Moreover, a lot of so-called information leads to a behaviour as its final result. The sign 'falling rock' is meant not just to convey information, but most of all to elicit a certain attitude in the driver" trans. The second interaction Klinkenberg mentions, as we will show, involves the opposition actual vs. The perfect addresser-message equivalence would have to be the spontaneous cry of pain.
Even though the cry may be "addressed" to a receiver, it is associated almost consubstantially with the addresser, thereby leaving the conative function empty, so to speak. Conversely, an educational message is intended for the addressee, and generally entails an attenuation of the emotive function when the emotive and conative functions are incompatible, at any rate. Jakobson appears to recognize the relation between the poetic and the referential functions, since he places them in a sort of battle for supremacy , pp.
The double-sensed message finds correspondence in a split addresser, in a split addressee, and besides in a split reference, as it is cogently exposed in the preambles to fairy tales of various peoples, for instance, in the usual exordium of the Majorca storytellers: 'Axio era y no era' 'It was and it was not'. We will call this relation an inverse correlation. The more the message "talks" about itself and refers to itself the poetic function , the less it talks about the context and refers to it the referential function and vice versa.
The functions and the factors do not necessarily all operate on the same analytical level. The poetic function in particular can operate at least partially on a second level, as the beneficiary of certain transformations in the functional balance, especially if they are marked Klinkenberg, , p. In this case, the poetic function is linked to the other functions by a non-symmetrical relation. We will call it the ascending correlation: The poetic function is intensified as a result of a significant and selective strengthening or weakening of any other language function, but the reverse is not necessarily true e.
It is hard to imagine that a marked emphasis or attenuation in one function would not draw attention to the message itself, at least in some cases. This is what happens when the phatic function breaks down in Ionesco's The Bald Soprano, developing into parallel monologues as opposed to real dialogues. This contributes to the poetic effect of the play. It remains to be seen whether all variations in the poetic function necessarily result from a change, either qualitative or quantitative, in one or more other functions.
Moreover, the poetic function is not necessarily the only one affected in cause-and-effect relations with one or more other functions. Let us incorporate Klinkenberg's suggestion to extend the range of the emotive function , p. It actually has nothing to do with emotion. Any message, including the most neutral, reveals the condition of its sender.
Rather than using the term "expressive function", we could approach this function in terms of symptoms and indices. As Rastier points out,. Relative to each of these three poles, the sign pertains to a different semiotic type: it is a symptom [an index ] in relation to the sender, a signal in relation to the receiver, and a symbol in relation to the referent" Rastier, , pp. Any semiotic act, then, is indexical in relation to its producer the expressive function and a means of signalling to its receiver the conative function.
We could add that it is also an index of the state of the other factors and of the mental image that the message's producer makes, rightly or wrongly, consciously or unconsciously. For example, a written message containing the word "loose" instead of "lose" as in "Did you loose your keys again? Jakobson remarks that the context is what is known as the " 'referent' in another, somewhat ambiguous, nomenclature" , p.
Amazingly, this does not stop him from using the term "referential" for the function whose target factor is the context. Moreover, the term "context" is no less ambiguous, both in general and in this particular case. Jakobson says that the context is "either verbal or capable of being verbalized".
As for the referential function, Jakobson gives the synonyms "denotative" and "cognitive" , p. We believe that there are two main ways of interpreting this function in the work of Jakobson and those who use his model. The referential function relates to the thing "spoken of" Jakobson, , p.
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The second way of viewing the referential function seems more useful and operative than the first. The referential function is associated with an element whose truth value true or false status is being affirmed or questioned , particularly when this truth value is identical in the real universe and in the assumptive or reference universe that is taking it on.
This calls for some explanation for more details, see the chapter on dialogics. A universe of assumption such as the universe of a character in a literary work may be reinforced or contradicted by the universe of reference as defined by the omniscient narrator, for example , which stipulates what is ultimately true or false or undecidable in the more or less "realistic" universe constructed by the semiotic act. So the statement "the sun rises in the East" — which is true in reality and in a realistic text — would be more of a referential assertion than "the sun rises in the West", which would be perceived as somewhat poetic, in that the incongruity draws attention to the message even if the utterance is true in the universe of reference, say, of a science-fiction novel.
Jakobson says that unlike declarative sentences, imperatives linked to the conative function cannot be tested for their truth value. The imperative "Drink! Firstly, we propose making the metalingual function into a more general "metacode" or "metasystem" function. This will allow us to apply it to non-linguistic "messages". Secondly, we propose recognizing any normed and norming system as a code, and not restricting ourselves to the language code where text is concerned.
Rastier takes the view that a text is the result of three systems interacting , pp. In this case, utterances like "A Sonnet has 14 lines" which deals with a genre, or sociolectal phenomenon and "Baudelaire liked antitheses" which deals with an individual's style, or idiolectal phenomenon are as much about a code as "How do you spell 'surreptitiously'? The examples given above use a thematized metacode function, embedded in the signified, or content. However, we should expect that non-thematized metacode functions may also exist.
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- Gilles Deleuze;
- Ludwig Wittgenstein.
When the code norm is transgressed, attention is directed indexically, but clearly, to the code, as in: "The wind, he blow. Generally speaking, the advertising message has to accomplish the following, in three successive stages: 1 attract attention the phatic function , 2 convince the conative function , by appealing to reason the referential function or emotion the emotive function , and 3 get people to act the conative and referential functions.
The third objective is clearly the most important, and the others are subordinate. Two actions — drinking and driving — are combined into sequences: this is an attack, not on drinking-and-driving, but on the act of drinking-then-driving, which is more commonplace. Three possible sequences the referential function are open to the addressee the conative function : 1 not drinking, then driving, 2 drinking, then not driving, 3 drinking, then driving.
While neither action is good or bad in itself with a possible nuance for excessive consumption of alcohol , all of their possible sequencings are given a moral value: the first two scenarios fall under good behaviour, and the third comes under bad behaviour. The advertising message clearly takes aim at the third scenario.
It does this by showing the possible dire consequences — the addressee's death — in a very striking way the emotive and poetic functions. This is not the death of some other person, be they a stranger or a loved one these two scenarios, which appeal to the drunk driver's sense of guilt, appear in other messages by the same organization ; this is the worst possible death: yours the conative function. In other words, this is not a referential third-person death, but a conative second-person death.
This death is the concrete pragmatic, in Greimas' terms punishment for — or at least the consequence of — not toeing the mark, not keeping the contract contained in this ad. Likewise, the symbolic cognitive, in Greimas' terms punishment is being called an "idiot". This death is presented as being highly avoidable, since it is reserved for the " bloody idiots " with whom no addressee with any glimmer of intelligence would want to associate.
The word " bloody " indicates the level of idiocy within the class of idiots, and at the same time it demonstrates the intensity of the addresser's emotion the emotive function ; note that there is no exclamation point, which would have emphasized the expressive function. Perhaps the addresser is highly concerned about what could happen to us the conative function , or perhaps his utterance merely expresses a coldly objective truth the referential function along with an unsympathetic "too-bad-for-you" attitude.
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In addition to the standard meaning, indicating intensity the expressive function , possible concern the expressive function and familiarity the conative function , " bloody " happens to be a polysemic word, and thereby draws attention to itself the poetic function. It alludes to blood — the blood we will shed, but also the blood that shows our blood alcohol level. Speakers of English no longer make the connection to blood when they say "bloody", just as speakers of French in France no longer make the connection to a hooker when they use " putain " as an interjection.
By re-actualizing the original content, the slogan de-automates the use of this word, drawing our attention to an otherwise innocuous, transparent word. Moreover, "bloody" is a term used in the names of drinks like "bloody Mary" and "bloody Caesar". Our people will have a year dedicated to the problems that afflict them and, in this respect, are now getting ready to carry out different activities with the purpose of presenting proposals and putting pressure on action plans. All this will be conducted in the most reasonable way and with the most convincing and justified arguments for the elimination of racism, oppression, discrimination and the exploitation of those who have been dragged into poverty and oblivion.
I wish that a conscious sense of peace and a feeling of human solidarity would develop in all peoples, which would open new relationships of respect and equality for the next millennium, to be ruled by fraternity and not by cruel conflicts. Opinion is being formed everywhere today, that in spite of wars and violence, calls upon the entire human race to protect its historical values and to form unity in diversity. And this calls upon us all to reflect upon the incorporation of important elements of change and transformation in all aspects of life on earth, in the search for specific and definite solutions to the deep ethical crisis that afflicts Humanity.
This will, no doubt have decisive influence on the structure of the future. There is a possibility that some centers of political and economic power, some statesmen and intellectuals, have not yet managed to see the advantages of the active participation of the indigenous peoples in a l l the fields of human activity. The attention that this Nobel Peace Prize has focused on Guatemala, should imply that the violation of the human rights is no longer ignored internationally.
It will also honor all those who died in the struggle for social equality and justice in my country. It is known throughout the world that the Guatemalan people, as a result of their struggle, succeeded in achieving, in October , a period of democracy where institutionality and human rights were the main philosophies.
At that time, Guatemala was an exception in the American Continent, because of its struggle for complete national sovereignty. However, in , a conspiracy that associated the traditional national power centers, inheritors of colonialism, with powerful foreign interests, overthrew the democratic regime as a result of an armed invasion, thereby re-imposing the old system of oppression which has characterized the history of my country. The economic, social and political subjection that derived from the Cold War, was what initiated the internal armed conflict.
The repression against the organizations of the people, the democratic parties and the intellectuals, started in Guatemala long before the war started. Let us not forget that. In the attempt to crush rebellion, dictatorships have committed the greatest atrocities.
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They have leveled villages, and murdered thousands of peasants particularly Indians, hundreds of trade union workers and students, outstanding intellectuals and politicians, priests and nuns. Through this systematic persecution in the name of the safety of the nation, one million peasants were removed by force from their lands; , had to seek refuge in the neighboring countries. In Guatemala, there are today almost , orphans and more than 40, widows. The country collapsed into a crisis never seen before and the changes in the world forced and encouraged the military forces to permit a political opening that consisted in the preparation of a new Constitution, in an expansion of the political field, and in the transfer of the government to civil sectors.
We have had this new regime for eight years and in certain fields there have been some openings of importance. Impunity and terror continue to prevent people from freely expressing their needs and vital demands. The internal armed conflict still exists. The political life in my country has lately centered around the search for a political solution to the global crisis and the armed conflict that has existed in Guatemala since As a result of this Agreement and conversations between the URNG and different sectors of Guatemalan society, direct negotiations were initiated under the government of President Serrano, between the government and the guerrillas, as a result of which three agreements have already been signed.
However, the subject of Human Rights has taken a long time, because this subject constitutes the core of the Guatemalan problems, and around this core important differences have arisen. Nevertheless, there has been considerable progress. The process of negotiations aims at reaching agreements in order to establish the basis for a real democracy in Guatemala and for an end to the war.
As far as I understand, with the goodwill of the parties concerned and the active participation of the civil sectors, adapting to a great national unity, the phase of purposes and intentions could be left behind so that Guatemala could be pulled out of the crossroads that seem to have become eternal.
Dialogues and political negotiations are, no doubt, adequate means to solve these problems, in order to respond in a specific way to the vital and urgent needs for life and for the implementation of democracy for the Guatemalan people. However, I am convinced that if the diverse social sectors which integrate Guatemalan society find bases of unity, respecting their natural differences, they would together find a solution to those problems and therefore resolve the causes which initiated the war which prevails in Guatemala. Other civil sectors as well as the international community must demand that the negotiations between the Government and the URNG surpass the period in which they are finding themselves in discussing Human Rights and move ahead as soon as possible to a verifiable agreement with the United Nations.
It is necessary to point out, here in Oslo, that the issue of Human Rights in Guatemala constitutes, at present, the most urgent problem that has to be solved. My statement is neither incidental nor unjustified. As has been ascertained by international institutions, such as The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, The Interamerican Commission of Human Rights and many other humanitarian organizations, Guatemala is one of the countries in America with the largest number of violations of these rights, and the largest number of cases of impunity where security forces are generally involved.
It is imperative that the repression and persecution of the people and the Indians be stopped. The compulsory mobilization and integration of young people into the Patrols of Civil Self Defense, which principally affects the Indian people, must also be stopped. Democracy in Guatemala must be built-up as soon as possible. It is necessary that Human Rights agreements be fully complied with, i.
Among the most bitter dramas that a great percentage of the population has to endure, is the forced exodus. Which means, to be forced by military units and persecution to abandon their villages, their Mother Earth, where their ancestors rest, their environment, the nature that gave them life and the growth of their communities, all of which constituted a coherent system of social organization and functional democracy.
The case of the displaced and of refugees in Guatemala is heartbreaking; some of them are condemned to live in exile in other countries, but the great majority live in exile in their own country. They are forced to wander from place to place, to live in ravines and inhospitable places, some not recognized as Guatemalan citizens, but all of them are condemned to poverty and hunger.
There cannot be a true democracy as long as this problem is not satisfactorily solved and these people are reinstated on their lands and in their villages. In the new Guatemalan society, there must be a fundamental reorganization in the matter of land ownership, to allow for the development of the agricultural potential, as well as for the return of the land to the legitimate owners. This process of reorganization must be carried out with the greatest respect for nature, in order to protect her and return to her, her strength and capability to generate life.
No less characteristic of a democracy is social justice. This demands a solution to the frightening statistics on infant mortality, of malnutrition, lack of education, analphabetism, wages insufficient to sustain life. These problems have a growing and painful impact on the Guatemalan population and imply no prospects and no hope.
Among the features that characterize society today, is that of the role of women, although female emancipation has not, in fact, been fully achieved so far by any country in the world. The historical development in Guatemala reflects now the need and the irreversibility of the active contribution of women to the configuration of the new Guatemalan social order, of which, I humbly believe, the Indian women already are a clear testimony. This Nobel Peace Prize is a recognition to those who have been, and still are in most parts of the world, the most exploited of the exploited; the most discriminated of the discriminated, the most marginalized of the marginalized, but still those who produce life and riches.
Democracy, development and modernization of a country are impossible and incongruous without the solution of these problems. In Guatemala, it is just as important to recognize the Identity and the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples, that have been ignored and despised not only during the colonial period, but also during the Republic.
It is not possible to conceive a democratic Guatemala, free and independent, without the indigenous identity shaping its character into all aspects of national existence. It will undoubtedly be something new, a completely new experience, with features that, at the moment, we cannot describe. But it will authentically respond to history and the characteristics of the real Guatemalan nationality. The true profile that has been distorted for such a long time. This urgency of this vital need, are the issues that urge me, at this moment, from this rostrum, to urge national opinion and the international community, to show a more active interest in Guatemala.
Taking into consideration that in connection with my role as a Nobel Prize Winner, in the process of negotiations for peace in Guatemala many possibilities have been handled, but now I think that this role is more likely to be the role of a promotor of peace, of national unity, for the protection of the rights of the indigenous peoples. In such a way, that I may take initiatives in accordance with the needs, and thereby prevent the Peace Prize from becoming a piece of paper that has been pigeonholed.
Along these same lines, I invite the international community to contribute with specific actions so that the parties involved may overcome the differences that at this stage keep negotiations in a wait-and-see state, so that they will succeed, first of all, in signing an agreement on Human Rights. And then, to re-initiate the rounds of negotiation and identify those issues on which to compromise, to allow for the Peace Agreement to be signed and immediately ratified, because I have no doubt that this will bring about great relief in the prevailing situation in Guatemala.
My opinion is also that the UN should have a more direct participation, which would go further than playing the role of observer, and could help substantially to move the process ahead. Ladies and gentlemen, the fact that. I have given preference to the American Continent, and in particular to my country, does not mean that I do not have an important place in my mind and in my heart for the concern of other peoples of the world and their constant struggle in the defense of peace, of the right to a life and all its inalienable rights. The majority of us who are gathered here today, constitute an example of the above, and along these lines I would humbly extend to you my gratitude.
Many things have changed in these last years. There have been great changes of worldwide character. The East-West confrontation has ceased to exist and the Cold War has come to an end. These changes, the exact forms of which cannot yet be predicted, have left gaps that the people of the world have known how to make use of in order to come forward, struggle and win national terrain and international recognition.
Today, we must fight for a better world, without poverty, without racism, with peace in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia, to where I address a plea for the liberation of Mrs. Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize ; for a just and peaceful solution, in the Balkans; for the end of the apartheid in South Africa; for the stability in Nicaragua, that the Peace Agreement in El Salvador be observed; for the re-establishment of democracy in Haiti; for the complete sovereignty of Panama; because all of these constitute the highest aims for justice in the international situation.
A world at peace that could provide consistency, interrelations and concordance in respect of the economic, social and cultural structures of the societies would indeed have deep roots and a robust influence.
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We have in our mind the deepest felt demands of the entire human race, when we strive for peaceful co-existence and the preservation of the environment. The struggle we fight purifies and shapes the future. Our history is a living history, that has throbbed, withstood and survived many centuries of sacrifice. Now it comes forward again with strength. The seeds, dormant for such a long time, break out today with some uncertainty, although they germinate in a world that is at present characterized by confusion and uncertainty.
There is no doubt that this process will be long and complex, but it is no Utopia and we, the Indians, we have new confidence in its implementation. The peoples of Guatemala will mobilize and will be aware of their strength in building up a worthy future. They are preparing themselves to sow the future, to free themselves from atavisms, to rediscover their heritage.
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