CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition

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The groups in northern Mali could however not be easily identified with ISIS , as they work more in the borderline of organized crime, and if caught, you are more likely to be treated as a valuable bargaining tool for money instead of beheaded for a political statement. However, with the media focus on ISIS, this can possibly cause a long-term famine in the tourism industry in the area.

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With the threat towards the economical security in the domestic level, because of risk of conflict and political instability, foreign investors will likely hesitate and abstain from investment, causing it harder for Mali to enjoy a full membership in the international marked, and thus be lagging behind in the periphery—as Buzan26 puts it.

With a dependency on foreign aid, and no sufficient military capacity to enforce its ways into the global market, the Malian economical security can be said to be threaten. Societal Security For the neorealist, identity are already set and therefore also the interests of the groups or state will be set, and when states goes into relations with each other, they therefore tend to know what they want before the actual interaction.

However, according to Wendt 28, it is the very intervention that creates the structures of identities and therefore, the interest is not given before an interaction. This is interesting in Mali as elsewhere, but especially in the Sahara. As according to Baz Lecocq29, the information and situation in the Sahara is shrouded like in a haze of dust.

Just like the sand blows through the vast desert and the dunes reshape, so does the situation in the area. Allies work together one day, and the next day they are bitter enemies. Oxford University Press. UK 29 Lecocq. Baz: Northern Mali; The things we Assume. September 2, The Malian Islamic community, have been based more on the Sufi tradition and Malians have practices a more tolerant form of Islam.

This they did through an old model, were they were shifting out the Imams in the Mosques and establish new one—and where they preached a more radical Islamic thought. For regular Malians, this new form of Islam were seen as alien, however, if they are attending these Mosques over time, they might be radicalized and create a more violent environment for those who seek to oppose.

Therefore, it is important for Malian societal security as well as political security that the military security is uphold, and able to counter the radicalizing elements introduced by groups with Jihadi and radical Islamic ideology—if failed, the societal security will be at stake. Radical Islamism is not the only threat against societal security in Mali, as Mali has different groups within its territory, with different identities and aims.

This ethnical composit ion can and has cause d problems and conflicts in Mali. This can then, eit her widening the gap between two groups, or close it in alliance. In older Malian history, the Tuaregs of the Sahara often dominated the southern people and kept them as slaves. Wit h the Tuaregs claim for independence, these other groups then fear dominat ion by t he Tuaregs , and therefore seek a closer cooperation wit h Bamako. To form this type of nat ion wit h a common ident it y, a state should use common history, language, religion etc.

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However, in Mali, as well as other parts of Africa, the borders were drawn in regard to the colonial masters, not in line wit h the social realit y on the ground. This is now evident in many of the conflicts in Africa, as ethnic groups consist across state borders. Some of the old Malian history is often about the conflict between or the contest of conquest for the power in empires in t he area. Where t he Tuareg se es their history of plunder as a warrior tradit ion to be proud of, other groups might link it to barbarism—result ing in a possible conflict of ident it y.

Many of the same f eatures might be the case in Mali, as geography, they both lays in t he Sahel belt, and were pastoral nomad often had to travel southwards for grazing, during periods of draught. This might then create conflict wit h the farmers in the more southern areas. H owever, it need to be ment ion that so far, it seems that this is not a large conflict element in Mali.

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However, wit h separat ist claims by the Tuaregs, that challenge the sent iments of the farmers in Niger Delta, this can be a result. According to Barry Buzan34, societal security is about the ability for societies to reproduce their traditions, being; language, culture, associations, as well as their religious and national identity. For a state like Mali, who consists of many different ethnic groups and face problems both financial and possible environmental, they Mali might be quite ill-equipped to deal with the differences in identity and culture if it first breaks out a larger conflict between the different groups.

As where in Afghanistan we have seen the Pashtos in the borderland between Afghanistan and Pakistan, in Mali different ethnic groups like the Tuareg and Fulani people, as well as other groups, are living in a vast area in north and western Africa across state borders, and in this way, the loyalty is not necessary towards the central government, but lays in the traditional tribe.

If the military is used against one portion of the population, this will challenge the legitimacy of both the state and its armed forces. With ethnic groups spread across territorial borders, an action from the state against that specific ethnic group might escalate to be a regional conflict, and thus invite a foreign intervention. In this way, a small local conflict can result in a more regional and ideological conflict, than first intended. The reason for this is, because the social communities and the construct of their societies are different in nature.

However, in many countries in Africa, identities can be formed around other and stronger identity markers than nationality. This be; religion, tribe, ethnicity, etc. If the state challenges the ability to uphold the identity for one group, the societal security for that group can be understood as threatened. If the state seeks to challenge this by assimilation of one minority, and if this minority holds great power in a neighboring country, this may therefore escalade. In Mali, the return of the Tuaregs who worked for former Colonel Qadaffi in Libya, have showed how one group seek to fight for their identity, culture and therefore societal security, can challenge the political- and military security, and perhaps in the future if successful also the economical one.

Environmental Security After the fall of the Soviet Union and therefore the end of the Cold War, there was an emergence within the academia and in policy statements that the environmental change would be a threat towards global security. According to Buzan38, environmental security is about the maintenance of both the local-, as well as the planetary biosphere, and how this will be a key component in a support system that all humans depend upon.

Simon in Williams. Paul, D: Security Studies an introduction. New York. That the people living in the semi-arid belt just south of the Sahara, is living on the edge, with multiple security challenges, and that a threat to the environment, might throw the people in the area over the edge. With speculations concerning climate change and its effect on conflicts, it may be easy to conclude that the warmer climate will result in more famine and drought in the area, that can cause a humanitarian disaster, mass migration and therefore also confrontations causing violence.

If this is the case, both political-, military-, and economical security will be put under pressure, however, according to a Norwegian study—looking at the relationship between climate change and armed conflict in the area concludes with a different conclusion. Tor A. Benjaminsen41, criticized this argument, saying even though drought might be one of the factors, the key triggers of conflict in Mali are not mainly rooted by environmental challenges, but by historical and political ones.

The Niger River is a crucial source when it comes to agriculture production and therefore, both food and economic security. About 25 billion m3 of water is consumed in the Niger inland Delta, and flooding from the river is an important factor in the production, since this enables both the production of crops, but also the reconstitution of grazing grounds for millions of animals in the area. Tor, A: Klima og konflikter i Sahel- eller politikk og vitenskap ved klimaets nullpunkt.

Internasjonal Politikk. China's growth rate has more than tripled that of the US for each year of the past four decades. In the Government category, the entry for "National symbol s " has been expanded to include information on national colors. In most cases these are colors found on the national flag, but this is not always the case.

The World Factbook's "Refugees and internally displaced persons" field has been substantially updated, including the latest developments from Syria and Ukraine. Stay tuned for data, as it becomes available, on displacement stemming from Nepal's recent earthquake. In the Government category, the first part of the "Legislative branch" field was thoroughly revised, expanded, and updated for all countries under a new "description" heading.

This subentry includes the legislative structure, the formal name s , the number of legislative seats, the types of voting constituencies and voting systems, and the member term of office. A vastly expanded "Legislative branch" description may be found on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Last week's World Factbook's relaunch included the new World Factbook logo in the announcement. The artwork incorporates an eagle - echoing the Agency's seal - but one with a monocle to provide a scholarly appearance, as well as a stylized globe. The World Factbook has been updated with several new entries and sections reflecting the latest information gathered over the past several months.

Some of these additions will be described below and in What's New statements in the coming weeks. In the Geography section, the "Land boundaries" entry was revised for all countries, including the total country border length as well as the border lengths for all neighboring countries. Lengths were calculated from the digital international boundary depictions currently used for all detailed United States Government USG products.

These digital lines, constructed from to the present, have been reviewed and edited by the US Department of State's Office of the Geographer and were constructed by either that office or the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's Political Geography Division's boundary team. This international boundary dataset is believed to be the most accurate worldwide international boundary vector line file available. The lines reflect USG policy and thus not necessarily de facto control. The boundary delineations are based on modern imagery, elevation data, relevant maps, treaties, international arbitration and court rulings, data from national mapping agencies and boundary commissions if available, and other sources.

In a few instances, official boundary length numbers supplied by national governments have been substituted for digital line dataset numbers. What country has the highest life expectancy in the world? Under the References tab go to the Guide to Country Comparisons and click on the People and Society category and find the "Life expectancy at birth" entry. One more click will give you the answer. Can you name the largest country in Central America - which also contains the largest freshwater lake in Central America?

Check the Regional and World Maps under the References tab to find the answer. There are dozens of monarchies scattered about the globe, but only one of them falls in the Pacific region Oceania. Can you name this archipelagic country? Hint: It lies in western Polynesia and was formerly referred to as the Friendly Islands. Its capital is Nuku'alofa, which translates as "the abode of love. Many people don't realize it, but the International Criminal Police Organization Interpol has been around for more than nine decades founded How many countries are members?

Did you know that the South African national anthem employs the lyrics of five different languages? Check out the "National anthem" entry under South Africa's Government category to find out more details. In the People and Society section, the "Urbanization," "Major urban areas - population," and "Mother's mean age at first birth" fields were recently updated. In the People and Society section, the "Dependency ratios" entries - including the youth dependency ratio, the elderly dependency ratio, and the total dependency ratio - have been updated with estimated data for all countries.

Did you know that there are freshwater lakes in the Sahara? Check out the "Geography - note" in the Chad entry to get more info. Ceylon, Dahomey, and French Somaliland are former names for what countries? Do you know what country is the largest electricity producer in the world? Can you name the world's largest country composed solely of islands? Hint: 17, islands make up this Asian archipelago; some 6, are inhabited.

The equator passes through seven African countries, can you name them? Hint: check the various World Factbook maps that show Africa to come up with the answer. In the Ukraine and Russia entries the following statement has been added to the Government section, "Administrative divisions" field: The United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol.

Much of the People and Society section has been updated with the latest data from the US Census Bureau, including the Demography fields of "Population," "Age structure," "Median age," "Population growth rate," "Birth rate," "Death rate," "Net migration rate," "Sex ratio," "Infant mortality rate," "Life expectancy at birth," and "Total fertility rate.

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The Black Sea is one of the largest seas in Europe. Can you name the six countries that border it? Additionally, can you name the peninsula that extends almost halfway into it and is the site of the strategic naval base of Sevastopol? Refer to any of The World Factbook's maps showing eastern Europe to find the answers.

In both the Economy and Energy categories, all of the fields have been updated to include information through Their last estimate of mid was approximately , Estimates by various media sources by the end of January ranged from 96, to over , deaths. Check the Syria "Refugees and internally displaced persons" entry in the Transnational Issues section regularly to keep updated on this human tragedy. The Population Pyramids found in the People and Society section, "Age structure" field have been updated with estimated data for all countries.

Of the following six Caribbean islands - Aruba, Barbados, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad - which is the northernmost, the easternmost, and the southernmost? The fighting and near civil war that broke out in South Sudan in mid-December was brought to a halt by a 23 January cease fire. To a great degree, the hostilities took place between the country's two largest ethnic groups. The expansion of the "Ports and terminals" entry was recently completed in the Transportation section for all countries.

Check "Ports and terminals" under the Definitions and Notes page References tab for further details. There is, however, a national flag that features FIVE crosses. Check the Flags of the World page under the References tab to find the answer - and to get complete flag descriptions. In the Government category, the "Constitution" entry was recently thoroughly revised, expanded, and updated for all countries and now includes dates of previous constitutions, dates of constitution development and enactment, and amendment dates.

In the Economy sections of most countries the macroeconomic numbers have been updated with the most recent data available. Only one country straddles all four of the world's hemispheres the northern and southern, and the eastern and western. Brazil is bordered by ten countries, the most of any nation in the Southern Hemisphere. Can you name Brazil's ten neighbors? Spain is divided into 17 administrative units referred to as autonomous communities. However, it also includes two autonomous cities and three small islands that are NOT in Europe.

Can you rank them from largest to smallest? Hint: check the Country Comparison feature and go to Geography and then Area. Spanish is generally thought to be the predominant language of Latin America, but on the South American continent four countries use other languages as their primary language. Check the "Languages" entry under People and Society for the various South American countries to determine the answer.

The tallest mountain in the former Soviet Union was named Communism Peak 7, m; 24, ft. It is now called Qullai Ismoili Somoni. Can you identify in which of the five Central Asian countries Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or Uzbekistan it is located? Hint: check the "Elevation extremes" entry in the Geography sections of these countries to find out. In the Transnational Issues section, the "Refugees and internally displaced persons" entry has a new 'stateless persons' subfield.

Statelessness is the condition whereby an individual is not considered a national by any country. Stateless people are denied many basic rights such as access to employment, housing, education, healthcare, and pensions. The UN estimates there may be 12 million stateless people worldwide. See the Definitions and Notes section - under the References tab - for a complete description of this new subfield. In the People and Society category, several important new demographic fields have been included: "Mother's mean age at first birth," "Contraceptive prevalence rate," and "Child labor - children ages The Economy category has two new fields.

Please see the Definitions and Notes section for a full explanation of each of these new fields. In the Transnational Issues category, the "Trafficking in persons" entry was recently updated with information gleaned from the US State Department's annual trafficking report. In the Transportation category, several fields have been updated with the latest available data including "Airports," "Airports - with paved runways," "Airports - with unpaved runways," "Heliports," and "Pipelines. In the Government category, the "Judicial branch" entry was recently thoroughly revised, expanded, and updated for all countries and now includes three subfields: "highest court s ," "judge selection and term of office," and "subordinate courts.

In the People and Society category, the "School life expectancy primary to tertiary education " entry was recently updated for all countries. The "Military service age and obligation" entry was recently updated for all countries. Refugee numbers - listed in the Transnational Issues section - were recently updated for many of the world's hot spot countries. The data on government expenditures, revenues, and money supply that appears in the spreadsheet Fiscal and Monetary Data, has been updated.

The spreadsheet collates information from past issues of The World Factbook and may be accessed by a link from the World "Economy - overview" entry. Although eagles are a common symbol depicted on national flags, a few countries depict other birds. Can you name the Central American nation whose banner carries an image of the distinctive, long-tailed quetzal? Check the Flags of the World page under the References tab to locate the answer. The name Benelux refers to a geographic, economic, and cultural grouping of three European countries.

The answer may be found in Appendix B. Appendix D provides a cross-listing of data codes used to identify countries. The GEC document provides a list of the basic geopolitical entities in the world, together with the principal divisions that comprise each entity. Population Pyramids have been updated with estimated data in the People and Society section, "Age structure" field for all countries.

The "Transportation - note" has been updated for various West African, East African, South Asian, and Southeast Asian countries to reflect information on piracy incidents. The new information reflects a general decrease in the number of pirate attacks worldwide, especially in the waters off East Africa. The decrease in successful pirate attacks is due, in part, to more aggressive anti-piracy operations by international naval forces as well as the increased use of armed security teams aboard merchant ships.

The only exception to this trend was in the Gulf of Guinea, in West Africa, where attacks increased over a wider area in Several Military fields have been updated including "Military branches," "Military service age and obligation," and "Military expenditures. What are polar mesospheric clouds also known as noctilucent or "night shining" clouds? Check out the photos in the World entry to find out. Various health fields in the People and Society section - including "Hospital bed density," "Physician density," "Health expenditures," "Drinking water source," "Sanitation facility access," and "Children under 5 underweight" - have recently been updated for all countries.

In , fiscal and monetary policies shifted towards greater austerity for many countries. In the World entry, the "Economy - Overview" highlights these changes and their impact on global economic performance. The "Overview" now contains a link to a spreadsheet detailing changes in the level of government expenditures, revenues, and national money supplies M1 for about countries for the period What Asian nation uses the mythical merlion a half lion-half fish creature as one of its major emblems?

The answer may be found in a country's "National symbols" entry, under the Government category. Can you name the country that has Dutch and French as its major official languages? Note, it is in Europe but it is not the Netherlands. The World Factbook's new cover - unveiled in the Gallery of Covers under the References tab - features a retro Art Deco style. Some Art Deco elements may also be found in a previous Factbook cover from Enjoy exploring and comparing the many Factbook cover designs that have appeared over the decades. The "Refugees and internally displaced persons" field in the Transnational Issues category has been revised to reflect the latest available figures for each country.

Please note that numbers may increase rapidly for countries currently experiencing crises, such as Syria and Mali. In the Economy and Energy categories, the information and data for most of the fields have been updated through year A new "Demographic profile" field is being introduced incrementally to The World Factbook; the entry provides a snapshot of the demographic features and trends within a country and how they vary among regional, ethnic, and socioeconomic sub-populations. Countries introduced this week are those of Central and South America.

Hint: it lies north of Australia. Several small nations and dependencies - including Gibraltar, the Holy See Vatican , Hong Kong, Monaco, and Singapore - do not include agriculture as a component of their economies i. Hint: use the "Country Comparison" feature to find out. Did you know that Canada has more lakes than all the other countries of the world combined? Check out the "Geography - note" in the Canada entry to get more info. As part of its 50th Anniversary celebrations, The World Factbook is proud to unveil a new online graphic capability. In the People and Society section, the "Age structure" field now includes a "population pyramid" feature.

Clicking on a population pyramid icon reveals a graphic illustrating a country's age and sex structure. The population pyramids are constructed from US Census Bureau data and will be updated annually. Population pyramids can yield valuable insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The shape of a country's population pyramid changes over time as a result of fertility, mortality, and international migration trends, progressing from a youthful distribution to a transitional distribution to a mature distribution.

Bechuanaland, East Pakistan, and Kampuchea are former names for what countries? The Horn of Africa on the continent's eastern coast contains the highest and lowest points in Africa - 5, meters 19, ft above sea level Kilimanjaro and meters ft below sea level Lac Assal , respectively. Can you name the countries in which these two features are found? The well-known Alps in Europe extend across seven countries from France in the west to Austria and Slovenia in the east. Can you name the other four Alpine countries? Find the answer by consulting the Europe physical map. The newest estimates for adherents to the world's major religions - as of - may be found in the World entry under the People and Society category, "Religions" field.

Recent election results from Curacao, the Czech Republic, Georgia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Somalia, Ukraine, and Venezuela have been entered in the Government sections of those countries. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior has created a list of 16 volcanoes - termed Decade Volcanoes - worthy of special study because of their great potential for destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas. Three countries, one of which is the United States, contain two such volcanoes.

Check the "Natural hazards" field under the World entry to learn what the other two countries are and to see the entire list of these dangerous volcanoes. In light of the importance of the energy sector to the world's economy, the WFB has created a new Energy category. Some of the fields are based on the same entries used previously in the Economy category, but several contain entirely new data and definitions that have not previously appeared in the WFB. The fields for Electricity Flows production, consumption, exports, and imports remain the same as before, but there are now five new stock measures for Installed Electricity Generating Capacity, including total installed capacity measured in kilowatts and a percentage breakdown of the four main sources of that capacity: fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, hydroelectric plants, and renewable fuel sources, such as solar and wind.

In the oil sector, former fields have been disaggregated to show separate numbers for crude oil production, exports, imports, and proven reserves and refined petroleum products production, consumption, exports, and imports. The definitions for each of the five natural gas fields are identical to what had previously appeared in the Economy category. Finally, a new field for "Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy" measures the total output of carbon dioxide from the consumption of all fuels.

In total, the new category consists of 23 energy-related fields. Hint: they have separate entries in The World Factbook. The World Factbook proudly announces a new and distinctive Map of the World Oceans that depicts the relationships among states across the great oceanic basins of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans. The map also depicts the maritime claims of the littoral states - represented by the buffer line of the nautical mile exclusive economic zones. In addition to the World Oceans map, The World Factbook recently added 10 new regional political maps to its reference repertoire.

To view or use any of the above-described maps, click on the Regional and World Maps link on the Factbook homepage or go to the References tab on the Factbook site and click on Regional and World Maps. In the Transnational Issues category, the entry for "Refugees and Internally displaced persons" has recently been updated. The Economy section includes updated data for "Population below poverty line," "Household income or consumption by percentage share," "Commercial bank prime lending rate," "Stock of narrow money," "Stock of broad money," and "Exchange rates.

What does FAO stand for? Find out in Appendix A: Abbreviations. An update on international maritime piracy appears in the World entry, under "Transportation - note. The World Factbook is celebrating its Golden Anniversary! Exactly 50 years ago - in August of - the Agency came up with the contracted name Factbook to describe its annual National Intelligence Survey summary.

The first unclassified version came out nine years later June , and it acquired its present name of The World Factbook with the edition. Annual printing of the Factbook continues, albeit in far smaller quantities than originally; its online presence - begun June - continues to grow with some 3 million visitors monthly.

In the People and Society section, the "Languages" entry has been updated for dozens of countries. What European country has the largest number of first order administrative units i. Hint: its name begins with an 'S'. Starting with Sri Lanka and ending at Indonesia, there are seven countries that border the Bay of Bengal. Can you name the middle five countries? Hint: check out the Asia regional map. In the Transportation category, the "Airports," "Airports - with paved runways," "Airports - with unpaved runways," and "Heliports" fields have all been updated with the latest available data.

The tune of God Save the Queen is used as the national anthem for a number of countries that comprise the Commonwealth of Nations. In addition to the United Kingdom, what other European country uses this tune in its national anthem? Note: a country's "National anthem" entry and its audio file may be found in its Government category. Name the archipelagic country in the Indian Ocean composed of some 1, coral islands, only of which are inhabited, and about 80 of which contain tourist facilities.

Check out the Asia regional map, under the References tab, for the answer. Can you name the Pacific island country that in the s had the world's highest GDP per capita - supported by exports of its rich phosphate deposits - and that currently is the world's smallest independent republic? To help you quickly find the information you need, the Factbook now offers a helpful Users Guide.

This feature may be accessed through the Users Guide button on the left or through the References tab.

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What two Caribbean islands are shared by two countries? Hint: one island is the second largest in the Caribbean, the other is one of the tiniest. The "Military branches" and "Military service age and obligation" fields have been updated for all countries. An update on international maritime piracy may be found in the "Transportation - note" under the World entry. The new World Factbook cover - prominently featuring some of the photos from the Factbook's website - has been unveiled in the Gallery of Covers under the References tab. While you are there, find out what year The World Factbook first featured photography in its cover design.

How many inches in a micron? Check Appendix G: Weights and Measures to find out! There are 25 World Factbook entities that border the Mediterranean Sea, can you name them all? Consult some of the maps under the References tab if you get stuck. Abyssinia is the former name for what African country?

Researching the demographics of a country? Check out the updated information in the People and Society category. The Atacama Desert is generally agreed to be the driest desert in the world. In what South American country is it? Check the Regional Maps under the References tab to find out. The World Factbook is pleased to present a new audio function on our website. In conjunction with the United States Navy Band, the Factbook now allows users to listen to most of the world's national anthems.

Go to the Government category for any country and in the "National anthems" field click play to listen. In order to align their time zones more closely with their main trading partners, the Pacific island nations of Samoa and Tokelau late last year moved from east to west of the International Date Line. Their new time status may be found in the Government section under the "Capital" entry.

What countries extend into the Arctic Circle? Check out "Regional maps" to find out. The next website update will be in January. The most common symbols found on flags are crosses, heavenly bodies the sun, stars, or crescent moon , or birds mostly eagles. One country's flag, however, prominently displays hands. Can you identify this Asian country? What is Animism? Check out the newly expanded "Religions" definition in the Definitions and Notes under the References tab.

New photos have recently been added for Anguilla, Ireland, Peru, and Ecuador. The images from the latter country provide a virtual tour of the Galapagos Islands. In the Economy section, various macroeconomic and finance fields have been updated with the latest available data. The field "Unemployment, youth ages " has been moved from the Economy section into the People and Society section.

The United Nations estimates the world population will reach 7 billion on 31 October The US Census Bureau, which supplies the population numbers in The World Factbook, estimates the planet's population will pass 7 billion in March While the true world total population is impossible to know, the Census Bureau and the UN independently estimate the world population through similar means.

Estimate differences between the two organizations are due in part to differences in the frequency and timing of demographic updates for each country. Nonetheless, the world population estimates of the Census Bureau and the UN show that we are rapidly approaching the 7 billion mark.

Many people know that Canada's national symbol is the maple leaf, but did you realize that Ukraine's is the trident or that India's is the Bengal tiger? Most countries' major national representation s may now be be found in the new "National symbol s " field in the Government category. In the Economy category, information for "Exports - partners" and "Imports - partners" has been updated to show data for Have you ever wanted to explore Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas?

Check out the new photos in the Peru entry Nos. The World Factbook is expanding! Additionally, there is a new field in the Economy category, Unemployment, youth ages The new datasets focus on the health and welfare of a country's population, and provide information relevant to a country's internal stability. In the Economy category, the energy fields have been updated with the most recent data available. How many furlongs make up a mile?

Check out the Weights and Measures appendix for the answer! Canada recently renamed the three major components of its armed forces. Data for many of the Economy fields have been revised to reflect the latest estimates. What time is it in the world's newest country, South Sudan? Take a look at the updated Time Zone map in the Regional maps section under the References tab. What country has the highest "GDP - real growth rate"? Find out using the GDP data that has recently been revised to reflect the most recent estimates for Did you know that almost one-third of the world's countries are assigned annually to either a 'Tier 2 Watch List' or a 'Tier Three' status by the US State Department for their failure to adequately deal with their trafficking in persons problems?

These countries are listed in the Transnational Issues category under the 'World' entry; detailed "Trafficking in persons" summaries - updated for - may be found under each of these countries' listings. South Sudan became the world's th country following separation from Sudan on 9 July The new country entry may be accessed through the Africa regional flash map on the World map of the home page, or via the country listing under the drop down arrow. On 9 July , South Sudan is scheduled to become the world's newest country.

The World Factbook plans to include this new entity in its next update. In the Transportation category, the "Railways" field has been updated. New photos entered for Austria, Germany, and the United States. New space-based images of volcanoes and current volcanic eruptions may be viewed in the photos pages of Chile, Eritrea, Iceland, Italy, and Russia. What is the current ethnic breakdown in that country? Find out by visiting the "Ethnic groups" field under People.

A number of the entries in the People category - religions, ethnicity, languages, and literacy - have recently been updated for many countries. The piracy plague continues unabated. The "Transportation note" entry addressing piracy has been updated for various countries bordering the Indian Ocean, as well as for Nigeria and Brazil. Note that the information on ICJ jurisdiction, formerly included in the "Legal system" description, has been moved to this new entry.

GDP data have been revised to reflect the most recent estimates for Under the Government category, in the "Capital" field, 'daylight saving time' has been updated for How many grams in a scruple? Which country has the highest number of airports? Check the Country Comparison page to find out! Significant updates have been made to the "Pipelines" field in the Transportation category. Did you know that there are more member "countries" of the International Olympic Committee than there are member countries of the UN?

The former includes a number of autonomous or semi-autonomous territories, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. To find out just what countries compose each of these organizations, visit Appendix B. Not in Greece? Choose your country's store to see books available for purchase. This book is the most up-to-date and reliable source of information about all the countries of the world. The CIA World Factbook is used by government officials, researchers, news organizations, corporations, geographers, teachers, professors, librarians, and students.

Information in the CIA World Factbook is collected from—and coordinated with—a wide variety of US Government agencies and hundreds of published sources. Entries for each country contain full-color maps and flags , along with the following information:. This edition is conveniently organized by continent, then by country. It has an active TOC for easy navigation, and is formatted and edited for rapid reference. The Koran Al-Qur'An. Michael Lewis. The Penguin History of the World.

J M Roberts. Think of a Number. John Verdon. An Astronaut's Guide to Life on Earth. Chris Hadfield. Dan Brown. The Secret Adversary Annotated. Agatha Christie. Herman Melville. Sao Tome and Principe Fact Book. Earth Wars. Geoff Hiscock. Pocket World in Figures The Economist. The World Factbook. The Central Intelligence Agency. Flags of the World.

Ajai Sebastian.

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Key Facts on South Korea. Patrick W. Key Facts on Indonesia. Key Facts on Qatar. Key Facts on Australia. Key Facts on Myanmar Burma. Key Facts on the United Arab Emirates. Key Facts on Canada. Key Facts on Kazakhstan. Key Facts on Malaysia. Key Facts on Germany. Key Facts on Italy.

World Development Indicators World Bank. Historical Dictionary of International Organizations. Michael G. Serbia Fact Book. Slovenia Fact Book.

CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition
CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition
CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition
CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition
CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition
CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition
CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition
CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition

Related CIA World Factbook 2012-2013: 50th Anniversary Edition

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