HEART to HEART [14] (Pine tree)

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1. Introduction

I was sorely tempted to buy. Had I had the wherewithal I should probably now be a South African citizen. Now for a glimpse from Australia. Here is part of a newspaper report of B. After the more formal Rallies, B. As he went from one to the other of the forty-eight different camp sites, here and there fires glinted through the gathering gloom, blue smoke curled into the still air.

And the smell of frying sausages was wafted through the bush. Billies of boiling water bubbled merrily. Thick slices of bread were toasted at the ends of sticks held by brown little hands. Smiling boyish faces shone in the flickering light of fires. Many of the Scouts seemed unaware that the Big Chief was among them. They did not see the keen-eyed Big Chief watching them from a path above them.

Now no Scout must use more than two matches in lighting a fire. At that moment the Chief Guide appeared. Innumerable little incidents can be recalled by thousands of Scouts from these visits of the Chief. As long as the witnesses live they will treasure such memories as the following episode which occurred at the Australian Jamboree at the end of Well, nothing venture nothing win, so, adopting a traffic-cop air, I placed myself in the centre of the road and made my request.

Smilingly the Chief complied, and soon some thirty or forty cameras were using up spools of films on him at full speed. In the rush I nearly got left, but managed to secure a photograph.

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Some of the boys had, in sport, autographed the plaster bandage. There was of course a serious side to these visits. Anything at all original, particularly if it showed a touch of humorous imagination, won his warm praise. The routine kind of Rally bored him; he wanted to see the Scouts in action showing that they could look after themselves as true Scouts.

The Reports he wrote summing up his observations were always helpful though sometimes critical, and one of the great values of his extensive travels in Scoutland was that he could pass on ideas from place to place, and encourage those in difficulties by telling them how others—perhaps thousands of miles away—had solved similar problems. Your feedback, comments and suggestions are appreciated. Please write to: Lewis P.

They already possessed a portrait he had given them when he himself had visited the Troop; on this he had written, "As topmost Troop in India—on the map, I see, Be topmost also in your Scout efficiency. Show Details Robin M Oliver. We found three companies that listed this address in corporate registration documents. The ZIP code for this address is and the postal code suffix is Associated Businesses. Show Details. The type of operation was listed as Intrastate Non-Hazmat. The carrier is not subject to a placardable hazmat threshold and is not subject to a passenger carrier threshold.

The carrier reported four power units. Southampton in a Nutshell Please see our full analysis of Southampton here. Search my Location View information about the place where you are now. Three's A Charm Consignment Inc was registered at this address. Mickey Beyer-clausen is associated with this address. These results provided direct evidence that forest bathing has a beneficial effect on CHF patients, and thus may pave the way for potential development of forest bathing as an effective adjunctive therapy on cardiovascular disorders.

Nowadays, many developing countries are in the midst of an epidemiological transition as the disease burden rapidly shifts from diseases related to nutritional deficiencies and infections to degenerative chronic diseases observed in the older population [ 1 ]. It was estimated that the morbidity and patients of CAD will continue to increase in the next several decades due to the fast-growing older population and urbanization in China, which will cause an extremely serious burden for the public health.

Chronic heart failure CHF , a clinical syndrome that develops as a consequence of various cardiac diseases, such as coronary artery disease, either alone or in combination with hypertension, remains a rising global cause of morbidity and mortality [ 2 , 3 ]. As of , it was estimated that there were 5. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence linking long-term environmental pollution to cardiovascular diseases, e. In China, the average concentration of PM 2. This situation seems to be worse in crowded cities.

It was reported that higher levels of PM 2. Thus, better methods which can promote health conditions for those living in cities are of great significance. Additionally, currently available pharmacological therapies provide limited impact on the long-term outlook for patients with CHF. Moreover, it is hard to overcome the adverse effect of polypharmacy treatment against CHF as the etiology of CHF is complicated and treatment with a single drug is rarely used. Thus, it is necessary to develop novel therapeutic interventional strategies for CHF patients.

Forest bathing or forest therapy, also known as Shinrin-yoku in Japan or forest healing in South Korea, is a re-immersion in the sensorium of the healthy forest which is similar tonatural aromatherapy [ 11 ]. Additionally, it seems to be in part like art therapy, which is a relatively young therapeutic discipline by using the creative process of art making to improve the mental, emotional, and even physical conditions of individuals, such as cancer patients [ 12 ].

Recently, in Asian countries, such as China and Japan, forest bathing has received increasing attention due to its health-promoting effects, including enhancing immune functions and decreasing blood pressure in hypertension patients, as well as stress relief effects. Specifically, South Korea is a leading country applying forest therapy, e.

Our previous work indicated that forest bathing lowered the circulating endothelin-1 ET-1 level in normal young subjects or old patients with hypertension [ 15 , 16 ], which is known as one of the most potent vasoconstrictors and is always recognized as a stimulator on cardiovascular diseases [ 17 ]. Our recent studies also indicated the healthy effect of forest bathing on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD [ 18 ].

Thus, it is well speculated that forest bathing would be salutary to CAD patients, such as chronic heart failure, with potential therapeutic benefits. To test our hypothesis, herein we investigated the effect of forest bathing on physiological and psychological responses of CHF patients. Two groups of CHF patients were sent to the forest site or to an urban control area for a four-day trip, respectively.

Blood was sampled before and after the experiment to evaluate the changes of HF- and CAD-related biological indicators. A profile of mood states POMS evaluation was used to assess changes in mood states.

Our findings indicated that forest bathing resulted in decreases of brain natriuretic peptide BNP , renin-angiotensin system RAS , inflammation, and oxidative stress, which suggested a favorable effect on cardiovascular disorders as an adjuvant therapy. The exclusion criteria are: 1 catching cold or suffering other acute diseases two weeks prior to the trial or during the trial process; 2 chronic history, including cancer, serious liver, kidney, brain, heart, lung diseases, etc.

A total of 36 patients with CHF meeting the criteria as described above were enrolled as participants in this study. They were divided randomly at a ratio of into two groups consisting of 24 people in forest group and 12 in city control group before the experiment. One participant in the forest group and two in city group quit during the experiment process, so there were finally 23 participants in the forest group and 10 in the city control group.

Clinical characteristics of the participants are shown in Table 1. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Hospital, and the procedures were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of as revised in The study was fully explained to all the participants in both spoken and written form, specifically focusing on its purpose, the precise procedures that would be used, and any possible adverse events.

Signed informed consent was obtained from every subject. The covering area of the forest is about 8,, m 2 and the predominant species are pine, China fir, and bamboo. For comparison, a typical urban site located in the downtown area of Hangzhou was used as the control. The two experimental sites are shown on the map in Figure 1.

Briefly, on the day before the experiment, all of the participants gathered at our hospital and were fully informed about the experimental procedure and signed informed consent from each participant was obtained. Then a routine physical examination for each participant was performed and blood was sampled in the morning before breakfast. After that, each participant was asked to fill in a questionnaire for the profile of mood states POMS test by paper and pencil. The participants were randomly divided into two groups and were sent to two hotels with similar accommodation conditions near the two indicated experimental sites, respectively.

The distance between the forest site and the corresponding hotel was similar to that of the control city site and its nearby hotel which was about a 5—10 min walk. We rented two commercial buses equipped with drivers to transfer the two groups from our hospital to the respective experimental site, as well as for the return trip.

2 bedrooms Chalet in Residence Located in the Heart of a Pine Forest 186

To control for environmental conditions, the intake of all foods and physical activity were controlled, and smoking and alcoholic or caffeinated beverages were not allowed. The experimental schedule is shown in Figure 2. Of note, the subjects walked outdoors twice everyday during the experimental period, and each time they walked along a predetermined flat walking path in each area at an unhurried pace for about 1. As a consideration for the safety of the CHF patients, they were allowed the freedom to rest during the walk and were also accompanied by a nurse and a doctor.

In their free time during their stay in the hotels, the subjects were allowed to do as they wished, such as reading, watching TV, or playing chess, while avoiding strenuous exercise and any stimulating activities. Additionally, the individual administration of drugs for each participant was carried out as usual. Blood samples were collected in the two hotels near each experimental site before breakfast on 24 August by the specialized technicians. Then they were asked to complete the POMS test for the second time and the experiment ended.

Location of the two experimental sites. It is about km from the urban experimental site, which is situated in the downtown area of Hangzhou, a city near Shanghai. They were evaluated by using standard assay kits Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing, China as described previously [ 19 ]. To assess the fluctuating active mood states of the participants, we used the standard version of the POMS test, which is a item self-administered rating scale that measures six dimensions of mood tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, confusion-bewilderment, vigor-activity, and anger-hostility.

The air quality in the two sites was monitored during the experiment, simultaneously. The concentration of PM 2. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version If the samples were closed to normal distribution and had homogeneous variance, the t- test was used for data comparison between the two groups. Otherwise, a non-parametric test Mann-Whitney U test or Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was used for two independent or related samples.

For the analysis of multi-group comparisons, the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed and a Dunn-Bonferroni test was used for post hoc comparisons.

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For the count data, the chi-squared test was used for data analysis. A p -value less than 0.

Calm and serenity in the heart of pine trees - Lartigue

Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide BNP are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of cardiac functional status. In patients with chronic stable HF, its circulating levels are positively associated with all-cause mortality [ 20 ]. Obviously, as shown in Figure 3 , the participants experiencing a four-day forest bathing trip showed a significant lower BNP levelcompared with that of the city group or itself baseline level before the experiment.

While the BNP level of subjects exposed to the urban environment remained statistically unchanged. On the other hand, no significant changes of NT-ProBNP were observed in both of the groups before or after the experiment.

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However, the decreased BNP suggested a favorable effect of forest bathing on heart functional status. A similar baseline level of these indicators was observed between the two groups before the experiment Figure 4. At the end of the four-day experiment, a significantly lower level of ET-1 was observed in the forest group in comparison to that of city group Figure 4 , top-left panel.

Meanwhile, the ET-1 level went up and the five RAS constituents remained significantly unchanged in the city group after the experiment. Of note, the levels of AT2, angiotensin type 2 receptor, which plays a protective role in the setting of chronic heart failure [ 21 ], increased in the forest group, while little alteration of this indicator was observed in the control city group Figure 4 , lower-left panel.

Effect of forest bathing on change for the endothelin-1 ET-1 production and components of the renin-angiotensin system RAS. However, no significant alterations of these cytokines were observed in participants exposed to the urban environment. Effect of forest bathing on serum levels of pro-inflammatory indicators.

Subjects staying in the forest area showed a lower level of lipid peroxidation, as reflected by serum MDA, and a slightly higher level of T-SOD activity compared with the urban group Figure 6. Of note, a significant increment of MDA was observed in subjects exposed to the urban environment. However, no obvious change in the activity of T-SOD was observed in the control group itself. It has been suggested that depressive mood could psychologically amplify the inflammatory response and deteriorate the process of cardiovascular diseases.

We used the POMS standard version to evaluate the effect of the two different environmental stimuli on the psychological states of participants, as described previously [ 22 ]. As shown in Figure 7 , after the experiment, a significant decrease was found in the forest group in four negative subscales: tension-anxiety T , depression-dejection D , anger-hostility A , and confusion-bewilderment C compared with their baseline values or that of control group. However, no obvious change in any subscales was observed in the city group Figure 7. The air quality in both of the two experimental sites was monitored simultaneously.

Overall, the air quality at the forest site was much better than that of the city site Table 2. The level of negative ions in the daytime at the forest site was about fold higher than that of the city site. The data from the current study provided direct evidence of the salutary influence of forest bathing on elderly patients with chronic heart failure reflected by a lowered level of BNP and ET-1, accompanied by ameliorated inflammatory and oxidative status.

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