-related web information is provided and used.
The article concludes by evaluating the implications of the findings in regard to debates about the quality of online health information and the way in which web information is distributed and acquired on a broader scale. Ornetzeder, M. In: Broussous, C. Reducing energy demand sustainably eceee ; Stockholm, S. European Journal of ePractice Nr. Science as Culture Vol. Genomics contributed to making modern biology a prolific multi-disciplinary field leading to new approaches such as systems biology.
Reporting in the media reflects the high stakes involved in these changes, but such reporting often appears inconsistent as contradictory claims are made about new applications contrasting with uncertainties from new insights. Such inconsistent claims might relate to different disciplines involved in the field. New approaches from engineering disciplines such as computer science have changed research practices and approaches towards the object; the meaning of genes having become context-dependent.
Since disciplines must cooperate, tensions arise over methods, evidence criteria and the significance of hypotheses. The concept of epistemic cultures, developed to highlight differences between distant fields such as high-energy physics and molecular biology, can render insights into the 'cultures' related to practices and approaches within genomics.
Qualitative interviews with scientists shed light on how computer science and experimental molecular biology co-operate and which problems arise from epistemic differences as the criteria for relevant findings become subject to the disciplinary context. In addition, genomics-like approaches have entered other fields of biological research, whilst systems biology further challenges hypothesis-driven experimentation.
This may lead to a new epistemic culture differing from the one previously described. These findings provide insights into how different accounts arise and shed light on general properties of prolific multi-disciplinary research fields. Inconsistencies in the way such fields appear from outside might be considered normal rather than the exception. Felt, U. Science Studies, Bd. This paper investigates how public discourses, as articulated in EU policy and Austrian media documents, take part in the creation and stabilisation of a new patient figure — the e-patient.
The documents we analysed act as one material form for enacting, performing and giving meaning to the changes occurring when a new technology enters established networks in the medical realm. Our analysis will show that the public discourses we studied deploy three rather different forms of discursive registers, each of which address and perform a specific relation between currently new information and communication technologies and citizen-patients.
The multiplicity we observed reveals crucial tensions and contradicting expectations expressed towards the future citizen-patient, showing the challenges for e-health in the making. Nentwich, M. In: Zimmermann, A. Systems and Synthetic Biology. Journal of Industrial Ecology, Bd. It is often assumed that nanotechnology NT holds the potential to provide a substantial contribution to the solution of various ecological problems, including high consumption of energy and materials and the generation of waste.
However, problems surrounding the use and release of hazardous substances remain largely unexplored. In terms of method, it was based on electronic searches of the literature, expert interviews, and an expert workshop. This article discusses the results of the project. It focuses on the methodological challenges and the principal problems resulting from a combination of the broad and ill-defined concept of NT and the specific concept of hazardous substances. The hazardous substances addressed had to be reduced to a manageable number, and the term substitution was understood according to the characteristics of NT and the way in which the latter could reduce the use of hazardous substances.
Although several applications of NT were identified that could lead to a considerable reduction in the use of hazardous substances, ambiguities in both the concept of NT and the concept of substitution in relation to NT prevent a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NT in respect to substitution. Bechtold, U. In: Miesenberger, K. Ahlborn, A. In recent years, governance and public participation have developed into key notions within both policy discourse and academic analysis. While there is much discussion on developing new modes of governance and public participation, little empirical attention is paid to the public's perception of models, possibilities and limits of participation and governance.
Building on focus group data collected in Austria within the framework of a European project, this paper explores lay people's visions and versions of government, governance and participation for two biomedical technologies: post-natal genetic testing and organ transplantation. Building on this analysis, we show that people situate their assessments of public participation against the background of rather complex lay models of the governance and government of the respective technology.
Because these models are very different for the two technologies, participation also had very different connotations, which were deeply intertwined with each socio-technical system. Building on these findings we argue for a more technology-sensitive approach to public participation. Winkler, R. In: Remenyi, D. Ecological Economics 65 , S. European Journal of Communication, Bd. Bogner, Alexander; Menz, Wolfgang Science crime. The Korean cloning scandal and the role of ethics. Today, Hwang Woo-Suk, the Korean stem cell researcher, stands for the most spectacular forging scandal in biomedicine, if not in the history of science.
Within few weeks, his exposure as a stem cell forger has downsized the 'pride of Korea' into 'the Hwang case'. Interpretations of this fraudulent forgery vary considerably. We demonstrate that new insights may be gained when discussing the Hwang case against the background of the establishment of a specific framing called 'ethicising'.
This term implies that contemporary struggles over how to govern scientific and technological advances are framed as 'value conflicts' that are characterised by specific conflict patterns and modes of negotiation and can be differentiated from 'interest conflicts' and 'knowledge conflicts'. Der koreanische Klon-Skandal und die Bedeutung der Ethik.
Leviathan, Bd. Telecommunications Policy, Bd. Der Anaesthesist, Bd. Austria has made a great leap forward with e-government into the top group in Europe over the past three years. The paper examines how far the usage of services keeps pace and what kinds of impacts are observable. It finds that in Austria the take-up of services among enterprises has made enormous progress to one of the highest in the EU.
Usage growth is strongest in advanced, transaction-related services, although there is still much potential to raise the usage among citizens in a socially balanced way. Impacts are identified in quantitative as well as qualitative terms: they include cost savings, increased efficiency and accelerated processing times of case handlings exemplified among others by win-win situations in the finance and foreign trade sector , improved service and information quality, but also some adaptation problems and reorganization needs. This is a major issue in the theory of reflexive modernisation.
Recently, new scientific insights within genetics have increasingly prompted the re-drawing of such boundaries. Taking the example of prenatal testing, with particular reference to late term abortion, I investigate the governing rationalities of experts' boundary politics. It will be shown that boundary drawing is structured with reference to society's guiding principles and notions of normality. In those problematic cases where the medical frame is unable to deliver sufficient interpretative power, this reference to societal value orientations turns out to be functional for maintaining the experts' professional authority.
In the case of prenatally diagnosable disabilities, for example, experts often do not know how to deal with such diagnoses. This ambiguity is for the most part understood as cognitive uncertainty amenable to more research, rather than in-terpreted as non-knowledge with reference to the level of social action which results from the interpretative failure of biomedical frames. Thus, the interpretation of non-knowledge appears to become unambiguous, which undermines any pending politicisation of non-knowledge.
The alignment with society's guiding principles turns out to be functional for maintaining the claim to be able to provide adequate and relevant information and terms for decision-making processes; in other words, for maintaining professional authority. On the basis of the observation that experts have to deal with uncertainty and non-knowledge, the article asks in conclusion whether this could point to the possible emergence of a reflexive type of expert.
Health Policy, Bd. Wild, Claudia Ethics of Resource Allocation: Instruments for rational decision-making in support of a sustainable health care. Torgersen, Helge; Bogner, Alexander Austria's agri-biotechnology regulation: political consensus despite divergent concepts of precaution. The invocation of the Precautionary Principle, e.
This was done without overtly shifting or challenging the boundary between science and politics, though their relative priority was reversed. The Austrian policy offers a pragmatic means to gain room for manoeuvre, rather than a coherent approach for a more reflexive way to deal with a controversial technology. Nentwich, Michael Quality control in academic publishing: challenges in the age of cyberscience. This article discusses the future of quality control in an academic publication system that will be largely based on electronic publishing.
Information and communication technologies both challenge traditional ways and open remedies for existent problems of present gate-keeping. New forms of ex-ante and of ex-post quality control may partly replace and partly amend peer review, citation indices and quality filters based on the reputation of the publisher. Open peer review, online commenting, rating, access counts and use tracking are evaluated and put in perspective. Refuting the common argument that e-publishing leads to less quality, this paper puts forward scenarios of the future quality control system.
Most likely, we shall see mixed systems, combining old and new elements, of different shapes in the different research fields. Sotoudeh, Mahshid Links between sustainability and technology development. Nentwich, Michael Cyberscience. Modelling ICT-induced changes of the scholarly communication system.
The use of information and communication technologies ICT is changing science and research. This paper focuses on the complex process of change of the scholarly communication system and how on we may explain the differences of ICT use among research fields. I submit a heuristic model of change that sets ICT initially as an independent variable and systematises a series of intervening variables. It turns out that the ICT-induced development and hence the differences between research specialities cannot be explained by a small, parsimonious set of factors.
The resulting picture is one of multiple causation with a strong emphasis on cultural aspects. This article deals with one of the most booming sectors in internet communication, namely mainstream internet pornography and its political framework within the policy of the European Union on illegal and harmful content on the internet. Based on the framing approach the policy process resulting in the "Multi-annual Action plan for the safer use of the internet" is analyzed from a fundamental-rights and feminist perspective.
The analysis focuses on the policy framing of the participating EU-actors with regard to gender-sensitive approaches and their feminist theoretical background. The dominant policy frames of the actors are derived from different foci concerning the aim of the Action plan and the definition of illegal and harmful content in connection with the strategic positioning of the actors between a "possible limitation of fundamental rights" and an "emphasis on the right to defence against intervention".
Empirical evidence of substantial risks to a successful implementation and operation of e-government calls for a forward-looking approach and possible ways of correcting a wide-spread neglect of long-term innovation risks. The paper explores the scenario method as an established instrument for improving strategic decisions in a context of change, uncertainty and complex environments.
Its application in a Europe-wide research project leads to three macro-scenarios with divergent implications for e-government prospects. The conclusions suggest particular requirements for developing more robust e-government strategies and encourage a wider use of scenario processes. Risk Analysis 24 , S.
Zechmeister, I. Psychiatrische Praxis 4 31 , S. Methode: Beschreibung von Finanzierungs- und Versorgungsstrukturen sowie diskursanalytische Untersuchung von Reformdokumenten und Interviews. Ergebnisse: Psychiatrische Versorgungsstrukturen sind Spiegelbild bestehender Finanzierungsformen. Genetic diagnosis and counselling have gone through a process of institutionalization and normalization, but ethical debates about the benefits and dangers of human genetics continue. This article adopts a sociology of science approach and asks how the professional authority of a science like human genetics, which is still a controversial field, is maintained.
Using qualitative expert interviews, the article first identifies boundary-work strategies which provide information about specific ways in which claims to scientific competence and validity are succesfully asserted. At a second level, the boundary-drawing discourse of human genetics makes it possible to reach conclusions about the structuring of professional orientations to action. Wild, C. Das Gesundheitswesen 66 , S. Just, N. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 17 2 , S. Journal of Cleaner Production Vol 13 8 , S. EMBO reports 5, special issue , S. Wiener Zeitschrift zur Geschichte der Neuzeit, Bd.
The article deals with the ideological implications of contemporary liberal bioethics. It draws on important works of different utilitarian philosophers. The author suggests that liberal bioethics, which include a discourse of marginalization, can be considered as a modernist form of racism provided that racism implies a specific structure of ideological discourse — and not only a practice of exclusion. Jonas, S. ZaefQ 97 , S. Predictive genetic testing will be possible for several common diseases in the future and questions related to financial issues and quality standards will be raised.
Laboratory test methods, early detection methods and the benefit from prophylactic interventions were well directed analysed and social consequences were interpreted. A hereditary modified gene is responsible for the increased cancer risk. In this families high tumour frequency, young age at diagnosis and multiple primary tumours are remarkable.
Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography is a quick alternative method. The identification of the responsible gene defect in an affected family member is important. The individual risk estimation is based upon empirical evidences. The test results have effects on the whole family. The so-called preventive medical check ups are early detection examinations. For colorectal cancer the evidence about early detection methods is better than for breast cancer. The question is if PM influences on mortality.
The acceptance of PM depends on culture. Colectomy can be used as a prophylactic FAP and therapeutic method. After operations the cancer risk remains high and so early detection examinations are still necessary. For objective test result presentations information about sensitivity, specifity, positive predictive value, and number needed to screen resp. There is a gap between predictive genetic diagnosis and the prediction, prevention, early detection and surgical interventions.
These circumstances require a basic strategy. Since predictive genetic diagnosis is a very sensitive issue it is important to deal carefully with it in order to avoid inappropriate hopes. Thus, media, experts and politicians have to consider opportunities and limitations in their daily decision-making processes. Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin 40 5 , S. Tichy, G. Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik 4 1 , S. This paper discusses participatory methods as a tool with which to overcome some underlying barriers to the development of innovative environmental technologies.
Participatory approaches with transparent and clearly defined goals, a well-organised process and the integration of relevant policy fields can contribute to successful communication between actors in the interest of the development of innovative environmental technologies. In: Das Gesundheitswesen 65 2 , S. Cas, J. Diese war zwar hinsichtlich der Senkung der Preise sehr erfolgreich, allerdings auf Kosten der langfristigen dynamischen Effizienz. Modern societies are vulnerable. We have known this long before the attacks of September 11, but they made it clear to everyone.
The second lesson learned was that it is impossible to foresee such events. However, does more surveillance really lead to more security? If so, what will be the price we have to pay? Apart from political actions, we already face even direct socio-economic implications as some anonymizer services were shut down. They empowered Internet users to protect their right of privacy, and they were the first targets of investigation and suspicion.
Shutting down these services reduces the potential room of users to protect their privacy by using privacy enhancing technologies PETs. This is an indicator for a serious societal problem: democracy already has changed. In a second part this paper analyses the relationship between surveillance and security. It is argued that, the international over-reactions will not lead to the intended effects. Rather, they will have long-term implications for the respective societies.
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Childbirth: A comprehensive perspective. Approaches to Health Technology Assessment. The World Health Organisation worked out evidence based interventions especially for low risk women worldwide. The trained midwife is the most appropriate and cost effective caregiver in normal pregnancy and birth. Obstetrics in the area of conflict of technology, economy and law can turn a normal physiological event into a medical procedure. It leads to unnecessary interventions and to a concentration of a large numbers of labouring women in technically well equipped units with the concomitant costs.
The technological advance run to the desire for perfectionism. The differences of payment of normal vaginal delivery and sectio are contradictory.
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