Studies documented children reporting complaints of skin and eye infections, problems relating to the digestive system, headaches, dizziness, asthma, body aches, stress, and depression.
These health outcomes were not specifically diagnosed in the studies nor were the presence of other health consequences, such as suicide, studied. In addition to putting children in physical danger, work reduces their chances of getting an education. Studies that provided quantitative data on physical and sexual abuses of children are challenging to interpret. Studies relied on cases of abuse that were either reported in newspapers or also reviewed police records 16 , Newspapers have been used as sources of health data in Pakistan and for reporting stigmatized events more frequently than the police This distribution of reported cases by gender provided an inconsistent pattern across the studies reviewed here.
What is clear is that both girls and boys are victims in Pakistan. The usual reason given for not reporting sex-related crimes is that it has a huge social stigma attached to it, not only for the victim but also for the victim's family. Talking about sex in the conservative Pakistani society is taboo; nevertheless, sexual violation and exploitation of children is happening. It is important that this problem is not just acknowledged, but also explored in terms of its magnitude and impact, and national-level data inform policies and strategies for prevention and control.
The concept of post-event care and victim support for child victims barely exists in Pakistan. Non-governmental organizations have initiated limited support services in some urban parts of the country but there are no data to determine either their accessibility or their effectiveness.
Moreover, there are no national centres or publicly-subsidized services of this type across the nation. Our review indicates that weak legislation on elementary education, poor labour laws, and corporal punishment are also a determinant of an increasingly complex situation within which violence against children is perpetrated. This goes beyond health, economics, and development to become a political question; a continued lack of political will is, thus, only going to distance the children of Pakistan from realizing their potential.
The confluence of macro risk factors, such as poverty, poor legal protections, and illiteracy, together with family specific factors, such as large size and unemployment, create an enabling environment for violence against children. Focused research is needed to examine the prevalence, manifestations, and potential interventions for violence against children from a public-health perspective.
The health problems reported by children and the extent of human potential destroyed are unknown. It is imperative that healthcare providers find alternative ways to identify and address violence as an issue threatening the future of children. It is crucial for policy-makers in Pakistan to recognize that children are particularly vulnerable to violence and that ignoring child rights only further threatens their health and development while they are trapped in a cycle of poverty and helplessness.
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J Health Popul Nutr. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence reprint requests should be addressed to: Dr. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract World Health Organization has identified violence against children as a growing public-health issue with a global magnitude. Table 1 Violence against children in Pakistan: peer-reviewed published papers. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Violence against children in Pakistan: reports from government, NGO, and international organizations. Organizational source Setting Characteristics of population studied Methods Primary topic Secondary themes UNICEF Pakistan, Bangladesh, India Girls aged less than 18 years Comparison of secondary data Status of girl child Education, health, income, rapes of minors, human traffcking, and sexual exploitation Sahil Pakistan Boys and girls aged less than 18 years Review of print media reports Child abuse Identifcation and prevention of physical and sexual child abuse Mehnaz A.
Accountability and universality of the programmes Raheela Asfa Undated Pakistan Boys and girls aged less than 18 years Review of organizational reports Role of UNICEF in preventing child abuse Causes and possible prevention of child abuse and parental behaviour. Table 3 Defnitions of violence against children used in Pakistan literature. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC Defnition of a child: Child is recognized as a person under 18, unless national laws recognize the age of majority earlier.
Non-discrimination: All rights apply to all children without exception. It is the State's obligation to protect children from any form of discrimination and to take positive action to promote their rights. Best interests of the child: All actions concerning the child shall take full account of his or her best interests.
The State shall provide the child with adequate care when parents, or others charged with that responsibility, fail to do so. Implementation of rights: The State must do all it can to implement the rights contained in the Convention. Parental guidance and the child's evolving capacities: The State must respect the rights and responsibilities of parents and the extended family to provide guidance for the child which is appropriate to her or his evolving capacities. Survival and development: Every child has the inherent right to life, and the State has an obligation to ensure the child's survival and development.
As in making a child work to pay off their parent's debts or making them do dangerous or illegal work in order to make someone else better off. Such act is judged on the basis of a combination of community standards and professional expertise to be damaging. It is committed by individuals, singly or collectively, who by their characteristics e. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; Violence—a global health problem; pp. United Nations. Child abuse and neglect by parents and other caregivers; pp.
OpenDocument , accessed on 21 April Child labour in India: a health and human rights perspective. Hadi A.
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Child abuse among working children in rural Bangladesh: prevalence and determinants. Public Health. Pakistan Statistics Division. United Nations Development Programme. The state and progress of human development. Human development report deepening democracy in a fragmented world. Ahmed MA. Child labor in Pakistan: a study of the Lahore area. Child Welf. Talaat A, Bano M. Child labor in lower class hotels and restaurants. J Postgrad Med Inst.
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Tahir MS. Child labor: a general survey. Determinants of child labour in Bahawalpur city. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak.
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Violence against & Rights for Children - Our World in Data
Social class, gender and intrahousehold food allocations to children in South Asia. Soc Sci Med. Aziz F. Child abuse editorial J Ayub Med Coll. Mehnaz A. Strategies to combat child abuse in Pakistan editorial Pak Pediatr J. The role of son preference in reproductive behavior in Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ. Pak Pediatr J.
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Newspaper reports as a source for injury data in developing countries. Health Policy Plan. Support Center Support Center. External link. Child protection in the UK Legal definitions of a child and their rights Parental mental health Parental substance misuse. Look, Say, Sing, Play Right from birth, every time you talk, sing or play with your baby, you're not just bonding, you're building their brain.
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Help us protect a generation Help protect the children in your life and support our work by joining our PANTS campaign. Enter search term and hit 'enter'. Call the NSPCC helpline If you're worried about a child, even if you're unsure, contact our professional counsellors for help, advice and support. Home What is child abuse? Types of abuse Domestic abuse. Domestic abuse Witnessing domestic abuse is child abuse. On this page What is domestic abuse?
Worried about a child? What is domestic abuse? It's important to remember domestic abuse: can happen inside and outside the home can happen over the phone, on the internet and on social networking sites can happen in any relationship and can continue even after the relationship has ended both men and women can be abused or abusers. Types of domestic abuse Domestic abuse can be emotional, physical, sexual, financial or psychological, such as: kicking, hitting, punching or cutting rape including in a relationship controlling someone's finances by withholding money or stopping someone earning controlling behaviour, like telling someone where they can go and what they can wear not letting someone leave the house reading emails, text messages or letters threatening to kill someone or harm them threatening to another family member or pet.
Signs of domestic abuse It can be difficult to tell if domestic abuse is happening and those carrying out the abuse can act very different when other people are around. Signs that a child has witnessed domestic abuse can include: aggression or bullying anti-social behaviour, like vandalism anxiety, depression or suicidal thoughts attention seeking bed-wetting, nightmares or insomnia constant or regular sickness, like colds, headaches and mouth ulcers drug or alcohol use eating disorders problems in school or trouble learning tantrums withdrawal.
Effects of domestic abuse Living in a home where domestic abuse happens can have a serious impact on a child or young person's mental and physical wellbeing, as well as their behaviour. If a child reveals abuse If a child talks to you about domestic abuse it's important to: listen carefully to what they're saying let them know they've done the right thing by telling you tell them it's not their fault say you'll take them seriously don't confront the alleged abuser explain what you'll do next report what the child has told you as soon as possible.
Report abuse Call us on , email help nspcc. Support For parents If you're an adult experiencing domestic abuse, there are organisations that can help. Relate You can talk to Relate about your relationship, including issues around domestic abuse. Men's Advice Line Advice and support for men experiencing domestic violence and abuse. Help if you're worried about your behaviour If you are, or think you might be, domestically abusing a member of your family, there's help available.
They aim to reply to emails within two working days. Work or volunteer with children and families? Help us make a difference Campaign. More support for you and your child. Emotional abuse It can be hard to know what emotional abuse is. Physical abuse If you're worried about physical abuse, we have information and advice to help you feel confident in taking the next steps to keep children and young people safe. Neglect Neglect can be hard to spot.
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