With Reverso you can find the Italian translation, definition or synonym for Liberta" and thousands of other words. Italian-English dictionary : translate Italian words into English with online dictionaries. My favorite part is when Mel Gibson keeps yelling " Freedom.
They needed a ship capable of several transatlantic crossings to freight, in more than 1, crates, all numbered and catalogued for their future assembly, the blocks of granite of which " Liberty" was composed. Testa alzata le associazioni integrali, vrode le liberta" di "Synov.
Che qui che la baleno ribellioni, commessi americani risposti da sciopero su sciopero e rifiuto i beni di british di zakupat.
Modifications to the Pacts, to be accepted by both parties, do not require a constitutional amendment. One of the most debated aspects of this Article was, Fabietti writes, the fact that something related to the Fascist peri- od, the Lateran Pacts, was to be mentioned in the Republican Constitu- tion The agreements recog- nized the Vatican as an independent state, with Prime Minister Benito Mussolini agreeing to give the Church financial refund for the territo- ries which used to belong to the Church before becoming part of the Kingdom of Italy, when Rome was finally annexed in and was chosen as the capital city after Turin.
As in the Lateran Pacts, in Article 7 the Catholic Church is described as a sovereign entity, and it is very significant that in the Italian Constitution the Catholic Church is first described as an independent and sovereign state and then as a religious creed in Article 8. Article 7 is the only article of the Fundamental Principles which has two subjects: lo Stato and la Chiesa Cattolica. The presence of two subjects indicates that a connection between two elements is being made, a connection which is, in fact, aimed at making an important dis- tinction.
Italy is being related to the Catholic Church in that both are recognised as sovereign entities; at the same time, it is stated that that they are independent of one another. In theory, the Catholic Church and the Ital- ian state are independent of one another, but in practice this is debata- ble. It suffices to think that the Italian calendar basically follows the Catholic calendar and that Catholicism has always been widely recog- nised as a fundamental part of Italian culture Moliterno ; Farese [in preparation].
In this Article we find the third word used to refer to Italy in the Fundamental Principles: lo Stato. Here, too, we find two indented clauses performing the function of specification. The first one, ciascuno nel proprio ordine, specifies that the Italian State and the Catholic Church have different juridical orders; the second one, accettate dalle due parti, specifies that modifications to the Pacts have to be accepted by both parties.
As with other Articles, indentation here is purposely used to break the flow and specify some- thing before saying something else. Not only is this helpful to create textual cohesion, but also textual coherence, because what follows is to be interpreted on the basis of the conditions specified in the intended clauses. The following pictures illustrate the signing of the Lateran Pacts in by Mussolini and Vatican City as it is now: Picture Signing of the Lateran Pacts by Mussolini Vatican City and its borders. I loro rapporti con lo Stato sono regolati per legge sulla base di intese con le relative rappresentanze.
All religious confessions are equally free before the law. Religious confessions other than Catholicism have the right to organize accord- ing to their statutes, as long as these do not conflict with the Italian legal system. Their relations with the State are regulated by law on the basis of agreements with the respective representatives.
In this Article, too, the structure is significant. The first sentence states that all religions are equally free before the law, and the next two describe their relations with the Italian state. Noticeably, the second and third sentence are contiguous, whereas the first one is clearly sepa- rated from the rest of the text. This separation is the visual indication of different levels of importance.
Evidently, for the Constituents it was important to specify first that all religions are equally free before the law and then, in a new line, specify how these are related to the Italian State. The structure is very similar to that of Article 1: the full stop sig- nals the end of a statement and what follows in the new line comple- ments what is stated in the first sentence. The Article does not just allow liberty of religion, but also states that all religions are eguali.
The mentioning of liberty and equali- ty of religions in the Constitution of Republican Italy is an important achievement and could be read as an explicit challenge to the predomi- nance of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy which had been going on for centuries. However, if any challenge was intended here it fails in its intent, as there is evidently a difference in treatment between Catholi- cism which only at this point is mentioned as a confessione religiosa and the other religions. The other religions have a minor legal status, because their relationship with the Italian State is not regulated by the Constitution, but by ordinary law.
The Constituents chose not to speci- fy in the Constitution what the relations with the other religions are; Catholicism is the only religion which is recognised at the Constitu- tional level. There are various religious groups other than Catholics in Italy: among Christians, there are Orthodox and Protestants, and then there are Muslims, Jewish, Hindu, and to some degree, Buddhist.
The num- ber of Muslim communities is growing rapidly due to the arrival or many immigrants from Northern Africa and the Middle-East, and their integration is not always as smooth as one might hope. Among these re- ligions, Hebraism is objectively the one which has contributed most to Italian culture, both in the humanities and in the sciences.
Two of the most important writers of twentieth century Italian literature are Jews, Primo Levi and Natalia Ginzburg, and how to forget Rita Levi- Montalcini, who won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in and is without any doubt one of the most important Italian women. There is a whole Jewish quarter in the very centre of Rome, with a big Synagogue as the picture below illustrates. Picture Synagogue in Rome Picture Nobel Prize winner Rita Levi Montalcini.
Tutela il paesaggio e il patrimonio storico e artistico della Nazione. The Republic promotes the development of culture and of scientific and technical research. It protects the landscape and the historical and artistic heritage of the Nation. Article 9 is, in my opinion, by far the most beautifully written of the Fundamental Principles and one of the best in terms of content and ex- pressive value.
The first impression that the reader has is that the Arti- cle consists of two very plainly written sentences describing two differ- ent actions: to promote and to protect. Yet, there is so much more than meets the eye in this Article, and both the words and the structure re- veal its secrets to the careful reader. The first aspect of the beauty of this Article is probably its originali- ty and uniqueness. To the best of my knowledge, only the Italian Con- stitution has an Article which sanctions the protection of both the his- torical and cultural heritage and of the landscape of the nation in the Fundamental Principles.
The protection of the historical and artistic heritage was so important for the Constituents that they decided to in- clude it in the Fundamental Principles. In addition, it is especially re- markable that the protection of the landscape is put on a par with the protection of the historical and artistic heritage. By doing this, the Con- stituents emphasised that it is as important to protect the natural land- scape as it is to protect art and history for the benefit of future genera- tions. It is not difficult to understand why the Constituents decided to in- clude such an Article in the Fundamental Principles of the Constitution.
The safeguard of the historical and artistic heritage and of the landscape representthe safeguard of the beauty of the country. Indeed, Article 9 could be read as the Article of beauty. After all, Italy is the country with the largest number of UNESCO world heritage sites, it has a unique historical and cultural heritage like no other country in the world. The proposal was to include the word bellezza in Article 1, where the main characteristics of Italy are described. So far, the proposal has been unsuccessful, but at least it has been considered.
The second aspect of the beauty of this Article is the text itself and its structure. The two sentences state different things and are separated by a full stop and new line. While in other Articles verbs of doing are used in collocation e. This visual separation is a way of giving equal importance to the actions of promoting and protecting; in this way, content-wise the two sentences are self-sufficient.
However, the two actions are meant to be complementary: the idea is that Italy recognises and protects its unique and immense heritage and makes it the basis for future progress. The careful reader will notice that there are, at the same time, past, present and future expressed in this Article.
The verbs, more than any- thing else, are crucial here: promuovere and tutelare refer one to the fu- ture and the other to the past. Conversely, the verb tutelare is oriented towards the past, as it encourages the protection of what Italy already has, of what Italians have inherited from the past. The fact that both verbs are in the present tense is important too, as it gives a sense of continuity between past, present and future; future development can only start from what the country already has, that is from its past, and the present tense here expresses the idea that this is what the Italian Republic already does, that it is already committed to both aims.
At first sight, it might seem that the two words say exactly the same thing, as they both refer to Italy; in fact, however, they denote two different, equally important concepts. La Repubblica, meaning the form of government and the union of central and regional power, returns in Article 9 as the main subject and as the word used to refer to Italy, after it had been replaced by lo Stato in Articles 7 and 8.
The meaning of Nazione as used in Article 9 can be ex- plained drawing on the semantic analysis of this word made by Stecco- ni . I present here the NSM explication proposed by Stecconi in an adapted version:! It then portrays the cognitive scenario which captures the idea of Nazione as the place where a group of people has lived together for a long time, where peo- ple think, say and do things not like people in other places and where people can think that they are all people of one kind, in this case one united people of Italy. A Nazione is indeed the mix of the historical and cultural heritage which is shared by a community of people and which makes them all citizens of the same country.
It should not surprise, then, that this word is used in Article 9; here, Nazione emphasises the idea that the historical and cultural heritage, as well as the natural land- scape, represent the identity of the Italian people. In this respect, Italy is unique, because it is an example of a country where the Nazione and the sense of Nazione was born before the state, before Italy was united in There was already an Italian Nazione, intended as a communi- ty of people sharing a cultural identity, before Italy was born.
A view of Positano, Amalfi Coast, Campania. A view of the Roman Forum, Rome. The Italian legal system conforms to the generally recognised norms of interna- tional law. The legal status of foreigners is regulated by law in conformity with international norms and treatises. A foreigner who is denied, in their country, the effective exercise of the democratic liberties guaranteed by the Italian Consti- tution has the right of asylum in the territory of the Republic, in accordance with the conditions established by the law.
Extradition of a foreigner is not admitted for political offences. This Article is quite long and rich in content, therefore it will be helpful to analyse each of the three sentences of which it consists sepa- rately. With Article 10, Italy literally opens to the world. So far, the Fundamental Principles have focused on Italy and the Italian territory, whereas here for the first time in the Constitution the word interna- zionale is used. In Article 10, by contrast, for the first time there is mentioning of who and what is outside the Italian territory, together with the condition of foreigners inside the Italian territory.
As with other Articles, there are various significant keywords here. It could be asked to what generally recognised norms of interna- tional law the Article refers, given that it was written about one year before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The point is that Article 10 refers not to a specific legal document of international law and purposely so , but to the basic norms of understanding and collab- oration shared by all countries as part of the international community.
The word is used in the singular in this Article to indicate foreigners as a category of people lo straniero. More precisely, the second sentence states that the condition of foreigners is not regu- lated by the Constitution, but by ordinary law. From the legal point of view, the word straniero in the Constitution is used in opposition to cit- tadino, to distinguish the rights of Italian citizens from those of for- eigners. If, as the hypothesis of linguistic relativity by Sapir and Whorf states, language shapes thought and vice-versa, the concep- tual association between straniero and strano could evoke in people a feeling of unjustified fear and mistrust towards foreigners which does not help international collaboration and reinforces national barriers, ra- ther than destroying them.
The third sentence is the longest of the three and the richest in con- tent. It is more current than ever, despite having been written seventy years ago. Article 10 of the Italian Constitution makes no such distinction, and clearly states that all for- eigners are entitled to the right to seek asylum. At the same time, however, this third sentence is very specific; it does not state that all the democratic liberties can be guaranteed to foreigners, but only those which are guaranteed by the Italian Constitution, not in the constitutions of foreign countries.
Article 10 is related not only to Article 2, but also to Articles 1 and 3. The adjective effettivo, which we find in Article 3 in collocation with partecipazione, is used again in this Article in collocation with a different noun, esercizio, but has the same function. Once again, the recurrence of the same words, the same concepts and the same collocations creates conceptual parallelisms which im- prove the cohesion, coherence and acceptability of a text.
Mauro Paissan- Libertà d'informazione e protezione dei dati: il caso - Garante Privacy
Italy repudiates war as an instrument of offence against the freedom of other peoples and as a means for resolving international disputes; agrees, on condi- tions of equality with other States, to the limitations of sovereignty that may be necessary to a world order which can ensure peace and justice among Nations; promotes and encourages international organisations aimed at this scope.
Article 11 reflects the commitment of the Constituents not to repeat the errors and horrors of Fascism and war. At the same time, with this Article the Constituents paved the way for international relations, for Italy as a founding member of the European Union and as a member of the United Nations. There are two elements which the reader can notice straightaway: i differently from the previous Article, which was inten- tionally divided into three sentences, Article 11 is structured as a unitary, big sentence dealing with the same theme; ii the change of subject.
Nations in the plural, in addition to lo Stato italiano and la Nazione. It is such a strong sentiment of rejection and re- pulsion towards war which is expressed in this Article that the word with the most generic value needed to be used to refer to Italy. Here, the verb is used figuratively, because in Italian ripudiare is used in relation to people e. Tarquinio e Lucrezia by Titian Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Nec ulla deinde impudica Lucretia exemplo vivet. Nor shall any woman, from this day, live unchast after the example of Lucretia. The explication is the following: 3 4! The first section portrays the lexico-syntactic frame: someone saying something to someone else. The second section cap- tures what in the NSM literature is referred to as the dictum, i. Wierzbicka However, I would argue that reject is nowhere near enough to the meaning of ripudiare.
There is, as I have shown, an important com- ponent of very bad feelings in the meaning of ripudiare which is not in- herent in the meaning of reject. However, the numerous native speakers of English whom I consulted commented that it is acceptable for them to use repudiate in collocation with war in this context. As in Article 10, in Article 11 the world is mentioned, and specifi- cally the relations among countries.
From the legal point of view, the first sentence of this Article authorises war for defensive pur- poses, if Italy is attacked. The Italian Constitution is not completely pacifist, like the German or the Japanese one. It allows for war in case of attack. At the same time, we find again an indented clause which specifies how Italy agrees on limita- tions of its sovereignty. Italy agrees to limit its sovereignty as long as other States do the same; in no way should Italy be subject to another country. The words pace and giustizia are significant, too. These two words were carefully chosen, as they had to indicate the values which for the Constituents are necessary to ensure a good world order.
For the first time in history there has been peace in Europe for seventy years, and in my opinion this is also thanks to the values mentioned in the European Constitution, which reflect, in turn, the values and ideals of individual national Constitutions. The last sentence gives constitutional legitimacy to membership in international organisations. The painting illustrates Mars, God of War, being sent away by Minerva who protects Peace and Concord, both portrayed as women: Picture Palazzo Ducale, Venice.
The flag of the Republic is the Italian tricolor: green, white and red, in three ver- tical stripes of equal dimensions. The other interesting aspect of this Article is that this is the second of only two Articles in the Fundamental Principles the other one is Article 6 which consist of only one sentence.
The relation to Ar- ticle 6 is not only formal, but also conceptual and structural; what strikes the reader is not only the fact that both Articles consist of a sin- gle sentence, but also that both are about the key symbols of the nation, the language and the flag, and that the order is specular 6 and 12, which are multiples. An analyst cannot help wondering whether or not this symmetry is intentional, if it is not part of the artistic plan which, as I have argued in section 2, was in the minds of the drafters of the text and which pervades the Italian Constitution from the beginning to the end.
The more obvious reason why this Article is part of the Fundamental Principles is that, in presenting a simple yet detailed description of the flag, it makes an important distinction with the flag of Monarchic Italy, which included the coat of arms of the Savoia family. We were for centuries Downtrodden and derided, Because we are not one people, Because we are divided. Let one flag, one hope Gather us all. The hour has struck For us to join together In the national anthem, the flag is mentioned as the element which brings all Italians together, the symbol which represents all Italians as one people.
Unity under the same flag is explicitly opposed to the divi- sions which characterised Italy before , and to the fact that for cen- turies there could be no united people of Italy. It seems plausible to hy- pothesise that the twelfth Fundamental Principle performs the same function as the anthem: the national flag is mentioned in the Constitu- tion to establish the symbol of united Italy and of Republic Italy. General comments on the language As discussed in section 2, the main function of a constitutional text is to sanction and describe the values and ideals of a country as well as the norms for living together in that country.
Arguably, all constitution- al texts sanction and describe, however it is the way in which this is done that distinguishes the Constitutions of different countries. I will focus on two elements: the lexicon and the structure of the text. Each of these is discussed in a separate section. The lexicon As far as the lexicon of the Fundamental Principles is concerned, it is worth commenting on the verbs and the nouns used by the drafters. The choice of the verbs and the nouns, more than anything else, is fun- damental to ensure that the statements made are clear and effective.
It is in these two classes of words that the intentions and the stylistic choice of the drafters are reflected mostly. Nouns reflect the key values and ideals which are felt to be important for the life of a country; verbs ex- press the ways in which the principles and the norms sanctioned in a constitution are to be implemented. Adjectives like inviolabili, inderogabile and effettiva and adverbs like generalmente are important, too, but unlike nouns and verbs, adjec- tives and adverbs are not self-sufficient; they accompany nouns and verbs, they need nouns and verbs to express their meaning potential.
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Adjectives and adverbs are essential to create specific collocations with nouns and verbs, to form unique combinations of meanings which the writers want to express. Promuovere is by far the most used verb, occurring four times in different Articles 4, 5, 9 and The verbs used to perform three speech acts are particularly signifi- cant: prescribing, permitting and prohibiting. However, potere does not occur at all in the Fundamental Principles. The new Constitution of Republican Italy did not have to sound author- itarian. Significantly, none of the Fundamental Principles states what citizens cannot do.
In my view, this stylistic choice helps bring citizens closer to the Constitutional text, rather than making them see it as a dry legal text full of rules to observe. In turn, this style can be seen as another reason for the durability of the Fundamental Principles, which have remained unchanged so far. In almost all cases, verbs are in the third person singular or plural pre- sent tense and in the indicative mode tutela, riconosce, garantisce, promuove. The active voice is used more frequently than the passive voice, used only in Articles 7 and 8 sono regolati. These characteris- tics of the verbs are predictable in such a textual genre; first and second person subject as well as the use of past tenses are excluded in a consti- tutional text.
The active voice, too, is typical of constitutional texts. Un- like the passive voice, which is used, among other cases, to avoid speci- fying the agent i. To specify the agent clearly could be said to be a re- quirement of constitutional texts, as a norm or principle needs to be formulated as clearly and plainly as possible to avoid multiple interpre- tations cf. Finally, it does not surprise that the indicative mode is used mostly. The indicative mode presents the state of things as a fact, and does not leave space for conditions conditional mode or for possibilities subjunctive mode.
As with verbs, nouns are repeated, too, and the repetition of a noun, especially if it is a value word, indicates that this noun is being given special importance. As previously mentioned, Repub- blica is by far the most used noun in the entire Constitution, and it seems plausible to assume that this is because the Constituents express- ly wanted to emphasise with words the shift from monarchy to repub- lic. Partecipazione is another big keyword; it stresses the idea that in a democratic country all citizens have both the right and the duty to par- ticipate in the life of the country, that democracy is based on the partic- ipation and contribution of all people, and that all people have to con- tribute actively to the society in which they live by working and voting.
The structure of the text The structure of the text is another important element. It will be helpful to distinguish two levels of analysis: a broader level centred on the order of the twelve Articles, and a narrower level centred on the in- ternal composition of the Articles and the way in which information is presented to the reader. At the broader level, it is possible to identify some conceptual paral- lelisms in the Articles suggesting that the order was chosen carefully. At the narrower level, the first element to comment on is the way in which information is presented.
On the view of Garavelli, this theme-rheme order of the information, i. Again, one cannot help won- dering if this is not an intentional stylistic choice of the linguists who helped draft the text. The order of information and the emphasis on specific points in the Articles is also reflected in the use of punctuation.
Commas, in particu- lar, are used at various points to break the flow and highlight some key points, as we have seen. Also significant is the use of conjunctions in creating specific collocations to unite and highlight key concepts: una e indivisibile, riconosce e garantisce, indipendenti e sovrani. The only case in which emphasis is not achieved through a collocation is Article 9, where the two verbs promuovere and tutelare are mentioned in separate sentences. Finally, the internal composition of the Fundamental Principles is in- teresting, too.
Articles 6 and 12 are the only two consisting of only one sentence in a single line. All the other Articles include two or three sen- tences, with a difference in layout. Article 10, for example, is divided in three separate sentences on separate lines, whereas Articles 2, 5 and 11, which are also quite long, are presented as a single, unitary sen- tence. Evidently, the internal composition is consistent with the or- der in which information is presented, and in the longer Articles a spa- tial division is necessary to ensure that each statement is given equal importance.
Conclusion Seventy years after its promulgation, the Italian Constitution remains virtually unchanged, except for a few minor amendments made to the second part. The fact that the whole first part, including the Fundamen- tal Principles, has never been changed and has always been protected from amendment is significant. It suggests that Italians have never felt the need to change the words which were originally chosen to reflect the key values of the society back in and that they still believe in the principles sanctioned in the Constitution. It suggests, above all, that Italians still believe in their Constitution, and in fact we still resort to it to prevent undemocratic and absurd ad personam laws from being ap- proved.
Over these years, the Constitution has served as a major point of reference for all citizens in primis, and for the protagonists of poli- tics in secundis. It remains an unsurpassed model of clarity and plain- ness in the repertoire of Italian legislative texts which, regrettably, of- ten includes pieces of writing which resemble more intricate hanks of words than a well-formulated, clear legal text worthy of the country of the Twelve Tables and the Corpus Iuris Civilis.
I hope I have demonstrated in this paper that the beauty and the du- rability of the Fundamental Principles is due mainly to the linguistic characteristics of the text. The language of the Italian Constitution re- flects a specific historical moment and the unique collaboration of a group of extraordinary minds, politicians and linguists, men and wom- en, who were committed to a common aim: to give Italy a new identity drawing, at the same time, on the historical heritage of the country.
In this sense, the language of the Constitution serves this purpose well. It is the language used and understood by virtually all citizens and a lan- guage which transcends time, as it spans across generations. It seems plausible to hypothesise that at least part of the cultural salience of these words is due to the fact that these words are used in the Constitution.
The question is if the linguistic characteristics of the Fundamental Principles could be rendered well in English translation to be fully appreciated by non- Italians. On the view of the philosopher Benedetto Croce , al- ready quoted in section 2, translation is impossible because We cannot transform that which already has its own aesthetic form into another such form. Every translation, in fact, either diminishes or spoils the original, or the translation creates an entirely new expression by putting the original expression back into the crucible and mixing it with the personal impressions of the one who calls himself the translator.
The diffi- culties that a translator and a textual analyst of a constitutional text has to face are various, not only at the lexical, but also at the broader textu- al level. However similar, English and Italian differ in many respects, for example in the structure of the sentences, in word order and in ex- pressive style. Before even attempting a translation of the Italian Con- stitution, it is necessary to consider all the possible differences with the target language, whatever this is. For example, it is necessary to see if the big val- ue words used in the Italian text have exact semantic equivalents in the target language.
This, in my view, fa- cilitates understanding considerably.
"bricklayer" in Italian
An accurate and in-depth semantic analysis at both the lexical and the textual level is the first step to trans- late a text and make it accessible to cultural outsiders. Indeed, translation is an important vehicle for cross-cultural media- tion. Reading the Italian Constitution in English, cultural outsiders can learn the key values and ideals of Italian society and at the same time can familiarise themselves with some of the main cultural keywords of Italian. Another advantage of translating a constitutional text is that translation can help a text last in time and can help preserve a cultural tradition.
If, for example, a cultural tradition disappears for whatever reason, having translated the texts of that culture into another language could help save at least a trace of that tradition. In conclusion, I hope that the textual analysis of the Fundamental Principles presented in this paper was useful for students of Italian, for students of international law, for linguists, for translators and more generally for anyone interested in Italian language and culture.
It would be great if, in reading this paper, you could be reminded of the people, the history, the landscape and the artistic heritage of Italy as they are por- trayed in postcards, in TV or in your imagination. As Henry James wrote in his Italian Hours, an old friend of Italy coming back to her finds an easy waking for dormant memories.
Every object is a reminder and every reminder a thrill. Baldick, Ch. Baker, M. In Other Words.
Pray You Catch Me
Oxon, Routledge. Barsotti, V. Beaugrande, R. Costituzione Italiana. Lyas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. De Mauro, T. Fabietti, R. Fallaci, O , Lettera a un bambino mai nato, Milano, Rizzoli. Shepley, New York, Si- mon and Schuster. Weaver, New York, Simon and Schuster. Farese, G. Policy Forum online article. Fish, S. Gadamer, H.
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Walter de Gruyter. Russian cultural semantics: Emotions, values, attitudes. Mos- cow: Languages of Slavonic Cultures. Goddard, C. Goddard, C - Wierzbicka, A. Gramsci, A , Quaderni del carcere, Torino, Einaudi. Hirsch, E. Hoy, D. Sebeok ed. James, H. Levi, P. Woolf, New York, Touchstone. Maher, B. Moliterno, G. Morante, E. Weaver, New York, Alfred A. Moro, A. Mortara Garavelli, B. Coletti ed. Munzer, S - Nickel, J. Pavese, C. Murch, London, Transaction Publisher. Page, London, Peter Owen.
Pesce, O. Rorty, R. Saussure, F. Bally and A. Sechehaye, in collaboration with A. Segre, C.
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