Retrieved October 12, May 8, Armitage discounts the influence of the Scottish and Dutch acts, and writes that neither was called "declarations of independence" until fairly recently Global History , pp. For the argument in favor of the influence of the Dutch act, see Stephen E. Kardux, eds. Retrieved June 13, Jefferson identified Bacon , Locke , and Newton as "the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception". Their works in the physical and moral sciences were instrumental in Jefferson's education and world view.
In a similar vein, historian Robert Middlekauff argues that the political ideas of the independence movement took their origins mainly from the "eighteenth-century commonwealthmen , the radical Whig ideology", which in turn drew on the political thought of John Milton , James Harrington , and John Locke. Wills concludes p. See also Kenneth S. Lynn, "Falsifying Jefferson", Commentary 66 Oct.
Ralph Luker , in "Garry Wills and the New Debate Over the Declaration of Independence" The Virginia Quarterly Review , Spring , —61 agreed that Wills overstated Hutcheson's influence to provide a communitarian reading of the Declaration, but he also argued that Wills's critics similarly read their own views into the document.
Declaration of Independence: A Transcription | National Archives
Magdeburg Confession and III. Albert Henry Smyth New York: , Ellis, US : "While such declaration of principles may not have the force of organic law, or be made the basis of judicial decision as to the limits of right and duty Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence , p. State Department , The Declaration of Independence, , pp. Archived from the original PDF on May 10, Retrieved October 6, Armitage, Global History , September 20, Life : Retrieved March 9, Armitage, Global History , 79— Armitage, Global History , 76— Charters of Freedom.
The Daily Telegraph. July 3, National Park Service. Boyd Papers of Jefferson , —28 casts doubt on Becker's belief that the change was made by Franklin. Boyd argued that, if a document was signed on July 4 which he thought unlikely , it would have been the Fair Copy, and probably would have been signed only by Hancock and Thomson.
All of these copies were then destroyed, theorizes Ritz, to preserve secrecy. BBC News. July 4, The Guardian. Retrieved April 22, Declaration Resources Project. Harvard University. The Coming of the French Revolution. Princeton UP. NYU Press. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Sourcebook on Public International Law First ed. See also John C. Fitzpatrick, Spirit of the Revolution Boston See also Philip S. Foner, ed. Fragment of an original letter on the Slavery of the Negroes, written in the year London: Printed for John Stockdale Retrieved February 26, If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves.
Retrieved January 26, See also Harry V. May 10, Retrieved July 17, Retrieved June 23, Retrieved May 8, Home Box Office, Inc. Fort Wayne Journal Gazette. Retrieved February 10, Retrieved June 10, Armitage, David. Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Enlarged edition. Originally published Harvard University Press, Becker, Carl. Revised edition New York: Vintage Books, Boyd, Julian P. Revised edition edited by Gerard W. University Press of New England, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson , vol. Princeton University Press, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , number 4 October , — Burnett, Edward Cody.
The Continental Congress. New York: Norton, Christie, Ian R. Detweiler, Philip F. William and Mary Quarterly , 3rd series, 19 : — Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, Ellis, Joseph. New York: Knopf, Dupont, Christian Y. Onuf, eds. Revised edition. Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia Library, Ferling, John E. New York: Oxford University Press, Friedenwald, Herbert.
New York: Macmillan, Accessed via the Internet Archive. Gustafson, Milton. Prologue Magazine 34, no 4. Winter Hamowy, Ronald.
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William and Mary Quarterly , 3rd series, 36 October , — Hazelton, John H. The Declaration of Independence: Its History. New York: Da Capo Press, Mahoney, D. Lucas, Stephen E. American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence. Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the Virginian.
Volume 1 of Jefferson and His Time. Boston: Little Brown, Mayer, David In Hamowy, Ronald ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Mayer, Henry. New York: St. Martin's Press, McDonald, Robert M. Journal of the Early Republic 19, no. McPherson, James. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. Middlekauff, Robert.
Revised and expanded edition. Norton, Mary Beth, et al. Rakove, Jack N. Ritz, Wilfred J. Law and History Review 4, no. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , no. Tsesis, Alexander. Warren, Charles. Wills, Garry. Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Wyatt-Brown, Bertram.
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Declaration of Independence
Arthur Middleton. Articles of Confederation. John Dickinson. Josiah Bartlett John Wentworth Jr. John Witherspoon Nathaniel Scudder. For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:. For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:.
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:. For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They were called British Colonies. During this time, many American people were angry at Great Britain. Many Americans did not like paying taxes to Great Britain when they did not have anyone to speak for them in Parliament.
The American people wanted to be treated like British citizens. When they were not treated like everyone should have the right to have the freedom of speech and that all men and women are created equal.
The Declaration of Independence
Responding to actions taken by Great Britain, including the Intolerable Acts , the different colonies formed a Continental Congress to make decisions for all of the colonies. They met in the American city of Philadelphia. During a meeting of the Second Continental Congress , on June 11, , they chose five people to write a document that would become the Declaration of Independence.
These people were:. Jefferson did most of the writing.
This part of the Declaration is called the Preamble. He then lists specific bad things that the British government did to the colonies. He says these included putting people in jail with no reason; making taxes that were too high; and not respecting people who lived in the colonies. On July 2, , the Continental Congress argued about the Declaration and made some changes to it. After making changes, they approved the Declaration. However, the Continental Congress did not officially approve the Declaration until July 4.
On that day, twelve of the thirteen groups that represented the colonies approved and ordered the Declaration to be printed. The Province of New York did not vote. On July 15, the New York group agreed with the rest of the colonies' groups.
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