Also offered is an M. Departmental financial assistance in the form of teaching assistantships are available for the most highly qualified candidates. Teaching Assistants in the M. A small number of summer teaching assistantships are available on a competitive basis. Prerequisites All applicants need to complete an on-line application, submit an official transcript and the application fee, all of which should be done on-line at The University of New Mexico website.
International students should contact the office of International Admissions for a list of required material and deadlines. The deadline for application for regular admission is May 1 for Fall. Financial assistance is awarded for Fall only with an application deadline of January 15 for first consideration.
Acceptance into the M. A narrative statement of intent. An official transcript of all academic work to be sent directly to the Office of Admissions. Unofficial transcripts can be upload on to the UNM online application application 3. Students seeking admission to the program who do not have a B. Candidate must fill out a Departmental Application which is available on the department web site spanport. Spanish candidates must submit the Versant Language Proficiency exam at www.
Portuguese candidates seeking a Teaching Assistantship must upload a voice autobiographical recording following departmental Page 5 guidelines. Native Speakers of languages other than English must also provide a recorded statement in English of equal length. All applicants must submit a Cirum Vita CV. Applicants must provide the names and e-mails of at least three people, preferably from professors or others who are familiar with their academic qualifications, for letters of reference, Degree Description The M.
Plan I requires a minimum of 27 hours of coursework, comprehensive examination, and a thesis. Plan II requires 33 hours of coursework and a comprehensive examination. Minimum semester hour requirements for TAs under both plans are 9, 9, 9, and 6. All Spanish coursework counted toward M. All Portuguese coursework counted toward M. Concentration in Hispanic Literature 18 hours of Hispanic Literature approximately evenly divided between Spanish American and Peninsular Spanish courses.
Page 6 3 — 6 hours depending on whether a teaching methodology class is taken of electives or thesis. Concentration in Hispanic Southwest Studies 6 hours of Hispanic Linguistics must include at least one course on Southwest Spanish; teaching methodology class may not be included, e. Portuguese Degree 15 hours in Portuguese at level or above.
Other requirements 1. Language Requirement Research at the graduate and professional levels is enhanced by the mastery of several languages. All M. This proficiency is normally demonstrated by completing, in consultation with the department graduate advisor, a second semester or above numbered language course Page 8 with a grade of B or better. This requirement can be met through coursework done as part of the B.
Comprehensive Examination The M. The examination will be based on the reading list designed for each concentration. If you wish to be reconsidered for any teaching assistantship you should include a letter from the program coordinator. Students are expected to maintain enrollment in once registration has begun. The graduate unit will evaluate the petition and determine whether or not the student is eligible for return to graduate study and which process reinstatement or readmission is appropriate.
Reinstatement is valid if: 1. Student has not been enrolled for up to 3 semesters not including summer Student is in good standing Graduate Unit approves Only remaining requirement is completion of thesis or dissertation Time to complete the degree is one calendar year or less The petition presents an adequate rationale for failure to request a Leave of Absence. If reinstatement is the appropriate choice, the department will submit the approved petition to OGS for processing. Readmission is valid if: Page 9 1. The student is in good standing 3. Graduate Unit approves 4. Student is within time-to-degree limits, or submits petition for extension with a timeline for completing the degree If readmission is the appropriate choice, the department will submit the approved petition to OGS.
The student must complete the readmission process including payment of the application fee through the Office of Graduate Studies. OR PH.
All applicants to the M. This document is one of the most important components of the application and should be prepared thoughtfully. It may be written in English, Spanish or Portuguese. Applicants should describe their specific interests within the programs offered by the Department of Spanish and Portuguese, and should indicate why they have chosen the University of New Mexico.
In addition, applicants should outline their future career plans in as much detail as possible. The M. Applicants to the Ph. They should also describe their specific interests, including possible dissertation topics, collateral areas, and related research. Finally, and most importantly, they should elaborate on their academic background and their abilities to conduct original in-depth research, and should describe their future professional plans and aspirations.
The test takes approximately 15 minutes to complete, is taken over the phone, and provides the results within minutes of completing the test. All instructions for taking the test are included with the purchase of the test. The results must then be printed and submitted to the Spanish and Portuguese Department. Portuguese Candidates seeking a Teaching Assistantship in Portuguese must submit a short audio autobiography.
The audio sample will be in Portuguese. Native speakers of languages other than English must also provide a recorded statement in English of equal length. The audio sample should be 5 — 10 minutes long, and should consist of free, spontaneous narration. Appropriate topics include a brief biographical sketch, accounts of travel or other experiences that bear on graduate study in Spanish and Portuguese, reasons for deciding to pursue a graduate career, specific research interests, and awareness of the programs and resources offered by the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of New Mexico.
Applicants should try to use as wide a range of grammatical structures as possible, including past, present, future and hypothetical reference, and an appropriately professional vocabulary. No portion of the recording should be read or memorized, nor should the audio sample be edited in any way.
The teaching assistantship requires that the student will teach two lower division Spanish classes. The exact terms of the teaching assistantship offer will be outlined in the offer letter. The teaching assistantship does not cover any course fees, GPSA fees, or dissertation hours. PROGRAM: Those students in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese who receive a teaching assistantship will unless the letter of offer stipulates otherwise normally be eligible for two years 4 semesters of TA support excluding summer teaching , contingent upon academic progress in departmentally approved classes, satisfactory teaching, and the availability for University funding.
There will be no extensions to the four-semester limit of assistant support. Due to the limited number of teaching assistantships, not all students admitted to the M. We do keep a teaching assistantship waiting list for all qualified students. Students on the waiting list are notified as soon as a position becomes available. PROGRAM: Those students in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese who receive a Teaching Assistantship will unless the letter of offer stipulates otherwise normally receive support for three years six semesters of TA support excluding summer teaching , contingent upon academic progress in departmentally-approved classes, satisfactory teaching and availability of University funding.
A fourth final year of assistantship support may be authorized at the discretion of the Graduate Committee if the doctoral student has passed the comprehensive exams by the end of the third year of support and has demonstrated satisfactory progress on the dissertation.
Those Ph. NOTE: A teaching assistant must be registered and complete the required number of approved course in order to matian the teaching assistantship. The Department looks to you to act in a professional manner in both behavior and dress. It is also expected that you will support the department, the faculty, and fellow graduate students by attending and helping to organize departmental functions such as lectures, workshops, conferences and cultural events. Such active participation enriches your intellectual life and professional preparation and contributes to the vital exchange of ideas within the Department.
These office hours should be held ideally at different times and days e. Any change of registration which a causes the total number of hours to drop below this minimum, or b has not been appropriately approved may result in an immediate revocation of the teaching assistantship. You should try to resolve the situation first by speaking privately with the student.
If this does not resolve the situation, you should meet with the student and the Coordinator. If the situation is still not resolved, then you, the student, and the Coordinator should meet with the Chair. Students must attempt to add an open class online. They should make sure that students comprehend the departmental policies listed on the syllabus.
This includes the necessity of taking a Placement Evaluation for all students taking a beginning Spanish language course and turning in documentation to the instructor. The instructors are to verify placement from every student no later than the fourth class session. A back-up copy of the records should be maintained at all times. This is to be handed in the first week of class. A student volunteer should collect these forms and take them to the departmental office, Room Ortega Hall. After this leave, the student will be paid only for the time the assistantship responsibilities were fulfilled.
After the exams have been corrected and Page 16 discussed in class, the TA must collect all exams. Students are not to keep any exams, since they are the property of the department although they may keep quizzes. All exams must be administered as scheduled; thus no exam may be omitted under any circumstances.
Teaching Assistants are responsible for finding their own substitute to teach their courses and communicating with the coordinator of their respective programs regarding all plans and progress prior to the formal written request for the two-week sick leave to the department head. Note: The Department can not provide financial compensation for substitutes, but will aid in establishing a pool of volunteers. Outside employment: Graduate students holding a teaching assistantship are allowed to work a maximum of 10 hours per week in employment outside the Department.
International Students should check with the Office of International Programs for any additional regulations or limitations regarding working hours over the TAship hours. Page 17 Summer teaching: There are a limited number of teaching assistantships available for the Summer session. Priority will be given to those applicants who did not teach the previous summer.
Assistants who begin their employment in the Spring term will be considered only if there are enough teaching positions available to accommodate all other applicants. Among other things, the mentor will assist the student with planning a course of studies and with the selection of courses for each semester. If you are not sure who your faculty mentor is please contact the Graduate Advisor. Each incoming M. The student may later choose another faculty mentor if they wish.
Until the Committee on Studies is formed, each incoming Ph. The temporary mentor will assist the new Ph. All changes in registration adding, dropping, changing from credit to audit status must be reported to the departmental Graduate Advisor BEFORE the change is made. Failure to obtain prior approval for changes from the Graduate Advisor could result in revocation of financial support. They represent the collective effort of the entire Department, and only under truly extraordinary circumstances will exceptions be granted. If exceptional treatment seems warranted, a student may petition the Graduate Committee.
A written copy of the petition, along with support for the petition from the mentor, must be given to the departmental Graduate Advisor. Students should use petitions sparingly, since in the vast majority of cases existing departmental norms will be found to apply. Permission to take an elective course outside the department.
Permission to switch from one M. Permission to take more than 12 hours of graduate courses per semester. Permission to transfer courses from another program. Note: Under university regulations, students retain the option of following the requirements of their program that were in effect at the time of their entrance into the program, even in the face of subsequent changes, or of following the modified requirements.
However, each student must meet all requirements for the chosen program. Thus, for example, a student who enters the program under one set of requirements but chooses to be examined under the requirements in effect at the time of the examination must meet all requirements in effect at the time of examination.
The departmental Graduate Committee will not waive this general obligation. FOR PH. Written copies of any petitions must be turned in the departmental Graduate Advisor. The petition will serve as a syllabus for the course and should include 1 a brief description of the proposed course of study; 2 a working bibliography; 3 a description of the graded work that will be done, with dates for turning in work clearly indicated; 4 the signed agreement of the supervising professor.
Two courses six credits are the maximum allowed while at the University.go
Portuguese Literature (1922)
Page 22 THE M. It is the collective expectation of the faculty that students who have performed well in their classes and who have adequately assimilated the materials on the reading lists should have no difficulty in passing the examinations. Thus the exams are not created to expose inadequacies but rather to highlight the knowledge acquired during the graduate studies program. That significant portions of the exam will focus on material which some students have not learned as part of their class work is inevitable.
Candidates have full responsibility for reading and assimilating the material on the reading lists and for systematically preparing themselves for the comprehensive examination. No outside materials may be brought to the examination; this includes dictionaries, notes, books, etc. Each candidate will be given four 3-hour tests covering diverse aspects of the field of specialization.
The faculty grades the exam collectively. If at least two sections of the exam are passed, the candidate will only be required to re-take the failed portions. If fewer than two sections of the exam are passed in one session, the student is required to re-take all sections of the exam. The questions may be copied, but the originals may not be removed from the office. In order to be qualified to take the M. There are no examinations given during the summer. Under no circumstances will make-up exams be given outside the normal schedule, nor will take-home exams, papers, or other substitutes for the written exams be permitted.
There will be no exceptions to this policy and students are urged to make all personal and professional plans accordingly. The first time that a candidate takes the M. Only a single re-take will be allowed for a total of two attempts. Failure to pass the examinations after two tries leads to dismissal from the graduate program. Students will take the exams on the computers in the Language Learning Center. Candidates should familiarize themselves with the word-processing software available on the computers.
Students are encouraged to take the necessary precautions against disk failures and other technical mishaps. Candidates will be informed of the results of the M. Cheating on Assessments, and Exams All work that is graded is to be completed individually by students without assistance from any other person. Failure to complete graded work individually is cheating. Students who enable others to cheat by providing assistance or by failing to adequately protect their own work from copying and unauthorized access are also guilty of cheating.
Violation of Acceptable Computer Use Policies As part of this exam, you will be provided with access to computer hardware and networks, and software. Violations of the UNM acceptable computer use policy that involve course-related computing, network, and software resources are considered violations of the academic dishonesty policy for this exam. Appropriate penalties will be retroactively imposed when academic dishonesty is discovered after a grade has been assigned. Questions which overlap these time periods may be given from time to time.
The two Spanish American literature questions will be chosen from a combination of colonial, 19th—century and 20th-century works from the reading list. Hispanic Linguistics: The exams consist of four 3-hour questions from four of the six following areas: 1 historical linguistics; 2 phonology; 3 morphosyntax; 4 discourse and pragmatics; 5 language variation; 6 language acquisition and teaching.
Students will choose four of the above six areas to be examined in, and will inform the Graduate Administrative Assistant of their decision no later than the end of the semester prior to taking exams. Questions which overlap these areas may be given from time to time. Portuguese Studies: The exams consist of four 3-hour questions on Brazilian literature and culture: Question 1 The colonial period, 18th—19th Centuries and Question 2 the 20th and 21st Centuries.
Questions 3 and 4 are individualized questions formulated from a reading list that the student develops in consultation with the tenured and tenure track Brazilian studies faculty. PASS: This exam overall fully meets expectations for this level of graduate studies. THE M. There are both pros and cons to writing a M. Students interested in pursuing the thesis option should consult the Departmental Graduate Advisor by the end of their second semester in their M. Consult the University of New Mexico Catalog for additional information on thesis preparation.
Students doing a thesis must turn in to the Graduate Advisor a Thesis Declaration form one month into the students third semester. Once a student has registered for thesis hours they must continue to take thesis hours every semester until they have completed the thesis and turned it in to the Office of Graduate Studies. If a Thesis is written in a language other than English a petition must be submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies through the Department of Spanish and Portuguese.
Please complete the following form and attach a copy of your thesis proposal and return to the Graduate Advisor in the main office Ortega Hall, Room This form will be used for a variety of departmental purposes. It will inform us of your continuing advancement, success, and participation in the department and the university.
It will serve as an update on all that you have accomplished thus far both here at UNM and elsewhere in academia. As such, it will assist us with departmental assessment, required by the university. It will also ensure that you are aware of departmental requirements, such as normative time to completion. Moreover, this form will facilitate communication between you and a variety of professors in the department with the hope that this fosters extra personal support and community.
Include Title and Date. Page 30 Required Signatures: If you currently reside out of state, please contact the following people via email. Normally, when available, the possibility of receiving additional funding support can be extended for a maximum of two additional years, for a total of five years. The written request, together with a memo of support from the chairperson or designee of the graduate unit is forwarded to the Graduate Dean who will make the final decision. A Leave of Absence is determined on a semester-by-semester basis and is generally limited to a maximum of one calendar year.
The time approved for a Leave of Absence is not counted in the time limit to complete the degree as long as the student is not enrolled in any course at the University of New Mexico. Page 31 M. El romancero viejo, ed. The following general list of works is offered as a reference for students: Books of Literary History Alborg, Juan Luis. Jones, R. Historia de la literatura hispanoamericana 4 vols. Rico, Francisco. Alan Deyermond.
Edad Media 2. Siglos de oro: Renacimiento 3. Bruce W. Siglos de oro: Barroco 4. Iris M. Romanticismo y Realismo 6. Modernismo y '98 7. XIII; Libro cuarto, cap. I, IX; Libro quinto, cap. XII; Libro sexto, caps. En la tarima. La frontera de cristal. Instrucciones para cruzar la frontera. Eduardo Antonio Parra.
Nostalgia de la sombra. The following list is subject to change. Students should make sure they have the most recent list upon beginning their M. Historical Linguistics Bybee, Joan. Language Medievalia Lapesa, Rafael. Madrid: Gredos. Penny, Ralph. Variation and change in Spanish.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trask, R. Historical linguistics. London: Arnold Publishers. Primera parte: La frase verbal. Phonology Bybee, Joan. Lexicalization of sound change and alternating environments. Papers in laboratory phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon, ed. Broe and Janet B. Pierrehumbert, — Guitart eds. Quilis, Antonio. Page 41 3. Morphosyntax Ashby, William J. Preferred argument structure in spoken French and Spanish.
Language Variation and Change 5. Bybee, Joan and Paul J. Hopper eds. Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure. Du Bois, John W. Discourse and grammar. In Michael Tomasello ed , The new psychology of language: Cognitive and functional approaches to language structure, vol. Hopper, Paul J. Emergent grammar. Thompson, Sandra A.
Publisher to the University
Tomasello, Michael ed. The new psychology of language. Travis, Catherine E. To appear. Discourse syntax. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Students should also be familiar with the material in: Bosque, Ignacio and Violeta Demonte eds. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. Discourse and Pragmatics Chafe, Wallace. Discourse, consciousness and time: The flow and displacement of conscious experience in speaking and writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ochs, Elinor, Schegloff, Emanuel A. Interaction and grammar. Spanish pragmatics. Cantos dualisticos, cantos de danza prima, and bailadas encadeadas have also been proposed.
Cristobal de Castillejo, Madre, un caballero Que estaba en este cosso bailia. In the Relacion de los fechos del mui magnifico e mas virtuoso senor el senor Don Miguel Lucas [de Iramo] mui digno Condestable de Castilla, p. Rodrigo Cota, in the Didlogo entre el Amor y un Viejo, has dangas y corsantes, and Anton de Montoro el Ropero asks un portugues que vido vestido de muchos colores if he is a can- tador de corsante v.
General, ed. But it is unnecessary to go for a parallel to China. Verses 8, 9 of Psalm are very nearly a. The resemblance in Psalm , verses 17, 18, is still more marked : To him which smote great kings, For his mercy endureth for ever, And slew famous kings, For his mercy endureth for ever. The relations between Church and people were very close if not always very friendly. The peasants maintained their ancient customs, and their pagan jollity kept overflowing into the churches to the scandal of the authorities.
Innumerable ordi- nances later sought to check their delight in witchcraft and mummeries, feasts and funerals the delight in the latter is still evident in Galicia as in Ireland and Wales. Men slept, ate, drank, danced, sang profane songs, and acted plays and parodies in the churches and pilgrimage shrines.
The Church strove to turn their midsummer and May-day celebrations into Christian festivals, but the change was rather nominal than real. Especially was this the case in Galicia, since the great saint Santiago, who farther south as later in India rode into battle on a snow-white ' Translations of Chinese poems resembling the cossanies are given by Dr. Theophilo Braga, C. Lang, C. A Proven9al poem with resemblance to a cossante is printed in Bartsch, p. Pilgrims from all countries in the Middle Ages came to worship at his shrine at Santiago de Compostcla.
Thus the eyes of the whole province of Galicia as the eyes of Europe were directed towards the Church of Santiago in Jakobsland. The inhabitants of Galicia would naturally view their heaven-sent celebrity with pride and rejoice in the material gain. They would watch with eager interest the pilgrims passing along the camino frances or from the coast to Santiago, and would themselves flock to see and swell the crowds at the religious services. A further characteristic of the cossante is that the z-sound of the first distich is followed by an a-sound in the second [ricercando ora il grave, ora Vacuto and this too maybe traced to a religious source, two answering choirs of singers, treble and bass.
Fidel Fita y D. Aureliano Fernandez-Guerra Madrid, , p. Deus, adjuva nos! But if born in the Church, the cossante suffered a transformation when it went out into the world. The rhythm of many of the songs in the Cancioneiros is so obtrusive that they seem to dance out of the printed page. The cossante Solo ramo would thus proceed, sung by ' the dancers dancing in tune ' : Verses 3 and 4 Vodas fazen a meu amigo amado Porque mentiu o desmentido perjurado E choran olhos d'amor, the first line of the third distich repeating the second line of the first and in the same way the first line of the fifth the second line of the third , in leixa-pren [laisser prendre corresponding evidently to the movements of the dance.
Augus- tine considered the dance to be a circle of which the Devil was the centre ; in real life the Devil was often replaced by a tree or by a mayo. Gil Vicente, Tambor em cada moinho. The parallelism and leixapren are present also in religious poems by Alfonso X : C. Nunes has noted that in motkrn peasant dances, accompanied with song, the dancers sometimes pause while the refrain is sung. Thus we have the melancholy Celtic temperament, absorbed in Nature, acting on the forms suggested by an alien religion till they become vague cries to the sea, to the deer of the hills, the flower of the pine.
The themes are as simple and monotonous — the monotony of snowdrops or daffodils — as the form in which they are sung. A girl in the gloom of the pine-trees mourning for her lover, the birds in the cool of the morn- ing singing of love, the deer troubling the water of a mountain- stream, the boats at anchor, or bearing away mens amores, or gliding up the river a sahor.
The amiga lingers at the fountain, she goes to wash clothes or to bathe her hair in the stream, she meets her lover and dances at the pilgrim shrine, she waits for him under the hazel-trees, she implores the waves for news of him, she watches for the boats pelo mar viir. The language is native to the soil, far more so, at least, than in the cantigas de amor and cantigas de amigo written under foreign influence. Despite its striking appearance to us now among sirventes senes sal in the Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti, it must be confessed that the early cossante of King Sancho has a somewhat meagre, vinegar aspect, and the genre could hardly have developed so successfully in the next half-century had it not been fixed in the country-side, ever ready to the hand of the poet in search of fresh inspiration.
It is possible to exaggerate the effect of war on the life of the peasant. Portugal in the twelfth century was only gradually and by constant conflict winning its territory and independence. It had no fixed capital and Court at which the Provengal poets cantigas de ledino. The word probably originated in a printer's error de ledino for dele dino in a line of Chrisfal : canton canto de ledino.
In the sense of the two refrains lies all the difference between the poetry of Portugal and Spain. But while king and nobles and the members of the religious and military orders were engaged with the [Moors to the exclusion of the Muses, so that they had no opportunity to introduce the new measures, the peasants in Galicia and Minho no doubt went on tilling the soil and singing their primitive songs.
In the thirteenth century Provengal poetry flourished in Portugal, but so monotonously that it failed to kill the older lyrics, and they reacted on the imported poetry. In the trite conventions with which the latter became clothed the cossante had a new oppor- tunity of life. Trohadores wearied by their own monotony, jograes wishing to please a patron with a novidade, had recourse to the cossante. The jogral wandering from house to house and town to town necessarily came into close touch with the peasants. Talented men among them, prompted by patrons of good taste, no doubt exercised the third requisite of a good jogral [doair' e uoz e aprenderdes hen, C.
These, developed and adorned according to his talent, he would introduce to the Court among his motz recreamens e prazers. When Joan de Guilhade in the middle of the thirteenth century complained that os trohadores ja van para mal C. Alfonso X reproached Pero da Ponte for not singing like a Pro- vengal but, rather, like Bernaldo de Bonaval first half 13th c. King Dinis in the second half of the century viewed the cossante with such favour that he wrote or collected some of the most curious and delightful that we possess.
Of Meendinho first half 13th c. This was a popular theme, but the two poets who seem to have felt most keenly the attraction of the popular poetry and to have cultivated it most successfully are Joan Zorro fi. The cossantes of Zorro, one of the most talented of all these singers, tell of Lisbon and the king's ships and the sea. In this series of barcarolas C. Martin Codax at about the same time was singing graceful songs of the ondas do mar of Vigo C. Thus he is scarcely even a name. There is a modem Peruvian poet Manuel Nicolas Corpancho Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Moogo from monachus.
Chariiio is buried at Pontevedra, in the Franciscan convent which he founded. On the lips of his amz'g'a he places a touching cantiga de amigo C. Love is in flower. He escaped the perils of the sea, the miii gran coita do mar C. His sea lyrics are only excelled by the enchanting melody of the poem C. Of the later poets Estevam Coelho, perhaps father of one of the assassins of Ines ti , wrote a cossante of haunting beauty C. King Dinis, having thrown wide his palace doors to these thyme- scented lyrics, would turn again to the now musty chamber of Provengal song C.
The reader or listener would easily complete them. His pastorela C. Riding along a stream he hears a solitary shepherdess singing and stays to listen. The refrain is identical in C. The fourth cossante we also have complete, a lovely harcarola by Joan Zorro C. Separata da Revista Lusitana, vol. Very few, if any, of the cossantes were anonymous, which only means that modern folk-lore was unknown; it was not the fashion to collectsongs from the lips of the people withoutulteriorpurpose.
No drawing-room lyric, evidently : more likely to be sung in taverns ; composed perhaps by a knight like him of C. Like the Provencal poet Guilherme Figueira who mout se fetz grazir. The cantiga de vildos was no such simple popular lyric, but rather a drinkers' song, picaresquely allusive, sung by a jogral who non fo horn que saubes caber entre Hs baros ni entre la bona gen but sang vilmen et en gens bassas, entre gens bassas per pauc d'aver Riquier , cantares de que la gente baja e de servil condicion se alegra Santillana.
The cossante, on the contrary, came straight from field and hill into palace and song-book. Probably Up the stream the boats came gliding Gracefully. All along the river-bent The fair maiden singing went Of love's dream : Fair to see the boats came gliding Up the stream. The women of Galicia have always been noted for their poetical and musical talent. But whether any of the cossantes that we have in the Cancio- neiros is strictly of the people or not, their traditional indigenous character is no longer doubtful. It would surely be a most astounding fact had the Galician-Portuguese Court poets, who in their cantigas de amor reduced Provencal poetry to a colourless insipidity, succeeded so much better with the cossantes that, while the originals from which they copied have vanished, the imita- tions stand out in the Portuguese Cancioneiros like crimson poppies among corn.
It is remarkable, too, that of the three kinds of poem in the old Cancioneiros, satire, love song, and cossante, the first two remain in the Cancioneiro de Resende , but the third has totally disappeared. The explanation is that as Court and people drew apart and the literary influence of Castille" grew, the poems based on songs of the people were no longer in favour. But they continued, like the Guadiana, underground, and D.
Leite de Vasconcellos has discovered whole cossantes sung by peasants at their work in the fields in the nineteenth century. Almeida Garrett had written in a general sense : 05 vestigios d'essa poesia indigena ainda duram Revista Univ. Ltsbonense, vol. V , p. Na ribeirinha ribetra Naquella ribeira Anda Id nm peixinho vivo bravo Naquella ribeira.
Other examples of the i-a sequence are amigo amado , cosido assado , villa praga , ermida oraga , linda clara , Abril Natal , ceitil real. See J. Leite de Vasconcellos, Annnario para estudo das tradigoes populares portnguezas Porto, , pp. Leite de Vasconcellos are rude specimens by the side of a poem like Ay flores, ay flores do verde pinko, it should be remembered that the quadra or perhaps one should say distich without refrain has now replaced the cossante on the lips of the people, and that among these quatrains something of the old cossante' s charm and melancholy is still found.
Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos and others have remarked that these quadras pass from mouth to mouth and are perfected in the process, smoothed and polished like a stone by the sea, and this may well have been true of the earlier cossantes? One singer would give a distich of a cossante, as to-day a quadra, another would take it up and return it with variations. The cossante did not always preserve its simple form, or, rather, the more complicated poems renewed themselves in its popularity.
We find it as a hailada C. But these hybrid forms are not the true cossante, which is always marked by dignity, restraint, simple grace, close communion with Nature, delicacy of thought, and a haunting felicity of expression. The cossante written by King Sancho seems to indicate a natural development of the indigenous poetry. In its form it owed nothing to the poetry of Provence or North France, but its progress was perhaps quickened, and at least its perfection preserved, by the systematic cultivation of poetry introduced from abroad at a time when no middle class separated Court and peasant.
The tantalizing frag- ments that survive in Gil Vicente's plays show all too plainly what marvels of popular song might flower and die unknown. In spirit the original grave religious character of the cossante may in some measure have affected the new poetry. To this ' Cf. Barros, Dial, em lovvor da nossa ling. Quern as faz serem tratadas e recebidas do comum consintimenlo?
O tempo. In religious hymns obviously reverence would not permit the Virgin to be described in greater detail than, for example, Gil Vicente's vague branca e colorada, and the reverence might be transferred unconsciously to poems addressed to an earthly dona. Dona genser quHeu no sai dir or la genser que sia says Arnaut de Marueil at the end of the thirteenth century. The Portuguese poet would make an end there : his lady is fairest among women, fairer than he can say. He would never go on to describe her grey eyes and snowy brow : huelhs vairs and fron pus blanc que lis.
But introduced into alien and artificial forms, like mountain gentians in a garden, the monotony can no longer please. In the cantigas de amor the iteration becomes a tedious sluggishness of thought, whereas in the cossantes it is part of the music of the poem. Halle, Paris, Francisco Adolpho de Varnhagen. Madrid, Ernesto Monaci. Theophilo Braga. Lisboa, Vienna , 2nd ed. Imola, Diniz, pela primeira vez impresso sobre o manuscripto da Vaticana. Caetano Lopes de Moura. Henry R. Enrico Mclteni.
New York, London, Transcrito y comentado por Francisco Asenjo Barbieri. Madrid Of these the Cancioneiro da Ajuda C. Another edition, by Varnhagen, appeared in C. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos in C. The third volume, of notes, is still unpublished. This part received a critical edition at the hands of Professor H. Lang in ; and ed. A few more crumbs were given to the world by Varnhagen in , 2nd ed. Theophilo Braga's critical edition appeared in C. In this very year a large Cancioneiro ff. All these C.
When his father, King Dinis, died, silence fell upon the poets. The new king, Afonso IV, showed no sign of continuing to collect the smaller Cancioneiros kept by nobles and men of humbler position, a custom inaugurated by his grandfather, Afonso III if the Livro de Trovas del Rei D. It was thus a time suitable for a ' definitive edition ', and Count Pedro, who was the last of the Cancioneiro poets and who was more collector than poet, probably took the existing Cancioneiros of Afonso III and Dinis and added a third part consisting of later poems.
Besides the chronological order there was a division by subject into cantigas de amor, cantigas de amigo, and cantigas d'escarnho e de maldizer Santillana's cantigas, serranas e dezires, or cantigas serranas, the Archpriest of Hita's cantares serranos e dezires. Pedro, describing the Galician- Portuguese Cancioneiro — un grant volume — which he had seen in his boyhood in the pos- session of D. Mencia de Cisneros. This may have been the actual manuscript compiled by D. Or it may have been a copy of the Cancioneiro of D.
It is significant that in this very important letter it is a foreigner informing a Portuguese. Under the predominating influence first of Spain then of the Renaissance, the old Portuguese poems, even if they were known to exist, excited no interest in Portugal. Even as late as the nineteenth century one disappeared mysteriously from a sale, another emerged momentarily see C. In the sixteenth century the evidence as to its being known is contradictory.
Duarte Nunez de Leam in says of King Dinis that extant hodie eius carmina. Antonio de Vasconcellos in declares that time has carried them away : obliviosa praeripuit vetustas. A few vague allusions as that of Sa de Miranda concerning the echoes of Provencal song were all that was vouchsafed in Portugal to the Cancioneiro, although prominent Portuguese men of letters — as Sa de Miranda, Andre de Resende, Damiao de Goes — travelled in Italy and met there Cardinal Pietro Bembo , who had probably owned the Cancioneiros copies by an Italian hand of a Portuguese original acquired by Angelo Colocci ; yet at this very time Colocci was eagerly indexing and annotating the Cancioneiros in Rome, It is this Portuguese neglect and indifference to the things of Portugal which explains the survival of the cossantes only in Rome while the more solemn and less indigenous poems of the Cancioneiro da Ajuda remained in the land of their birth.
A fuller account of the Portuguese Cancioneiros, with the fascinating and complicated question of their descent and inter- relations, will be found in the Grundriss pp. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos' edition of the Cancioneiro da Ajuda vol. The first Provengal poet, Guilhaume, Comte de Poitou , precedes by nearly a century Sancho I , second King of Portugal, who wrote poems and married the Princess Dulce of Aragon ; and the Gascon Marcabrun, the first foreign poet to refer to Portugal, in his poems Al prim comens del ivernaill and Emperaire per mi ' Antonio de Vasconcellos, Anacephalaeoses, id est Svmmn Capita Actorum Regum Lusitaniae Antverpiae, 1 , p.
It was in Spain that the Portu- guese had opportunity of meeting Proven9al poets. The Penin- sula in the thirteenth century was, like Greece of old, divided into little States and Courts, each harbouring exiles and refugees from neighbouring States. Civil strife or the death of a king in Portugal would scatter abroad a certain number of noblemen on the losing side, who would thus come into contact with the troubadours as Provengal poetry spread to the Courts of Catalonia and Aragon, Navarre, Castille and Leon.
The first King of Portugal, although a prince of the House of Burgundy, held his kingdom in fief to Leon, and all the early kings were in close touch with Leon and Castille. Ferdinand , was a devoted lover of poetry, and his son Alfonso X gathered at his cort sen erguelh e sen vilania a galaxy of talented troubadours, Provengal and Galician. Portugal came into more direct touch with France in other ways, but the influence might have been almost exclusively that of the trouveres of the North had not the more generous enthusiasm of Provence penetrated across the frontier into Spain.
Trade was fairly active in the thirteenth century between Portugal and England, North France and Flanders. Many of the members of the religious orders — as the Cluny Benedictines — who occupied the territory of the Moors in Portugal were Frenchmen. With foreign colonists the new towns were systematically peopled.
The number of French pilgrims was such that the road to Santiago became known as the ' French Road '. The Crusades also brought men of many languages to Portugal. Yet it was they who imposed their, the Galician, language. As the Marques de Santillana observed and the Cancioneiros prove, lyric poets throughout the Peninsula used Galician. The tide of Moorish victory only gradually ebbed southward, and the warriors in the sterner country of Castille, with its fiery sun and battles and epics, would look back to the green country of Galicia as the idyllic land of song, a refuge where sons of kings and nobles could spend their minority in comparative peace.
When from the ninth century Galicia became a second Holy Land its attractions and central character were immeasurably increased. Pilgrims thither from every country would return to their native land with some words of the language, and those acquainted with Provengal might note the similarity and the musical softness of Galician. The important passages of Santillana's letter have been so often quoted that the reader may be referred to them, e.
His songs of miracles offer a striking contrast to contemporary Portuguese lyrics in the same language. Their jingles are only possible as a descort in the Portuguese Cancioneiros. At the same time he would be influenced in his choice of language by his knowledge of Galicia as the traditional home of the lyric, of the encouraging patronage extended to Galician poets by his son-in-law Afonso HI, of the Santiago school of poets, and of the promising future before the Galician language in the hands of the conquering Portuguese.
Multas et perpulchras composuit cantilenas, says Gil de Zamora, and likens him to David. But when we remember the prodigious services rendered by Alfonso X to Castilian prose, the first question that arises is whether he was indeed the author of the fioems in Galician - that we possess under his name. Of these poems , or, cancelling repetitions, , are of a religious character, written, with one or two exceptions, in honour of the Virgin : Cantigas de Santa Maria.
Many of these poems themselves provide an answer to the question : they record his illnesses and enterprises and his trobar in such a way that they could only have been written by himself : he is the entendedor of Santa Maria C. When he lay sick at Vitoria and was like to die it was only when the Livro das Cantigas was placed on his body that he recovered C. There is little reason to doubt that he was the author, in a strictly limited sense, of the majority of the poems, although not of all.
As proof that he wrote poems in Castilian we have a single cantiga of eight lines C. The inference seems to be that, the personal poems and the loas apart, if a miracle especially attracted the king he took it in hand ; otherwise he might leave it to one of the joglares, and he would perhaps revise it and be its author to the extent that the Portuguese jograes were authors of the early cossantes. We know that he had at his Court a veritable factory of verse. Poets thronged to his Court and he was in communication with others in foreign lands. Some of the miracles might come to him in verse, the work of a friendly poet or of a sacred jogral such as Pierres de Siglar, whom C.
Of raw material for his art there was never a scarcity, nor was the idea of turning it into verse original. But there was no need for direct imitation. Argote de Molina, Nobleza de Andalvzia Seuilla, , f. Churches and rival shrines preserved an unfailing store for collectors. Gautier de Coincy spoke of tant miracles, a grant livre of them, and King Alfonso chooses one from among in a book C. Mariae de Rupe Amatoris provided the king with many subjects, as did also Vincent de Beauvais' Speculum Historiale, of which he possessed a copy.
But the sources in the Peninsula were very copious, as, for instance, the Book of the Miracles of Santiago, of which a copy, in Latin, exists in the Paris Biblio- theque Nationalc. Of other miracles the king had had personal experience, or they were recent and came to him by word of mouth. Thus he often does not profess to invent his subject : he merely translates it into verse and sometimes appraises it as he does so.
It is ' a marvellous great miracle' C. Many of these miracles occurred to the peasants and unlettered : then as now the humbler the subject the greater the miracle. Accordingly we find the king in his poems dealing not with the conventional shepherdesses of the pastorelas but with lowly folk of real life, peasants, gleaners, sailors, fishermen, beggars, pilgrims, nuns ; and it is one of the king's titles to be considered a true poet that he takes an evident pleasure in these themes and retains their graphic, artless presentment. The collection abounds in charming glimpses of the life of the people.
He seems to have followed the originals very closely, and evident traces 1 Their popular origin is borne out by the music. See H. Collet et L. Villalba, Contribution a I'itude dcs Cantigas The poems are often of considerable length, some- times twenty or thirty verses, and as a rule the last line of each verse must rhyme with the refrain. The attention thus neces- sarily bestowed upon the rhymes sometimes mars the pathos of the subject, and the reader is reminded that he has to do with a skilful, eager, and industrious craftsman but not with a great original poet.
In the remarkable Ben vennas Mayo and in many of his other poems materialism and poetical ecstasy go hand in hand. Yet in several of the more beautiful legends the poet proves himself equal to his theme. Some of these legends are still famous, that of the Virgin taking the place of the nun C. The trick of one of them was to declare that, being captive in Turkey, encommendando-me miiito d Senhora. Jeronymo de Mendo9a, Jornada de Africa, ed. Domingos, i. And indeed some of the old spirit peeps out from the Caniigas de Santa Maria, as when he prays to be delivered from false friends or praises the Virgin for giving his enemies ' what they deserved '.
The long sojourn of the prince in France, accompanied by several noblemen who figure in the Cancioneiros as Rui Gomez de Briteiros and D. Joan de Aboim , had an important bearing on the development of Portuguese poetry. He came back determined to act the part of an enlightened patron of letters ; he encouraged the immigration of men of learning from France and maintained three jograes permanently in his palace.
In general, i. The decasyllabic love song in three or four stanzas with an envoi, the satirical sirventes, the tenson jocs-partits in which two poets contended in dialogue, the descort in which the discordant sounds expressed the poet's distress and grief, the halada of Provence, the balletic and pastourelle of North France, were all faithfully reproduced. If, on the other hand, we look for imitations in detail it is perhaps natural that we should find them less frequently. See also C.
The word probably has no connexion with scguir to follow. Possibly it was used originally to differentiate singers of profane songs, caniigas profanas e seculares. Frei Joao Alvarez in his Cronica do Infanle Sanlo has ' obras ecclesiasticas e segraaes ' ; King Duarte counted among os pecados da boca ' cantar cantigas sagraaes ', The Cancioneiros show that the segrel was far less common than the jogral in the thirteenth century. When Airas Nunez in a poem of striking beauty, which is almost a sonnet C. And generally it is not easy to say whether an apparent echo is a direct imitation or merely a stereotyped phrase.
The Portu- guese trobadores introduced little of the true spirit of the Provengal troubadours — that had passed to Palestine and to the Lady of Tripoli. In their cantigas de amor is no sign of action — unless it be to die of love ; no thought of Nature. Jaufre Rudel , that prince of lovers, had ' gone to school to the meadows ' and might sing in his maint bons vers of la flor aiglentina or of flors d'albespis, but in the Portuguese cantigas nothing relieves the conventional dullness and excessive monotony which likewise marked the Provengal school of poets in Sicily. Composed for the most part in iambic deca- syllabics they describe continually the poet's coita d'amor, grave d'endurar, his grief at parting, his loss of sleep, his pleasure in dying for his fremosa sennor.
She is described merely as beautiful, or, at most, as Tan mansa e tan fremosa e de bon sen C. Fremosa e mansa e d'outro ben comprida C. Vocabulary and thought are spectre-thin. Indeed, it was part of the convention to sing vaguely. King Dinis, perhaps in reference to that troubadour, declares that his love is independent of the seasons and more sincere than that of the singers of Provence : - Proengaes soen mui ben trobar E dizen eles que e con amor, Mais OS que troban no tempo da frol E non en outro sei eu ben que non An tan gran coita.
The exceeding similarity of the cantigas de amor did raise doubts as to the sincerity of all this dying of love cf. Yet the poets evidently had talent and poetic feeling ; indeed, their skill in versification contrasts remarkably with their entire absence of thought or individuality. They appear to revel in monotony of ideas and pride themselves on the icy smoothness of their verse.
All their originality consisted in the introduction of technical devices, such as the repetition at intervals of certain words [dohre], or of different tenses of. Joan Soarez de Paiva died in Galicia. The latter wrote in the first years of the thirteenth century C. They are the only two Galician-Portuguese poets — besides King Dinis — mentioned in Santillana's letter.
Much of the information of this Poetica printed in C. The poet who addressed cantigas de amor to his lady also provided her with poems for her to sing, cantigas de amigo in complicated form, or as the simpler cossante, which the cantigas de amigo include. These are poems with more life and action, often in dialogue. Perhaps the dona herself, wearied by the monotonous cantigas de amor, had pointed to the songs of the peasant women, and the form of these cantigas de amigo was a compromise between the Provengal cantiga de meestria and the popular cantiga de refran.
The peasant woman composed her own songs, and the poet places his song on the lips of his love : thus we find her describing herself as beautiful, eu velida ; eufremosa ; trisV e fremosa ; fremosa e de mui bon prez ; men hon semelhar.
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Poetical shepherdesses sing these cantigas de amigo ; the fair dona sings them as she sits spinning C. The old Poetica Both were artificial forms, but the latter are clearly more popular in theme the amiga waiting and wailing for her lover , and in treatment sometimes convey a real intensity of feeling. The daughter is kept in the house : a manda muito guardar C. She reproaches and entreats her mother, who answers her as choir to choir ; she bewails her lot to her friends, or to her sister. She is dying of love and begs her mother to tell her lover.
Her mother and lover are reconciled. Her lover is false and fails to meet her at the trysted hour. She waits for him in vain, and her mother comforts her in her festive laughter poems : de risadelha or refestela? San- tillana's mansobre is, it seems, a misprint for ntordobre. Sin dobre, mansobre, sensilla o menor. Sin encadenado, dexar o prender. She pines and dies of love while her amigo is away serving the king in battle or en cas' del rei. The third section of the Cancioneiro da Vaticana does not sin by monotony. We may divide Pope's line, since if the cantigas de amor are ' correctly cold ' many of the satiric poems are ' regularly low '.
In these verses, containing violent invec- tive and abuse [cantigas de maldizer or more covert sarcasm and ridicule [cantigas d'escarnho , the themes are often scandalous, the language ribald and unseemly. They were written with great zest, although without the fiery indignation of the Proven- gal and Catalan sirventeses. They are concerned with persons : the haughty trobador may take a jogral to task for writing verses that do not rhyme or scan, but even then it is a personal matter and he rebukes his insolence for daring to raise his thoughts to ' altas donas in song.
Some of these poems should never have been written or printed, but many of them give a lively idea of the society of that time. We read of the excellent capon, kid, and pork provided by the king for dinner ; of the fair malniaridada, married or rather sold by her parents ; of the impoverished lady, one of those for whom later Nun' Alvarez provided ; of the poet pining in exile not of love but hunger ; of the lame lawyer, the unjust ' g'cot C.
Carolina Michaelis de Vascon- cellos proposes quifa cf. These cantigas d'escarnho e de maldizer were a powerful instrument of satire from which there was no escape. A hapless infanQon, slovenly in his ways, drew down upon himself the wit of D. Lopo Diaz, who in a series of eleven songs C. But the implacable D. But the majority of these verses are not so innocently merry. Many of the poets of the Cancioneiros wrote in all three kinds : cantigas de amor, de amigo, and de maldizer. There is life and poetical feeling as well as facility of technique in his poems.
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Pero Garcia de Burgos fl. He shows himself capable of deep feeling in his love songs, but speaks with two voices, descending to sad depths in his poems of invective. His contemporary, the segrel Pero da Ponte, is also an accomplished poet of love, in the even flow of his verse far more accomplished than Pero Garcia, and in his satirical poems wittier and, as a rule, more moderate.
He placed his poetical gift at the service of kings to sing their praises for hire, and celebrated San Fernando's conquest of Seville in ; Seville, of which, he says, ' none can adequately tell the praises '. To satire almost exclusively the powerful courtier of King Dinis' reign, Stevam Guarda, devoted his not inconsiderable talent, and the segrel Pedr' Amigo de Sevilha fi. Joan Garcia de Guilhade.
See C. D 2 52 numerous cantigas de amigo. Martin Soarez first half 13th c , born at Riba dc Lima, and considered the best trohador of his time by those who could not appreciate the charm of the indigenous poetry , wrote no cossante nor canliga de amigo, and in his satirical poems displayed a contemptuous insolence — towards those whom he regarded as his inferiors in lineage or talent — which places him in no attractive light.
But if his poems lack the variety of those of King Dinis, which they almost rival in number, they are nevertheless marked not only by harmony but by many a touch of real life. Of most of the other singers we have far fewer poems. There is an engaging grace and spirit in the cantigas de amigo written in dancing rhythm by Fernan Rodriguez de Calheiros fi. Joan Lopez de Ulhoa, their contemporary. Neither of these, however, possessed the poetical genius and versatility of the priest of Santiago, Airas Nunez second half ' A large number of cantigas by the same hand would emphasize the monotony of the kind and provide an unwelcome mirror for contemporary bards.
Of Roy Queimado fl. Another of his poems C. Great importance has been attached to another C. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos has shown that it was written to commemorate a contemporary event, probably in The Cancioneiros contain poems by high and low, prince and, one would fain say, peasant, noble trohador and hnmhXe jogral, soldiers and civilians, priests and laymen, singers of Galicia, Portugal, and Spain, but more especially of Galicia and North Portugal.
As in the case of C. Afonso Lopez de Bayan [c. He also describes La entrada del Rey as one of many artistic representations of the excitement surrounding this historical event. Taken all together, the corpus of Cordeiro studies consists of a number of short, offhand evaluations, one paragraph-length account of his life, one modern edition of a comedia, a handful of essays peripherally interested in his work, and another handful dedicated exclusively to him.
Even if we draw from all of these sources, the surviving particulars of Cordeiro s life do not make up a real biography. At best, they give us a synopsis of his professional endeavors. Leaning heavily on Barbosa Machado, here is what we can say with a degree of certainty about Jacinto Cordeiro: He was born in Lisbon, possibly in He garnered fame as an accomplished poet, especially in the realm of dramatic verse.
He excelled in the authoring of comedias, having his plays staged in Castile to great applause. The publication of suelta editions of these comedias in Lisbon indicates that his work was also staged in his native city. The rank tells us that he was charged with carrying the Lisboan Company s flag at the center of their formation during war. He used this title in the majority of the plays published during his lifetime, which allowed him to appeal to the patriotism of his countrymen. Cordeiro died in Lisbon on the 28 th of February in , only six years after the restoration of the Lusitanian Monarchy.
He was, according to Barbosa Machado, only forty years old. He was laid to rest in his native city s parish, Santa Maria Magdalena, but this distinguished burial did not protect his remains from the ravages of time: Magdalena was destroyed by the quake and subsequently rebuilt in Traces of a life otherwise buried by time surface in the dedications to La entrada del Rey en Portugal and Silva a el Rey Nosso Senhor. Cordeiro most likely lived in Goa, the administrative capital of his country s ventures into Africa and Asia.
During his lifetime, this city was in the midst of its own Golden Age. It became a center of both religion and education Wheeler It is possible that Cordeiro penned La entrada del Rey en Portugal as either a young student or soldier stationed at the distant outpost. Magestade seja servido despacharme. Dedicatoria From these two quotes we can gather that: 1 Cordeiro s experiences extended beyond Portugal s borders, and 2 his literary alliances to Spanish theatre did not preclude his political allegiance to Lusitanian sovereignty.
Critics have called into question some of the information presented by Barbosa Machado. This fact, coupled with the observation that the comedia in question is evidently a refash- 28 The use of the singular na India in the above quote leads me to believe that Cordeiro is referring to India proper and not in a broader sense to the many Portuguese footholds in Asia.
Depretis concurs, calling the birth date poco convincente Regrettably, no documental evidence has surfaced to either confirm or disprove this supposition. In the absence of such, we can only speculate about the veracity of Barbosa Machado s dating. Still, I join Martins in doubting the birth date. I concede that a teenager could have written a comedia. Lope de Vega reportedly wrote his first play when he was twelve. Nevertheless, in the prologue cited above, Cordeiro promises to finish some plays about heroes valerosos Prologo ao leytor that he had already started.
Are we to believe that a fifteen-year-old poet had already built up a repertoire of at least three comedias, the first of which commemorates an event that occurred two years earlier, when he was only thirteen? It is possible, but not probable. This period would have been the height of Cordeiro s career. Should we believe that it occurred during his teens and early twenties? Once again, it is possible, but not likely. It is more probable that Barbosa Machado erred.
A closer look at his entry reveals another mistake: he attributes El valiente negro en Flandes to Cordeiro. While most of Cordeiro s life remains a mystery, his literary endeavors are well documented. Extant texts housed in the Austrian, British, French, Portuguese and Spanish National Libraries bear witness to a brief but active career. During this fourteen year period, Cordeiro reportedly also wrote a number of plays which no longer appear to be extant. In addition to his popularity in Madrid, Cordeiro garnered notoriety in Portugal.
Although the Portuguese nobility readily accepted Spanish control at first, continuous economic decline and attempts at centralization by the Count-Duke of Olivares made Habsburg rule fall out of favor with Lusitanian elites. We 30 Rennert includes in a list of plays performed for the Queen in a title followed by a question mark: Trances de amor? With this in mind, it seems possible to me that Trances de amor was indeed El mayor trance de honor.
However, extant texts do prove that it was a period of heightened poetic activity for him. With these pieces, Cordeiro abandoned Spanish and shifted to writing exclusively in Portuguese. Cordeiro s comedias, particularly El juramento ante Dios, became more popular in the century after his death than during his own lifetime.
This last play was republished in , , , , , , , , , , and And at least ten more undated editions survive. Eight of these were also produced during the eighteenth century. In contrast, the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries were unkind to Cordeiro. His work fell out of the critical consciousness, save for the miscellaneous and mostly unflattering allusions cited above.
In the past, 32 I attributed this neglect to five factors: 1 that his plays are largely unavailable to the public, 2 that he wrote mainly in Spanish instead of Portuguese, 3 that he penned a relatively small number of plays, 4 that he had spent his 31 See the section on Textual Transmission in my dissertation for details. Subsequently, newly surfaced evidence has changed my opinion on several of these factors. Still, below I describe them all and explain how the new information has impacted what we know about Cordeiro.
The first factor, the unavailability of his work, is self-explanatory, but the second his language choice requires some discussion: like most of his Lisboan contemporaries, Cordeiro wrote principally in Castilian instead of his native language. Consequently, both Spanish and Portuguese critics have largely ignored him. Since his plays seem to reside on the border between their respective fields of study, Cordeiro has been considered not Spanish enough for one and not Portuguese enough for the other.
Most of his bilingual and bicultural contemporaries have suffered the same unhappy fate. In fact, histories of Portuguese theater are generally sparse in their accounts of the seventeenth century. Spanish histories are even less favorable, by and large ignoring Portuguese comedia authors altogether.
Scant literary production is the third factor that may have mitigated interest in Cordeiro. This output is moderate in comparison with that of the era s major dramatists. That notwithstanding, his corpus measures up well to that of the seventeenth-century s secondary playwrights. A comparison to the authors described in Williamsen s Minor Dramatists of Seventeenth-Century Spain will illustrate this point.
Still, even the least active of these minor dramatists has received more critical attention than Cordeiro. This leads me to believe that his small corpus cannot completely explain his omission from the canon of minor dramatists. Additionally, Cordeiro s output is not minor at all when compared to that of his countrymen.
Competing with Spanish dramatists was a discouraging task, one that most Portuguese comedia authors abandoned after only one or two attempts. Only a handful of these playwrights produced as much as Cordeiro. In my dissertation, I gave geographical disadvantage as the fourth factor in my list of five. My reasoning went like this: although his work was staged and well received in both Lisbon and Madrid, Cordeiro never ventured outside of Lusitanian territory.
But unlike Cordeiro, Matos moved to Madrid, where he penned more than forty plays on his own, and collaborated with many Spanish playwrights. Consequently, Matos garners mention in critical narratives from which Cordeiro continues to be absent. I concluded that, in Lisbon, Cordeiro enjoyed the most famous comedias through the efforts of traveling acting troupes frequenting the newly established corrales that spread across Portugal during the Dual Monarchy. Still, he did not partake in the literary mentorships, alliances, and rivalries that would bring him into the scope of the comedia historian, or so I thought.
Since only a few paragraphs penned long after Cordeiro s death constitute all we know about his life, we are forced to draw conclusions about him based on this brief biography and on the clues that he left in the dedications to his poems and plays. None of these mention Cordeiro living in Madrid. So I assumed that he had never spent time there, and deduced the above argument accordingly.
Later, the discovery of an obscure source from the turn of the twentieth century challenged that assumption. Entre os portuguezes que assistiam na villa coronada no primeiro quartel do seculo XVII contava-se Affonso Ribeiro Pegado, que parece ter ido ali no sequito do conde de Feyra, de quem era secretario como elle se declara na poesia dedicada a Herrera Maldonado. Os restantes compatriotas eram: dr. Unfortunately, my inspection of Carvalho s El pastor de Clenarda has not confirmed that Cordeiro lived in Madrid in the s.
At the very least, he was not one of the various Portuguese poets to dedicate preliminary verses to Carvalho s pastoral novel, as the above quote implies. Nevertheless, I believe that supporting evidence can be found elsewhere: namely, in Rennert and in the manuscript of Cordeiro s El favor en la sentencia, recently made. He did travel to Lisbon on several occasions, but Rennert tells us that Romero took his troupe there only from to and from to , long after Cordeiro wrote El favor en la sentencia.
It seems very likely, then, that Cordeiro befriended and collaborated with Romero during his time in Madrid, which lasted throughout the s and ended in the early s when his first partes edition was published in Lisbon. In retrospect, Barbosa Machado seems to allude to Cordeiro s stay in Madrid when he stated that his plays were reprezentadas em Castella com grande aplauzo dos expectadores I assumed that these comedias were first put on in Lisbon and later travelled to Madrid on the backs of the seasonal acting troupes.
This notion seemed to bolster Cordeiro s achievements: he was, I thought, a local Lisboan playwright competing in a second language with Spain s most celebrated authors for space in Portugal s patios. Not only did he find success at home, his work traveled against the current of in-pouring comedias and made their way to Madrid, Seville, and Valencia. It seemed that culture during the Dual Monarchy did not only flow from Madrid to Lisbon, and Cordeiro s career was a provocative counter-argument to Spanish literary hegemony.
But the picture offered by the discovery that Cordeiro s most productive decade and a half was spent in Madrid is quite different. It seems that he garnered moderate success in Madrid, even having a handful of plays staged for the royal family. Upon his return to Lisbon, Cordeiro s accomplishments abroad were magnified through the lens of national pride.
His story implies that for a young Lusitanian dramatist to find success in Lisbon, he would have to travel to Castile, and for him to receive the applause of Portuguese theater-goers, he would have to write in Spanish. The final reason for Cordeiro s marginalization has to do with the nature of literary histories.
Translation of «estígio» into 25 languages
Nineteenth-century Romanticism s desire to trace the trajectory and literatures of nations influenced early narratives about the development of the comedia. This nationalist perspective characterized the literary histories produced both in Spain and across Europe for a century These histories include: the second volume to Friedrich Bouterweck s Geschichte der Neueren Poesie und Beredsamkait, published in Germany in ; the third and fourth volumes of J. As Ticknor explains: The most prominent, if not the most important, characteristic of the Spanish drama, at the period of its widest success, was its nationality.
In all its various forms, including the religious plays, and in all its manifold subsidiary attractions, down to the recitation of old ballads and the exhibition of popular dances, it addressed itself more to the whole people of the country which produced it than any other theater of modern times.
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