In , William Bradley was awarded the Legion d'Honneur by the French government for his promotion of French literature both as an agent and a translator. The Bradleys had a strong marriage, but they were not without tragedy: the couple had a daughter named Marianne, born in June of , who passed away in September of unknown causes. Bradley Literary Agency, situated at their home on the Ile-St.
Toklas, and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Toklas , Gertrude Stein's first successful publication. Stein's relationship with the Bradleys went sour over a misunderstanding concerning an American speaking tour in , which she claimed she did not want to do. Stein and William Bradley sparred, and Stein eventually fired the Bradleys as her representatives. While William and Jenny recognized Miller's work as genius, the controversial content of the novel made it nearly impossible for the Bradleys to secure an American publisher.
Kahane was apprehensive, and it took nearly two years from the book's submission before it was published in September Miller was insulted that Bradley would suggest any material from Nin's diaries should be cut. Bradley returned Nin's diaries and continued to serve as her agent. In addition to their close business and personal relationships with Alfred and Blanche Knopf, the Bradleys also had very close alliances with other important luminaries from the business side of the literary world.
Jenny Serruys at that time she had not yet married Bradley became a friend and quasi-patron of Joyce, loaning him a bed and table--the table upon which he completed Ulysses. Fellow literary agent Marion Saunders was also a constant source of professional information and camaraderie. The Bradleys also served as liaisons between publishers and freelance translators and were responsible for maintaining foreign rights for authors in both North America and Europe.
Some of Jenny's translators became her close friends, especially Mina Curtiss, who wrote books about Bizet and Proust, and Herma Briffault, the wife of author Robert Briffault. William Bradley died unexpectedly on January 10, Within days of his death, Jenny resumed operation of the agency, retaining William A. Bradley as the firm's name.
When Jenny was not hard at work in Paris, she often vacationed at her home in Cap d'Antibes in the south of France, accompanied by her dog, Kertsch. Bradley Literary Agency Records consist of agency correspondence with authors, publishers, and other agents, accompanied by various enclosures, such as book jackets, press clippings, typed manuscripts, financial statements, and photographs. Some personal correspondence in the records predates the formation of the agency. The records are arranged into three series following the agency's original filing system: I.
Author Correspondence, 68 boxes , II. Publisher Correspondence, boxes , and III. Agent Correspondence, 51 boxes. A correspondents index and a works index are included in this finding aid. The majority of the correspondence is of a business nature and is written predominantly in English and French, with some in Italian and German. Correspondence during World War II is sparse due to disruptions in postal services, and includes some letters which were apparently subject to inspection by Nazi censors.
This material covers the periods when Stein broke with the Bradley Agency and which includes a few late Stein letters, most of the Toklas letters, and the posthumous publication of some of Stein's works and Toklas's cookbooks.
The letters between William Bradley and Gertrude Stein reveal the somewhat adversarial relationship between the two. The agency's original alphabetical arrangement was used for Series I. Author Correspondence. Throughout the collection, files were, for the most part, kept in the agency's original order, although standard forms of names have been supplied. Publisher Correspondence is divided into four subseries, American, English, French, and Foreign publishers, mirroring the agency's original filing structure.
The majority of the material falls into the first three divisions. Within each subseries, materials are arranged alphabetically. Particularly well-represented publishers include: Albin Michel; Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Dominant among the agents represented are: A. Bye; Curtis Brown Ltd. London ; Kurt E. Some of the correspondence illustrates the scope of Jenny Bradley's close personal relationships with her business associates Blanche and Alfred Knopf, Mina Curtiss, Herma Briffault, and others. For example, a receipt for the rental of a table Jenny Bradley procured for James Joyce's use during the writing of Ulysses is included in the collection.
Several works and parts of works are present in the collection, including Toklas's revised typescript of Stein's "Meditations", which remains unpublished; Patricia Highsmith's play, The Cellar ; and other works by H. Forester, Elizabeth Goudge, L. Additional material at the Ransom Center concerning the William A.
Bradley Literary Agency can be found in the records of A. Other Ransom Center collections relevant to William A. Photographs of Jenny Bradley are located in the Photography Collection's holdings for the Knopf firm. Ford, Hugh. Rood, Karen L. Steegmuller, Francis. Repository Browse List. Accessing Materials Described Here. Bates, H. Herbert Ernest , Cyriel Buysse vu par les siens. Le Petit patre. John Paul Jones ou l'Ambition. Un Jour sous terre. Fragment: Elegy for a Grandfather. Elie Faure. Hotel de Cavoye: Home of Mrs. Henry Symes Lehr. This Way to the Tomb. James Thomas , Democratic Fallibility and Totalitarian Infallibility.
Interview with a Lebanese Parliamentarian. Many Australians are Beginning to Worry. A Memoir on Leon Trotsky. On Oscar Wilde's De Profundis. Theodore Dreiser. What Does Stevenson's Victory Mean?. Through Three Revolutions. Burma is a Golden Land. How Much Freedom in Yugoslavia? Khrushchev on Reality Versus Khrushchev on Utopia.
The Problem of Stalin. Report: The Satellites and Yugoslavia. Turkey Teaches the World. Whither Yugoslavia? Cecil Scott , Recherches et debats. Tapu Maoris. Frederick Lawrence , Flies in the Ointment. The Traitors. The Tattooed Heart of Livingston. Leslie Poles , Le Chateau du Moine. Le Chien jaune. La Gravure de Mr. The Gift. El Greco. The Cellar. Picture of Charles Chaplin. President Eisenhower's Speech. The Maid Who Played the Races. Fermina Marquez. The Golden Age. The Hour with the Face. David Herbert , It Can't Happen Here.
Il sera danseur. My Life. Apollinaire: An Elegy. The Philosophy of Travel. The Essence of Security. A Mouse in the House. Dante et Nous. The Dramatists Guild: What it is and does How it happened and why Diana Does It. Mr Franx did not even try to explain it, not a single character seems to be bothered by that fact. It is just one example of how sloppy the book was written. As a lover of fantasy books I am prepared to accept many crazy conecpts, but they have to follow the rules of the world they were set it and be a least bit plausible. The premises "The Legacy" fails to provide.
Jun 30, Krisdach rated it did not like it.
I wish there was a "I cannot finish this book" option on the drop down. Simply dreadful. A pitiful hero. A stupid ArchWizard. More villains than any book should ever have. Weak supporting characters. Poor dialog. Make that trite dialogue. Flawed sentence structure. The zig-zaggiest storyline I've seen in many, many years. I could go on with the negatives but here's the short version: I honestly cannot find a single positive thing to say about this story. Maybe -- just maybe -- I could find something I wish there was a "I cannot finish this book" option on the drop down. Maybe -- just maybe -- I could find something redeeming about it if I could bring myself to continue but I've tried that and the few times I've struggled through the next ten or twenty pages sincerely made me wish I had not bothered.
Summer reading should be a pleasure. Skip this. Jan 14, Duane Eberly rated it really liked it. Good twist on what seemed a Tired plot Second, I would urge you to get past the first 10 pages at all costs before you decide the book is a badly written caricature of a beaten to death trope. It is NOT. It also plays a bit like melodrama but eventually helps explain the how and why certain people act, feel, or refuse to feel certain ways.
If a father fails to feel sympathy or love for his child When later assinine behavior by these people is viewed through the lens of this loss We think we know the bad guys, we do know the good. We dont know if the good will do evil. By accident or as a result of the oul twisting effects of tramma, loss, shame, and pain. Most of all the book does an excellent hob showing the danger of. Worship and false derision shape this world.
- Anthropology: Seeking Light and Beauty (Engaging Theology: Catholic Perspectives)?
- Best A Wee Bit Witchy images in | Witchcraft, Magick, Bruges.
- Conquer Anxiety and Bed-wetting.
What do we "miss" or. Sep 05, Elizabeth Fantham rated it it was ok. A pet peeve of mine is when multiple characters have very similar names. It gets annoying. This would be one of those books. This was ok. It's one of those books where you feel like you have already read it multiple times. Almost feels like the author threw every cliche into this book. I have no issues with swearing in books, but it was just so odd and out of place in this one. To have characters living in an old world and having them swear like truckers was just so weird.
The characters Nothing spectacular. Some didn't fit well with the story, sometimes seems like too many characters or unnecessary characters. I just feel like the author over did so much in this book. Like they were trying too hard. In the end it didn't mix well for me. It wasn't smooth, it was predictable. Some people may enjoy it, it was just not for me. Jan 01, Melissa Jane rated it it was ok. Dark, depressing and half the book the MC is being tortured. Unlikable side characters, too many bad guys and not enough positive.
Lots of modern swearing that seemed a bit jarring, but the writing style was good.
Not for me. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. JD Franx is a new author to me.
His style of writing is way different then most I have read. The story line was really good. My only problem was that there wasn't enough excitement or action early on to keep me wanting to turn that page. The skipping around to different character's for each chapter didn't leave me hanging, just left out, like I was missing something. It wasn't until the later chapters that it all started to speed up and made me want to turn to that next page.
The ending turned JD Franx is a new author to me. The ending turned out to be a mind blowing ending. That I really liked and I have already bought the next book to see what happens. So his Father, a Wizard, jumped dimensions to Earth to leave his new born son. Kael was happy on Earth with his wife Ember and friend Max.
50 Best Albums, by Brendan O’Malley
Life was as good as it could get. One day the three of them were pulled back to Kael's home planet. Kael ended up some place different then Ember and Max. Because of this, the three of them have a different adventure all in its own. Kael captured and tortured, but found new good friends in his cell. He has to stay on the bright side to keep from turning. Freedom is all they want and work towards. Ember and Max end up with Giddeon and his daughter in search to find Kael and kill him. They pick up Yrlissa along the way and Ember, Max and Yrlissa plan on saving Kael's life, if he has changed or not.
All their adventures take them all over Talohna. They run into all kinds of trouble along the way. But they are all fighters in their own way and keep pushing on. What price will Kael pay for his freedom? And what price will Ember and Max pay for just being on Talohna. Is it possible all three of them have been born on Talohna? Maybe not, but everybody has some sort of magical power inside of them, they just need the right moment to tap into it.
Dec 20, Jeremy Glass rated it it was amazing. Great book! A must, and love the prolog, especially how it's a story of its own. Though great, enchanting and evening enthralling A simple spell check or an audit could help pick me!! However, I'm truly intrigued and looking forward to more books from this series, as well as new ones.
I hope JD receives the support and funds he needs to contribute to his passion! View 1 comment. Aug 26, Erich rated it it was ok. Almost the entire second half of the book the main character spends being tortured in an attempt to break him, until they finally do to an extent. Ember and Max are basically drafted as citizens into the kingdom they get pulled into, and neither of them seem to have an issue with it.
They travel with an archwizrd, who has to be the lamest archwizrd I've ever read about, and his daughter who are trying to kill the man they both care so much about. The First False Dmitrii was killed on May 17, , during an uprising organized by the boyars and supported by the population of the capital; a puppet of the boyars, Vasilii Ivanovich Shuiskii ruled —10 , became tsar.
The greatest upsurge in the struggle of the popular masses came during the peasant uprising under the leadership of 1. The rival factions of feudal lords within the country, as well as external forces—the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish feudal lords—attempted to exploit the popular movement to advance their own interests. By using their puppets, including the Second False Dmitrii, and subsequently by engaging in open intervention, the Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords captured Moscow in and part of European Russia; the Swedes took Novgorod Land.
The popular masses, led by the service nobility and the commercial-industrial elite of several cities, rose against the interventionists. Supported by the patriotically inclined population, the Second Volunteer Corps —12 drove the interventionists from Moscow and reestablished the Russian state. The Zemskii Sobor of elected Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov ruled —45 tsar of Russia and created a government that brought the struggle against the interventionists to completion. Lithuania, Byelorussia, the Ukraine, Moldavia, and the Baltic region from the 13th to the first half of the 17th century.
The lands of the Lithuanian tribes also were invaded by the Livonian and Teutonic orders. The tribes defended their independence and by had created an early feudal state, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, whose first ruler was Mindaugas ruled c. The Lithuanian nationality was formed at this time. In the 14th century, under such rulers as Gediminas ruled —41 and Algirdas ruled —77 , the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became one of the most powerful states of Eastern Europe; it seized Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian lands.
Polish-Lithuanian-Russian troops including Ukrainians and Byelorussians routed the Teutonic Order at the battle of Tannenberg also known as the battle of Grunwald in and put an end to its aggression in the south and east. The Krewo Union made it easier for Polish magnates and members of the szlachta nobility to encroach on the Lithuanian, Byelorussian, and Ukrainian lands. The feudal lords, led by Grand Duke Vytautas Vitovt, ruled — , sought to preserve Lithuania as a state, and Poland was forced to recognize the independence of Lithuania.
Thenceforth, the members of the Jagiellonian dynasty were simultaneously grand dukes of Lithuania and kings of Poland. Northern Bucovina had passed to the Principality of Moldavia by the early 14th century.
- Billy Budd: “Truth uncompromisingly told will always have its jagged edges.”!
- Noahs Pit Stop;
- Shop with confidence;
- Bring/take out of his thoughts.
- Los Angeles Light Rail Train Business Directory Travel Guide - Red, Purple & Blue Lines (2017).
Transcarpathia, which had been taken during the 11th century by the Hungarian Kingdom, remained under foreign rule. The Ukrainians, who found themselves under the domination of the states mentioned above, long shared the history of the peoples neighboring the Ukraine. In the Byelorussians and Ukrainians fought heroically alongside the Polish-Lithuanian troops against the German knights in the battle of Tannenberg. They resisted Ottoman aggression by serving in the Hungarian Army and fought to repulse Tatar raids together with the Russians and Moldavians.
Under the difficult conditions of foreign domination, the Ukrainian lands, which were divided among various states, maintained their ties with the Russian lands. The formation of the Ukrainian nationality was essentially completed in the 15th century. The economic development of the Ukraine in the 15th and 16th centuries was accompanied by an increase in the number of large farms— folwarks , which the Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords created by seizing peasant lands. The late 15th century saw the first in a series of invasions of Galicia and Podolia by Turkish and Tatar forces.
The Ukrainian cossacks played a major role in the liberation struggle of the Ukrainian people and in defending the Ukraine against enemy invasions. For the Ukrainian and Byelorussian peoples, the oppression of serfdom was compounded by national and religious oppression. The first major uprising in the Ukraine broke out in Figure 2. Battle of Tannenberg of Engraving from the Chronicle of M. Bielski, late 16th-century edition. Figure 3. A larger uprising began in , with the registered cossacks being led by G. Loboda and the unregistered cossacks by S. It spread to certain parts of Byelorussia and was not suppressed until Large-scale peasant and cossack uprisings also took place in ,, ,, and In Byelorussia, the population grew substantially, and the area of cultivated land increased in the 13th and 14th centuries.
The western Russian lands became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century. The formation of the Byelorussian nationality began at this time. As the feudal lords seized communal lands, feudal landownership increased in Byelorussia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In the grand duke of Lithuania, Kazimieras Casimir IV, granted a charter banning the transfer of private peasants to the estates of the grand duke. Growing numbers of peasants ran away from their pomeshchiki in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the late 15th and 16th centuries artisans organized into guilds. In at a synod in Brest the Uniate Church was declared the sole legal church. The further entrenchment of serfdom and the growing influence of Polish Catholicism engendered fierce resistance on the part of the people.
Peasants led by Matiusha and Golyi laid waste the estates of the pomeshchiki in the Mogilev area in Byelorussia in An uprising of the artisans of Mogilev broke out in June and continued for four years. In November the burghers of Vitebsk were driven to revolt by the coercive measures of the Uniate archbishop of Polotsk, I. The Kingdom of Hungary drove the Mongol-Tatars out of Moldavia in the first half of the 14th century and occupied the region. In , Moldavia threw off the rule of the Hungarian feudal lords. In the course of its ethnic development, the Moldavian nationality, which completed its formation about this time, had become distinct from the general mass of Vlachs.
Slavic tribes, primarily South and East Slavs, also played a role in its formation. The Principality of Moldavia encompassed the lands between the Dnestr and the Prut, along with Bucovina and the northeastern part of what is now Rumania. In the late 15th century Ottoman troops invaded Moldavia. Poland initiated hostilities against Moldavia in Interference by the Russian state prevented the Lithuanian feudal lords from joining the struggle. In the early 16th century Moldavia fell under the sway of the Ottoman Empire. On numerous occasions the Moldavian people rose up against the Turkish aggressors and their own feudal lords.
The peasants resisted enserfment and the plundering of communal lands. The largest uprisings took place in ,—92, and In the second half of the 16th century Moldavia, which remained under the Ottoman yoke, suffered cruel exploitation and devastation. Serfdom was given formal legal expression in Moldavia by V. Over a period beginning in the 13th century, the peoples of the Baltic region were ruled by German aggressors.
The masters of the Livonian Order and the archbishops of Riga erected stone fortresses, or burgs, in the Baltic region that became the centers of feudal-military rule. The Catholic Church maintained its power over the feudal lands and interfered in their domestic affairs. Cities, in which power belonged to the wealthy German burghers, developed rapidly from the 14th to 16th centuries, especially Riga and Tallinn.
The cities of the Baltic region carried on an extensive foreign trade with Lithuania, the Russian lands, and Western Europe. Increased feudal exploitation led to popular revolts, the most serious being the St. By the midth century, peasants with little or no land had been fully enserfed. The formation of the Latvian and Estonian nationalities was completed by the 16th century. The protracted struggle between the Livonian Order and the Archbishopric of Riga, along with the internecine conflicts of the feudal lords, prevented the creation of centralized states in the Baltic region.
The Livonian War of —83, a turning point in the history of the Baltic region, resulted in the disintegration of the Livonian Order and the distribution of the Baltic territories among Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Denmark. It absorbed eastern Latvia Vidzeme , including Riga, in and the Estonian islands, including Saaremaa, in Latgalia, along with its vassal the Duchy of Courland, remained a possession of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the 17th century land cultivation in Swedish Estonia Estland and Swedish Latvia Livland became increasingly oriented toward production for the market.
Estland and Livland were known as the granary of Sweden. Considerable grain was exported, primarily to Holland. Craft guilds were organized in such cities as Riga, Revel Tallinn , and Narva. In addition to the German guilds, Riga had 20 Latvian guilds. Several independent feudal states were formed in Georgia and Azerbaijan in the 14th and 15th centuries; they struggled continually against the aggression of the Ottoman Empire and Iran.
The political disintegration of feudal Georgia continued in the 16th and early 17th centuries: the Mingrelian Principality, Abkhazia, and the Guria Principality, all of which enjoyed de facto independence, became separate from the Imeretian Kingdom. It was invaded by Tamerlane Timur in the late 14th century. The state of the shirvanshahs shahs of Shirvan attained considerable power.
Armenia was invaded in the 14th and 15th centuries by various peoples, notably the Mongol-Tatars, tribes of nomadic Turkmens, and the Kurds. The Armenian state structure was destroyed, and the country devastated. In the 16th century Transcaucasia suffered internecine conflicts and foreign invasions. As a result, the relations of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan with Russia became closer. The struggle between the Ottoman Empire and Iran, which entailed countless sacrifices, substantially delayed the socioeconomic, political, and cultural development of the peoples of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.
Western Armenia and Western Georgia became part of the Ottoman Empire, but Georgia retained some independence in handling its domestic problems. Harsh political, social, and national-religious oppression caused the peoples of Georgia and Armenia to rise up and struggle for their liberation; for example, in a revolt led by G. Saakadze took place in Kartli.
The uluses recognized the supreme authority of Batu. The state attained its greatest military strength under Khan Dzhanibek ruled — As the tribes spread throughout the Tien-Shan from the 13th to 15th centuries, the formation of the Kirghiz nationality began, a process that was completed in the 16th century. From the late 15th to midth centuries the Kirghiz people waged a tenacious struggle to prevent the Mongols from reestablishing their rule in the Tien-Shan.
The formation of the Turkmen nationality, which began in the 13th and 14th centuries, was essentially completed in the 15th century. Part of it—Mavera-un-Nahr—became the nucleus of a powerful new state formation, the Timurid state. Tamerlane created a vast but unstable feudal power through his numerous campaigns of conquest. Uprisings against Tamerlane broke out repeatedly in Khwarazm and in such cities as Samarkand.
Small-scale commodity production reached its maximum development in medieval Asia in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The Uzbek Khanate, which became separate from the Golden Horde, encompassed the territory from the Aral Sea and Iaik River in the west to the Irtysh in the east and the Tobol in the north.
The long process of the formation of the Kazakh nationality, whose principal components were local tribes that belonged to early feudal states, was completed by the beginning of the 16th century. Under Khan Kasym ruled —23 , the Kazakh Khanate became stronger, its borders were expanded, and its population increased. The authority of the Genghisid khans and sultans was strengthened in the late 16th century. A Kazakh mission was sent to Moscow in to establish friendly relations with Russia.
Pasture stock raising remained the leading branch of the economy in Kazakhstan in the 16th and 17th centuries; feudal relations developed slowly. Members of the Sheibanid dynasty and the Uzbek aristocracy began playing a major role in Middle Asia in the 16th century. They were joined by part of the previous elite, and the land was gradually redistributed.
The Bukhara and Khiva khanates arose in Middle Asia in the 16th century. At the end of the 16th century, the Sheibanid holdings were unified by Abdullah-Khan II reigned in Bukhara beginning in This step was conducive to economic development. Nomads adopted a settled way of life, and land cultivation and irrigation developed. A number of cities that had been destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars, such as Samarkand and Bukhara, again became centers of trade and handicrafts. Moreover, commercial and diplomatic relations with Russia were established. In the 17th century, however, civil wars, nomad attacks, and the shifting of important caravan routes retarded the development of the peoples of Middle Asia.
Russia in the 17th century. The economic ruin suffered by the Russian state in the first quarter of the 17th century reached dangerous proportions. Enormous tracts of cultivated land were abandoned, as much as 60 percent of the land in some districts. The government responded with measures designed to put an end to the economic collapse and further reinforce serfdom; these included the general description and patrolling of the deserted regions and the apprehension and return of runaway posadskie liudi and peasants.
Under tsars Mikhail Fedorovich and Aleksei Mikhailovich ruled —76 the Privy Duma, or Secret Duma, made up of reliable persons invited by the tsar, functioned in addition to the Boyar Duma. All military, judicial, and financial power in the provinces was concentrated in the hands of the voevody military governors. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries the role of the nobility, which comprised the bulk of the dominant class of feudal lords, gained in importance. During the Russo-Polish War of —34 an attempt was made to regain the lands taken by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; despite initial successes, Russia lost the war: the Russian Army, encircled at Smolensk, surrendered.
Under the Polianovka Peace of the Poles returned to Russia only Serpeisk and the surrounding district and met the Russian demand that Wladyslaw IV renounce his claim to the Russian throne. With great difficulty Russia managed to hold back the incursions of the Crimean khan. In the first half of the 17th century at least , Russians were taken captive and sold by the Crimean Tatars in the slave markets of Constantinople.
The Don Cossacks captured the Turkish fortress at Azov in and held it for five years, withstanding a siege mounted by Turkish-Tatar forces. Intensive colonization of Siberia—the annexation and opening up of its eastern regions—began in the early 17th century. The Eniseisk ostrog fortified settlement was founded in ; it was followed by the similar settlements of Krasnoiarsk , Bratsk , and Yakutsk Russian zemleprokhodtsy explorers reached the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk in This amalgamation.
In the 17th century the first signs of the decline and dissolution of the feudal system were manifested in Russia, and capitalist relations began developing. The country entered the period of the transition from feudalism to capitalism, a process that took more than two centuries and whose initial stage was characterized by the final legal codification of serfdom, the concentration of small local markets into a single nationwide market, the rise of absolutism, and a bitter class struggle.
By the midth century, agriculture and handicrafts had recovered from the damage wrought by foreign intervention. Market ties were reestablished and became more extensive, urban handicrafts production was transformed on a massive scale into small-scale commodity production, certain Russian cities specialized further in particular handicrafts, entrepreneurship began developing among the nobility, and the first manufactures were organized.
The manufactures relied primarily on manual labor, most of it supplied by enserfed peasants; water-driven engines were used in only a few plants. Simple capitalist cooperation and manufacture underwent development in river transport and salt-making and appeared for the first time in distilling, the production of leather goods notably Russia leather , rope spinning, and metalworking.
A bourgeoisie, consisting of the stratum of capitalist merchants, began taking shape. The first metallurgical and glass works were built with state support. The ties between small local markets were strengthened, and a nationwide market began forming. City and village marketplaces, bazaars, and fairs multiplied. Moscow, the capital, became the center of the developing nationwide market.
Domestic interregional trade in such commodities as grain and salt became a principal source for the formation of merchant capital; foreign trade remained the main source, however. In the interior cities they sold goods from Western Europe woolen cloth, grape wine, copper, tin, and paper and Eastern Europe silk and cotton fabrics.
In the countryside, where at least 96 percent of the population lived, a natural-patriarchal economy was dominant, usually based on land cultivation. Increases in agricultural output were achieved primarily by opening up new lands in the central and, especially, the frontier areas: the southern districts of Russia, the Middle Volga Region, the Ural Region, and Siberia. Growing demand for grain, most of it used in distilling, and rising demand for flax and hemp, especially for export, contributed to a substantial increase in the sale of commodities produced by land cultivation.
As before, industry developed primarily through the growth of handicraft and small-scale commodity production and, on this basis, further specialization in particular branches of industry. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, craftsmen and rural commodity producers became concentrated in the old cities, and new urban industrial centers were founded in European Russia, such as Simbirsk in Higher taxes and increased exploitation of the townspeople resulted in the Moscow Uprising of , the Novgorod Uprising of , and the Pskov Uprising of Between and uprisings also broke out in cities Figure 4.
View of the Moscow Kremlin from Red Square. Drawing from the album of Augustin Meyerberg, — In addition, the statute of limitations on recovering a fugitive peasant was lifted entirely. Landowners were given the right to control the property and person of the peasant. The formation of the state system of serfdom had now been completed. Trade was declared the privilege of the posadskie liudi, and peasants were forbidden to have shops in the cities. A state monopoly on the trade in grain spirits vodka was established in The government unified the customs system under the Commercial Statute of , which eliminated many petty levies that had hindered the development of interregional trade.
The New Commercial Statute of barred foreigners from trading in the interior cities of Russia. The potential for a growth in state revenues was limited, however, since most of the land and the majority of the peasants belonged to the church and to secular feudal lords. The heaviest tax burden was borne by comparatively small strata of the population—the posadskie liudi and the peasants of Siberia and northern European Russia, who were not bound. The lot of such privately owned peasants was no easier, since their payments and service obligations to the feudal owners had been increased.
Complex processes of socioeconomic development and increased feudal oppression led to an exacerbation of social contradictions. The peasants and posadskie liudi fled in large numbers to the south where they swelled the ranks of the cossack population , the Ural Region, and Siberia.
the legacy of the drevnik book one the exile Manual
The migration of considerable numbers of peasants and artisans to the eastern regions of the country had the objective effect of fostering the development of those territories. Disturbed at the mass flight of peasants and at the shortage of labor power, the landlords demanded that the government reinforce serfdom. The rapid growth of the feudal-serf economy based on private ownership continued, primarily through the mass transfer distribution of state and crown lands, together with the peasants living on them, to the possession of serf-owning feudal lords.
In an uprising broke out in the Ukraine, which was suffering under the oppressive rule of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The uprising developed into the War of Liberation of the Ukrainian People of — Representatives of the Ukrainian people swore fidelity to Russia at the Pereiaslav rada council , held in January The consolidation of the Ukraine with Russia brought on a war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, during which the Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian peoples joined forces. Doroshenko, hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine, went over to the Russians, thereby touching off a war with the Ottoman Empire, which claimed the Ukraine.
The war lasted from to The Russo-Ukrainian forces, who won several victories against a numerically superior enemy and who demonstrated their mettle in the defense of Chigirin, thwarted the aggressive designs of the Ottoman Empire. The war and the Turkish invasion of Central Europe in helped bring about the signing of the Eternal Peace of , which provided a basis for relations between Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Crimean campaigns of and , however, brought Russia no success and hastened the downfall of the government of Tsarevna Sofia. Peter I subsequently continued the struggle against the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate with the Azov campaigns of — Under the Constantinople Peace Treaty of , Russia obtained Azov and no longer had to pay a humiliating tribute to the Crimean khan.
The state system, above all the autocratic power of the tsar, grew stronger and gradually acquired the character of an absolute monarchy. The main cause of its rise, however, was the vested interest of the entire class of feudal lords in maintaining and strengthening their dominant position in the face of a mighty upsurge in the struggle of the popular masses against serfdom. The rise of absolutism was accompanied by the withering away of the institutions characteristic of the estate monarchy.
Beginning in the midth century the zemskie sobory were convoked less frequently. As early as the government restricted the growth of church landownership by imposing a ban on the donation of land to the monasteries. There was a marked decline in the importance of the Boyar Duma, whose membership came to include persons not of noble birth. Ordin-Nashchokin and from A. The Privy Duma became more important; the Prikaz Tainykh Del Bureau of Secret Affairs , which engaged in political investigations and dealt with cases involving especially important crimes against the state, was established, and regiments organized along foreign lines were formed.
In the second half of the 17th century heightened social contradictions resulted in numerous and varied manifestations of popular discontent. The Moscow Uprising of was a mass popular movement. They developed into the Peasant War of —71, led by Razin. The Russian peasants and townspeople were joined in the uprising by members of the non-Russian peoples of the Volga Region.
The movement was brutally suppressed by the tsarist government, which dealt harshly with the insurgents. The Old Believers were implacably hostile to everything new, especially foreign culture; mass self-immolations took place among them. The brief reign of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich —82 was accompanied by a bitter struggle among the factions at court. An attempt to carry out reforms designated to further strengthen absolutism, including the introduction of a household tax in , the abolition of the mestnichestvo system in , and the centralization of the state machinery, exacerbated the conflicts among the elite and the discontent among the lower orders of the cities.
Taking advantage of the Moscow Uprising of , which broke out after the death of the tsar, Tsarevna Sofia Alekseevna ruled —89 came to power, having been officially proclaimed regent until the tsars Ivan and Peter, her younger brothers, attained their majority. In conflict between two factions of boyars and noblemen brought down the government of Sofia and her favorite, V. Golitsyn; power passed to Peter I the Great tsar —, emperor — A serf system and, for non-Russian peoples, a regime of religious and national oppression were established in the annexed territories.
Even under such conditions, however, the incorporation of the non-Russian peoples into Russia was a progressive step. The reunification of the Ukraine with Russia saved the Ukrainian people from ruinous Turkish-Tatar invasions and from national and religious oppression by the szlachta -dominated Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Catholic Church. When Russian peasants and cossacks moved to the Volga Region, the Urals, and Siberia, they brought with them centuries of experience in land cultivation and crafts, as well as new tools.
Some regions that were incorporated into Russia experienced a marked acceleration of economic and social development. The unification of peoples into a single Russian state helped to strengthen the ties among them. The literacy rate in the cities grew substantially in the 17th century as the state administration expanded. Dezhnev, V. Poiarkov, and E. Khabarov made extremely valuable geographic discoveries in Siberia; a number of descriptions, geographic maps, and atlases were produced, notably by S.
The expansion of trade and diplomatic relations brought forth works on foreign countries, such as N. Knowledge was gradually accumulated in medicine, astronomy, mathematics, physics, and chemistry. The transition from early to modern literature began in the 17th century.
Russia in the first half of the 18th century; reforms of Peter the Great. After becoming sole ruler, Peter I displayed a profound grasp of the tasks facing Russia. His reforms, which were designed to bring Russia up to the level of the advanced countries of Western Europe, affected all areas of the state and social life.
The Petrine reforms, which were a natural consequence of the entire historical development of the country, helped elevate the dominant class of landlord-nobles and fostered the growth of the commercial and manufacturing bourgeoisie. Peter I began by giving Russia a more active foreign policy.
In the winter of —96, in the course of the Azov campaigns, the construction of a fleet began in Voronezh. In and the tsar personally took part in the Great Embassy, a diplomatic mission abroad conceived with the purpose of strengthening the anti-Ottoman coalition and making a study of the international situation. The sweeping plans for reform and the first steps toward their implementation required a great deal of money. A reform of municipal government was carried out in The tempo of reforms was accelerated by the Northern War of —21, which began in failure for Russia a defeat at Narva in , and by the exacerbation of the class struggle.
The establishment of both large manufactures and small industrial enterprises, especially in industries supplying the military, expanded in the first quarter of the 18th century. Among the more than production facilities built were metallurgical and metalworking manufactures, shipyards, and manufactures for the production of woolen cloth, sailcloth, and leather goods.
New fortresses and cities were built, notably St. Petersburg, which was founded in and became the capital of Russia in The government turned over to the merchants some of the new production facilities already in operation and bestowed privileges and benefits on the owners of manufactures. The practice of assigning peasants to metallurgical works became widespread. A system of compulsory military service in the regular army and the navy was instituted in the first years of the Northern War, thereby ensuring the continual reinforcement and growth of the armed forces.
By the Russian Army, in addition to 40 infantry regiments 70, men , including the Preobrazhenskii and Semenovskii guards regiments, comprised 33 cavalry regiments about 38, men , an artillery regiment, engineer troops, garrison troops, a land-militsiia territorial army , with a total of 78, men, and irregular troops, such as cossacks and Kalmyks. Enlistment in the army and navy was for life. The officer corps was staffed essentially from the nobility.
Military educational institutions for the training of officers were established, such as the Navigation, Engineer, and Artillery schools and the Naval Academy. After the establishment of the Admiralty in St. Petersburg, various vessels, notably ships of the line, were added to the fleet. The procedures governing military service were set forth in the Army Regulations introduced and the Navy Regulations Forced labor was used extensively in the construction of St.
Petersburg and in the building of fortresses and canals. New taxes were introduced, including taxes to support shipbuilding and taxes for the maintenance of dragoons, rekruty conscripts and voluntary recruits , and construction workers. As serfdom became more oppressive, increasing numbers of peasants and posadskie liudi fled: in the period covered by the first reviziia census , , runaways were recovered.
In addition, the class struggle was exacerbated, as evidenced by the Astrakhan Uprising of —06, the Bulavin Revolt of —09, and the Bashkir Uprising of — The feudal-serf state harshly suppressed popular movements. In order to strengthen the power of the state, the government carried out a reform of the central and local administration.
In the country was divided into eight gubernii, or provinces: Moscow, Ingermanland from , St. Subsequently, the number was increased somewhat. In the provinces were divided into provintsii, or subprovinces. Each province was headed by a governor with absolute judicial, administrative, and financial power. The Boyar Duma and the prikazy were abolished and replaced by the Senate, established in , and collegia. The Table of Ranks was introduced in The amount of total taxes increased twofold. In order to determine how many people should pay the poll tax, revizii were taken periodically.
All rural residents inhabiting lands that did not belong to the pomeshchiki the term by now had come to mean large-scale landowner were declared to be state peasants; they included the lesser sluzhilye liudi of the southern districts, who performed military service and fulfilled a number of state obligations, the pashennye liudi peasant cultivators of Siberia, and the peasants of the Volga Region and the north who payed a tribute in kind iasak. The state peasants were obliged to pay quitrent in addition to the poll tax.
In male state peasants numbered 1,, For the working population, the poll tax was a heavier burden than the household tax had been. The various groups of the ruling class merged into a single estate, the nobility. The patriarchate was abolished in and replaced by the Synod; the church was subordinated to the state. Russia was proclaimed an empire in Peter I, who initiated and took an active part in the reforms, proved himself an outstanding statesman and military figure. Although the reforms did not fundamentally change the institution of serfdom, their objective consequences—the growth of industry, trade, and the merchant class—contributed to the development of bourgeois elements closely linked to the absolutist state and to serfdom.
As a result of the reforms, Russia achieved victory in the Northern War over Sweden, a powerful enemy. As early as —04, Russian forces inflicted a number of defeats on the Swedes: they advanced to the Baltic coast, where they captured the mouth of the Neva in and Narva in The Russian Army won brilliant victories at the battle of Lesnaia in and the battle of Poltava in , in which Charles XII, who had invaded Russian territory, was routed. The lack of success in the war against Turkey, which lasted from to and included the Prut Campaign of , motivated the Russian government to conduct the war against Sweden more energetically and bring it to a successful conclusion.
Under the Treaty of Nystadt , Russia was given the Izhora Land, which had originally been Russian, and a substantial portion of the Baltic region: Estonia and northern Latvia. The government of Peter I returned to the German landlords the estates that Sweden had confiscated in the late 17th century under the policy of reduction. In the Baltic region, it left intact the system of local self-government, in which the dominant position was occupied by the German nobility and, in the cities, the German merchant class.
The class and social policies of tsarism did not differ in principle from previous policies that had been carried out in the region. The economic development of Estonia and Latvia was long delayed by the dire consequences of the Northern War and of a plague epidemic in and Not until the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries did cities begin to develop perceptibly, along with land cultivation geared toward the market; exports of grain and other agricultural commodities increased rapidly. The peasants fought tenaciously for their emancipation, thereby helping bring about the necessary conditions for the limitation of serfdom.
The Persian Campaign of —23, undertaken by Peter I with the agreement of Georgia and Armenia, resulted in the incorporation into Russia of the western coast of the Caspian Sea and helped bring Russia and the peoples of Transcaucasia closer together. The Russian government was able to avoid war with the Turks, however, and concluded the Treaty of Constantinople of , which demarcated the possessions of Russia and the Ottoman Empire in the Caucasus. Between and , as Russo-Turkish relations deteriorated, the Russian government returned the lands along the Caspian Sea to Iran, with which it hoped to form an alliance.
Peter I surrounded himself with an array of talented associates, who included men of nonaristocratic origin as well as persons of noble birth; among these associates were B. Sheremetev, F. Apraksin, F. Romodanovskii, A. Menshikov, F. Golovin, G. Golovkin, P. Shafirov, and P.
As a result of its military and diplomatic victories in the first quarter of the 18th century, Russia was recognized as a great power. Changes in socioeconomic and political life fostered cultural progress as well. In addition, vocational and professional education underwent development: the government founded military schools, medical schools, schools for workers in government offices, mining schools, and technical schools, notably the technical school at the Petrovskii Works.
Cultural relations with Western Europe were expanded: the government invited specialists from abroad to Russia and sent young noblemen to study in Europe. More books were published, especially pedagogical literature and books on mathematics and mechanics, such as L. The Civil typeface was introduced in , a new calender was instituted in , and the first printed newspaper, Vedomosti News , began publishing in Works on politics and public affairs, including treatises by F.
Prokopovich, resolutely supported the absolutist state and the unlimited power of the monarch.
Related The Legacy of the Drevnik: Book One: The Exile
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved