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He wrote one of the first books Maud's was a San Francisco lesbian bar open from This collection contains material related to the creation of the documentary. Included are press packets, documentation of the Los Angeles premiere of the documentary at the Pacific Design The Jay T. Last Collection of Agriculture Prints and Ephemera contains roughly 2, items from approximately to , with the majority of material dating from to The collection consists mainly of advertising prints and ephemera related to Last Collection of Beverage Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 3, printed items advertising beverage products and related businesses in the United States from the s to the s, with the bulk of the items spanning from Last Collection of Education Prints and Ephemera contains over 1, printed items related to education in the United States from to approximately , with the bulk of the items dating from to Most of Last Collection of Entertainment: Balls and Carnivals Prints and Ephemera contains approximately printed items related to social and celebratory events primarily in the United States from the s to , with the majority of items dating Last Collection of Entertainment: Circus Prints and Ephemera contains more than printed items that relate to circuses in the United States from the s to the s.

The collection consists of advertising and promotional materials, business Last Collection of Entertainment: Performing Arts Prints and Ephemera contains more than 2, printed items primarily advertising theatrical and musical entertainment and related performers in the United States from to the s, with the majority of This collection contains approximately 1, printed 19th and early 20th century entertainment broadsides, playbills, and related advertisements, and forms a subset within the Jay T.

Last Entertainment Collection. These items date from to , with the bulk spanning between Last Collection of Fairs and Expositions Prints and Ephemera contains more than 1, printed items that relate to fairs, exhibitions, expositions, and other similar gatherings and events in the United States from to , with the The approximately 65 billheads and related documents from Last Collection of Fashion Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 7, items dating from the s to the s, with the bulk of the items spanning from to This collection consists of fashion plates, advertising prints, About items from approximately focus on merchandise and supplies Last Collection of Finance Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 1, printed items related to finance, banking, auctions, and other monetary products and services in the United States from to , with the bulk of the content Last Collection of Firefighting Prints and Ephemera contains more than printed items that relate to firefighting and the activities and organizations of firemen in the United States from approximately to The collection consists of Last Collection of Food, contains more than lithographed labels that relate to the California citrus industry in the United States from to , with the bulk of Last Collection of Food: Fruit and Vegetable Labels contains over 9, printed produce labels from the s to the s, with the majority of items dating from to The collection is comprised mainly of Last Collection of Food Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 4, printed items advertising food products and related businesses from the s to the s, with the bulk of the items dating from to The approximately pieces Last Collection of Horticulture Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 1, printed items from to , with the majority of material dating from to The collection consists of advertising prints and ephemera promoting businesses whose Last Collection of Household Prints and Ephemera contains over 7, printed items advertising household items, products, and related businesses in the United States from the s to the s, with the bulk of the items spanning Last Collection of Maritime Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 1, printed items that pertain to travel, shipping, and other maritime-related activities and businesses in the United States primarily dating from the second half of the 19th century Last Collection of Medicine Prints and Ephemera contains over 4, printed items related to medical, dental, and vision products and services in the United States from approximately to , with the bulk of the content dating Last Collection of Military Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 4, printed items from to , with the majority of material dating from to The collection consists of prints depicting primarily American battle scenes, forts, Last Collection of Personal Care Prints and Ephemera contains approximately printed items related to grooming and personal care in the United States from approximately to , with the bulk of the content dating from Last Collection of Politics and Social Issues Prints and Ephemera contains approximately printed items related to American political figures and activists of the 19th and early 20th centuries along with social causes and issues often linked Last Collection of Printing and Publishing, contains over 3, items dating from to , with the bulk of the items spanning from to This archive chronicles the Last Collection of Religion Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 60 printed items related to beliefs and practices usually involving devotional and ritual observances concerning God, creation of the universe, spirituality, and the moral conduct of human affairs Last Collection of Science Prints and Ephemera contains approximately 40 printed items related to science and natural history in the United States from to approximately , with the bulk of the content dating from to The N.

Hill Brass Company business correspondence, a subset within the Jay T. Last Collection of Transportation, contains records of the N. Hill Brass Company, a bell manufacturing company in East Hampton, Connecticut, that date from the early s Last Collection of Transportation Prints and Ephemera contains more than printed items that relate to land-based modes of transportation primarily in the United States from the s to the early s.

The bulk of the collection The railroad passes in the Jay T. Last Collection of Transportation consist of over 3, railroad passes issued primarily by American railroad companies to individuals in the 19th and 20th centuries, with the bulk of the collection dating from The railroad stock and bond certificates in the Jay T. Last Collection of Transportation consist of more than 1, railroad stock and bond certificates primarily issued by American railroad companies to individuals in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Last Collection of Views Prints and Ephemera consists of approximately mostly lithographic items depicting physical locales, primarily in the United States. These images date from approximately to approximately and include town and city views; Club was founded on Feb. The membership consisted of 32 prominent Contra Costa Republican business and civic leaders who were veterans of World War 1.

A few years later they bought a bottle of champagne Contains correspondence, newsletters, directories, photographs, compact discs, and related materials of a professional businesswomen's networking organization based in Oakland, California. Also includes a master's thesis on the club titled, "The effectiveness of networking for women," written by Joan Bennett Dunbar. Photographs inserted. The Lasus Family papers provide insight These contain a large chronological file comprised of English translations from the Cuban media and transcriptions of numerous speeches by Fidel Castro.

Also included among the Psychological surveys, research papers, correspondence, administrative materials, and printed research materials created by psychologist J. David Latham in the course of his research on homosexuality within heterosexual marriages, and on gay recovering alcoholics.

Summary: Contains two letters which describe Latham's trip and arrival in San Francisco. Typed transcripts of the This collection consists of the daily diary kept by William Boyd Latham, Jr. Entries were made inconsistently and pertain primarily to Latham's work for the Freeman and Company Western Express located in Sacramento, California. The Roger L. Lathe spent his professional career as an architectural historian, preservation and restoration contractor and licensed home inspector. He wrote The collection is comprised of documents and photographs from Lathen's labor and political activities in Vallejo.

Also included are Sound recording of interview with Stanley Lathen conducted by Harvey Schwartz. Photographs, mostly cabinet cards, and one tintype of unidentified friends and family members, taken by San Francisco photographers. Dyer Lathrop's papers, , pertain largely to his business affairs and include letters, bills, notes, and receipts, including accounts with the Spring Street Mission House, Album from Jane Lathrop Stanford's family; most of the people pictured have surnames other than Lathrop. Album includes photographs of a college campus in Gambier, Ohio.

The collection consists of correspondence, news clippings, manuscripts, and reports related primarily to the development and usage of the Klamath River Basin in the midth century, created and compiled by consultant Frank L. Collection also includes one photograph of Lathrop Papers of Jonathan Latimer, journalist, screen writer and detective story author. Materials include a small collection of story ideas, outlines, scripts and screenplays arranged alphabetically by title.

  • An Uncommon Faith: The story of missionary Jan Moses and her journey with cancer.
  • Nature of the Beast;
  • The Soulburner!
  • Table of contents;
  • .
  • More Behavior Solutions In and Beyond the Inclusive Classroom: A Handy Reference Guide that Explains Behaviors Associated with Autism, Aspergers, ADHD, Sensory Processing Disorder, and Special Needs.
  • Quick Sciatic Exercises: A Quick Concise Guide Full of Exercises to Relieve Back Pain.

The bulk of the collection contains typescript manuscripts of substantial autobiographical works and juvenile fiction, and periodical articles published in the s and s. Most of these articles This collection contains magazines, fliers, newspapers, pamphlets, and other material on Latin America. Primarily contains material on literature, sociology, politics and other topics concerning the political reformations and revolutions in Latin America. Includes streets scenes, buildings, and local inhabitants, coffee, tobacco, This collection contains correspondence, agendas, minutes, proofs, and other material generated during the creation of , a theoretical and scholarly journal for discussion and debate on the political economy of capitalism, imperialism, and socialism in the Americas.

The emphasis of this artificial collection made by a book dealer is Latin American political events occurring in the San Francisco Bay Area. There are also posters originating in Mexico and Central and South America. Reports, studies, booklets, pamphlets, press summaries, press releases, bulletins, newsletters, serial issues, journal articles, and clippings, relating to political and human rights conditions in Nicaragua, the contra guerrilla war in Nicaragua, relations between the United States and Nicaragua, and American Reports, correspondence, position papers, bulletins, serial issues, newsletters, campaign material, speeches, minutes, resolutions, printed matter, and audiovisual materials, relating to political conditions in various Latin American countries, especially to guerrilla activities, election campaigns and civil rights; and to United States This collection is in two cartons and contains materials from There are articles, papers, government reports, newsletters and proceedings This is a collection of two cartons of book reviews in the subject area of Chicano studies that ranges from - This is a collection of case files from the Latino Community Justice Center.

This small collection consists of zines, graphic novels, serials, and other publications that reflect on Latino culture, humor, art, and society from A majority of the materials in this collection are satirical in nature and contain a wide variety The Museum featured artists from countries The Periodical collection is arranged alphabetically by title and lacks subject access but includes materials on a variety of Outtakes, selects, dialogue tracks, foley tracks, trims, audio rolls, dailies, music mixes and transfers from the feature-length motion picture, Latino The bulk of the collection consists of 35 mm.

Built in " and untitled scene with horses in foreground and trees in background, probably also Montana, n. There are two copies of one print that appears as image no. The collection contains original photographs and a book featuring figure studies of Anthony Tony J. Sansone, a physique model and dancer from New York. This collection contains the research materials of Frank F. Subjects include: agriculture Writings, correspondence, studies, reports, notes, printed matter, and photographs, relating to theoretical physics, nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons testing, and especially the Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon Tests.

Correspondence, memoranda, and reports, relating to Latvian foreign relations and to Latvian-Swedish relations. Records of the Latvian Embassy in Stockholm. Newsletters, annual reports, pamphlets, clippings, and printed matter, relating to human rights and ethnic relations in Latvia. Includes neo-fascist literature, and some issuances of the Latvian Center for Human Many items were formerly part of the library of the San Francisco branch of Sound recordings of interviews of Latvian political leaders, governmental officials, and others relating to political, social, and economic conditions in Latvia.

Includes transcripts of questions and some related printed matter. Project sponsored by the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Serial issues, election campaign literature, bulletins, newsletters, pamphlets, other printed matter, and video tapes, relating to various aspects of Latvian history, and especially to the movement culminating in re-establishment of Latvian independence in , and to subsequent Latvian politics and Memoranda, reports, correspondence, registration forms, printed matter, and motion picture film relating to conditions in Latvia under Soviet and German occupation, and to Latvian displaced persons during and after World War II.

Also available on microfilm reels. Programs, conference materials, circulated documents, and other issuances, relating to political conditions in Latvia. Correspondence, writings, memoranda, reports, broadcast transcripts, and printed matter relating to radio broadcasting to Poland, and to Polish-Swiss relations. This collection consists of a three photo albums documenting the life Cora Latz and Etta Perkins, an interracial couple, shared together.

The two met in and were together 26 years. Clippings, flyers, interview transcript, news releases, notes, and studio publicity materials documenting protests in San Francisco directed against the motion picture, , a police thriller released in Gay and lesbian rights activists objected to the representation of gay men She supervised the working conditions and standards of pay for the many women working part time at the university and was active in providing a housing service and vocational Charles Laughton was a theater and film actor, radio personality, and public performer.

The collection consists of photographs, publicity materials, press clippings, correspondence, radio and theatre scripts, screenplays, assorted readings, and miscellaneous items. The Laumann Yosemite Collection consists of photographic prints and glass plate negatives of two of the Laumann family's visits to Yosemite National Park and the Sierra, the first in circa and the second in Photographs taken by Frank Correspondence, writings, clippings, and other printed matter, relating to various aspects of twentieth-century European history, and especially to Romania and Belgium during World War II; the Little Entente; the relationship between Adolf Hitler and Lord Rothermere, ; the Walloon Legion Album contains photos of the construction and launching of the S.

Michael Kerr, as well as some related ephemera. Many photos show the launching ceremony, including photos of the sponsors. Photo album of snapshots of various sizes, tipped in or mounted on leaves and assembled by a member of the Class of ' Subjects include: life at Stanford; co-ed's years at Stanford in photography; and teaching and after Index 1a serves as an alphabetical index for records of where the deceased were buried. It is not clear which book the index pertains to, and the cover is missing.

Date range is There are 11 pages at Contains minutes to meetings of the Laurel Leaf and Social Club in Also contains lyrics to songs. Most of the items are clippings from Karno performances from to There are a The Lauren Coodley papers include correspondence; course materials related to classes she taught on the history of women from the s to the s; and work she did for classes on women at UC Berkeley, including the script for the The Joan Lauren photographs span the ss and encompass 1. The collection consists of photographic prints and negatives of portraits of actors and other celebrities.

Thousands march against Venezuelan govenrment

These include images used in Lauren? Christmas cards from Laurence and Edith Haste, cards designed by Laurence for others, and some of his illustrations. Two pieces of correspondence regaring Haste's work are included also. Louis V. Frances Twyeffort , , and 1 ANS stating that only 50 copies of A Portrait and a Poem , , were printed and distributed to friends and Aristide Joseph "A. Laurie Garrett is a noted science journalist and public health and policy advocate.

She has written extensively on global health systems, chronic and infectious diseases, and bioterrorism. Materials include: journals, newspaper and magazine articles, recorded and film interviews, book reviews, Correspondence, research notes, course notes, and other materials concerning his work on accelerators at the UC Radiation Laboratory and research in the space sciences.

Primarily correspondence bulk s and research files relating to his work in the field of materials science at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs and Southern Illinois University. Includes cartoon of "Development of Radar B. Professor of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Papers include personal and professional correspondence, research notes and data, manuscripts, reprints, patents, photographs.

Covers work at Caltech, consulting work and professional activities, personal and biographical materials. Topics: cold-emission effect, medical physics Professor of nuclear physics, California Institute of Technology, Includes correspondence, proposals, monographs, research data, lecture notes, conference, travel and course materials, materials relating to work with government and professional organizations, e. This collection consists of photographs by other photographers given to or acquired by Erik M.

This collection contains negatives, photographs and digital prints by the American photographer Erik M. Lauritzen, as well as posters, exhibit announcements, reviews, correspondence, writings by and about him, artwork and ephemera. Jonreed Lauritzen contributed travel and descriptive articles to , , and other magazines.

He also wrote many children's books. The collection consists of the corrected typescripts and galley proofs of Lauritzen's novels, , and. The John Lautner papers contain the comprehensive archive of this Southern California architect who became famous for such innovative structures as Chemosphere the Malin House and Silvertop the Reiner House. Comprised of about 10, drawings, photographs and slides, and Writings, transcripts of radio broadcasts, and clippings, relating to French politics and foreign policy, international relations, and the Vichy regime in France during World War II.

Copies of excerpts from his diary, , and notes, relating to exploration of the Modoc lava beds and caves. Memoirs, letters, memoranda, clippings, periodical issues, lists, notes, and financial records, relating to political development in Latin America, especially in the 's; United States relations with Latin America, ; the American Mercury; international communist subversion; and international affairs. The collection comprises the papers of economics professor Charles A. Materials document his research on mass transit, Mainly photocopies and typed notes of correspondence, diaries, reports and other documents from the latter 19th century.

The Lavender Scrolls Project is a community arts and social service outreach project born of a collaboration between the Lavender Seniors of the East Bay and the California Council for the Humanities in The collection contains the audio cassettes The collection consists of views of several of the towns and camps of the Mother Lode region --the area located roughly between Contains and photographs from the Gold Country,Calif.

The collection consists of plus scripts from the television series Also included are a small number of scripts from the television show,. The collection contains black and white photographs with some duplicates taken by photographer Merl LaVoy in China during the 's and s. Many of the photos are taken in the Nanjing Nanking area which served as China's capital at Includes scripts, shooting and location schedules and other production information. Comments on his work as general counsel of the Wine Institute from its establishment in ; legislation and regulations affecting the industry; the Wine Advisory Board, etc.

Includes notebook and notes concerning her shell collection, ca. Knowlton re selling her collection, ; draft of letter by Fannie Law Andrews regarding death of her sister Annie M. Law and possible sale of This project records oral history interviews with those who clerked for the Chief Justice from the time he was appointed by President Eisenhower in until his retirement from the bench in Each former clerk's interview has a strong Discussion of legal and judicial career of his father, Warren Olney, Jr.

Comments on his investigation, as police chief of Bakersfield, of the murder of Earl Warren's father; his service, under Attorney General Robert W. Interviews with two members of the firm's early secretarial staff, two retired partners who joined the firm in the 30s, and the son, E. Bronson, Jr. Recollections about Roy and Ed Bronson founders of the Interviews with John H.

Painter, George K. Dilley, Max Weingarten, Vernon L. Goodin, Charles A. Legge and Victor H. Record Series contains the administrative files of the Office of the Dean including committee minutes, budget and personnel files, memoranda, reports, and materials relating to specific programs and institutes. This street art chronicles the musical and cultural history of the San Francisco Bay Relates to the role of Joseph Emile Hamilton Stevenot in development of civil aviation in the Pacific Ocean region during the interwar period.

Lawrence and Houseworth were one of the main publishers of stereoviews on the West coast around the s. They sold views primarily of California and Nevada, and the majority of their photographs are of nature scenes, and the wonders of Anthony and Nancy Lawrence were involved in a variety of television projects ca. The collection reflects their involvement as writers and producers in the television industry and includes files of various script drafts, story outlines, and concepts for what Included are engineering drawings, reports, logs, memorandums, correspondence, notes, photographs, publications, and other records documenting research projects conducted with the Million Electron Volt MEV Synchrotron, as well as its design, construction, and operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Letter from Powell is date Dec.

Work folders for each chapter, with notes, photocopies of source material, drafts; photographs; printer's typescript; galleys; bound volumes of Westways containing copies of the articles; correspondence with Larry Meyer, editor of Westways; letters commenting on the magazine articles and the The collection consists of a fieri facias writ of execution issued in Lawrence County, Alabama in , which commands any state sheriff to seize the sum of two thousand dollars in court ordered damages from a number of debtors.

MSS of his writings novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel sketches, introductions to books, translations and book reviews ; an autobiographical fragment; letters written by Lawrence and a few addressed to him; clippings and reprints of articles, stories, etc, written Lawrence was a novelist, essayist and poet. He became best known as the author of , banned for many years for its explicit treatment of sex.

The collection consists of correspondence, manuscripts and corrected proofs, a painting, and This material consists primarily of correspondence from D. Maria Christina Chambers and a few others. There are two letters by Frieda Lawrence to Lady Morrell. Most of the letters are original Primarily reference materials assembled by Dawson on California Indian basketry and his Nazca culture research. Also includes reference materials on basketry, pottery and textiles in Africa and the South Pacific, Dawson's writings, notes he took as a student and materials Hamilton papers dealing with the Crocker Radiation Laboratory, and some papers of Lawrence's close associate, Donald Cooksey.

The papers relate Collection contains 42 letters and 21 post cards, most containg discussions of poetry. Seven letters by Ferlinghetti are original typescripts; Thirty-four Combs' letters are carbon typescripts. All post cards are handwritten or original typescripts. Collection also includes notes on Ferlinghetti's Two typescript letters and one handwritten postcard on City Lights Books stationery, signed by Ferlinghetti, concerning reprint permission rates for the use of his original poetry and the arrangements he has with another publisher, New Directions, and payments for Allen Handwritten notes on City Lights Books postcards and stationery giving directions to Stella Levy on how to handle various matters of business 4 postcards, 1 letter ; Primarily readings and a few talks with others including Tom White and Carl Rakosi.

Also includes a poetry recording by Jack and Adelle Foley. Photos of silent screen star Florence Lawrence including portraits, and stills from her movies. Include one letter from James Weldon Johnson, n. Handy, l; three letters from Langston Hughes, l, re Hughes' introduction to Gellert's first collection of Negro protest songs, and Hughes's Primarily materials relating to initial plans, advisory committees, architectural competition, early programs and sponsors.

The John Hundale Lawrence Papers offer a window into a highly significant period of scientific history: the development of nuclear energy and the exploration of its applications. The John Hundale Lawrence Papers also reveal the politics of nuclear research during Correspondence, writings, minutes of meetings, memoranda, reports, and printed matter, relating to administration of and student radicalism at the University of California, and to American medical aid to South Vietnam.

Portraits of other colleagues include John F. Fulton, and philanthropist W. Also includes photographs of various laboratory scenes and Personal papers, manuscripts, and photographs of Lawrence known as Jock Lawrence along with his family. Also photographs with colleagues, including movie producer Samuel Goldwyn. Also includes posctards depicting various railroad, ferry and streetcar terminals and depots in California and other states. Contains a number of assorted poems 8 folders and other writings including short stories, possible book chapters, manuscript drafts including Venus's Slipper , submission letters, and correspondence.

Most of the material is undated and some of the folders may have mixed The Lawrence family lived in Sacramento, California, where Carl Lawrence was the owner of Lawrence Construction Company, a prominent building company in the Sacramento area during the s and s, and president of the Greater Sacramento Chamber of Commerce. One letter from English educator, philosopher, and Unitarian minister Jacks to unknown recipient, thanking him for his kind words about Jacks' book, possibly the Alchemy of Thought Oxford, Dec. Photographs show people at events, ceremonies, meetings, group portraits, Nobel Prize winners, airstrips, military facilities, interior and exterior views of the cyclotron, an early model of the cyclotron, and related views.

Some photos show E. Lawrence, John [H. The singing duo of Steve Lawrence and Eydie Gorme have been performing for audiences since the s and have appeared on numerous television shows over the years. The collection is comprised of scripts representing many of the television programs on Includes letters from Gertrude Stein, Alice B. Relates to the publication of two books by T. Includes some printed matter. The collection consists of papers concerning British soldier and author T. Lawrence including manuscripts by and about Lawrence , correspondence including over letters by Lawrence , photographs, drawings, reproductions and ephemera.

Also included in the collection is research material of Lawrence , the first female film editor in Hollywood. The collection primarily contains interviews tapes and transcripts with Lawrence Willson UCSB Professor of English , about his life and family history, education and teaching experience, UCSB campus history and politics, his philosophy of education, and thoughts about nineteenth and twentieth Harry Lawrenson was an editor for Movietone News.

Additionally there are of a small number of photographs that appear related to Movietone News. The collection consists of the diary of Robert C. Laws who traveled overland from Ohio to California in Laws joins a company in Missouri after his original party, the Buckey Emigrating Company, disbands. His diary provides details of the The Mary Louise Lawser Collection consists of correspondence, pamphlets and brochures concerning her railroad work, photographs and transparencies of her work, and ephemera.

The major portion of the collection, however, consists of preliminary sketches and colored renderings for murals and This collection includes correspondence between Alvin H. Lawson, a professor of English, and various libraries regarding the anti-slavery novel by Ashurst Biggs. A photocopy of the novel is included. The Andrew C. Lawson papers, , consist of personal and professional papers related to Lawson's career in geology and as a professor at the University of California, Berkeley during the first half of the twentieth century.

Of particular note are The consists of items collected by Lawson and his wife, Darla, that relate to his experience as an Old China Hand. The collection is primarily made up of biographical documents, photographs, and articles outlining Lawson's military service in China and The Lawson Papers consist of biographical material; professional writings and correspondence; original poetry and music; photographs and memorabilia relating to the life and career of Sacramento educator, F.

Melvin Lawson Collection includes biographical material; faculty correspondence at Berkeley, ; programs of choral concerts conducted by Mr. Lawton between and ; and his choral compositions and music for voice This collection contains newspaper clippings, photographs, documents and other material collected by Harry W. Lawton pertaining to the experiences of 19thth century Chinese immigrants in California, primarily in the Inland Empire region of Southern California. Includes material regarding the archaeological This collection is comprised of correspondence, photographs, research notes, newspaper clippings, and other materials related to the Willie Boy manhunt of Topics include the Willie Boy manhunt, Harry W.

Lawton's book, , the motion picture, , and the legal The Harry W. Lawton papers contain correspondence, press clippings, photographs, manuscripts, magazines, and other materials from Lawton's life and career. Lawton was an American writer, journalist, editor, and historian who wrote several books on Native Americans in Southern California, particularly Collection consists of nine manuscript documents, dated , related to the appointment and discharge of Israel Lawton as superintendent of the San Francisco Mint: a presidential certificate designating Lawton as superintendent June 18 ; a copy of an official bond Training video tapes for lawyers representing applicants for asylum in immigration hearings in the United States.

Includes a mock asylum hearing, and background lectures regarding applicants from Afghanistan, Ethiopia and Iran. Photographs depicting Austro-Hungarian soldiers on the Russian, Serbian, Romanian and Italian fronts during World War I, including scenes of trench life, combat, prisoners, ordnance, naval and aerial operations, and aerial views of troops and trench emplacements. The collection includes extensive correspondence; drafts of Layard's writings, both published and unpublished; extensive notes and research materials; artifacts; and personal, patient and family materials.

A significant proportion of the One program to the laying of the cornerstone of the new Los Angeles High School building ceremony on November 3, , and one typewritten list of invited guests Letters, press releases, minutes of meetings, printed matter, and miscellany, relating to conditions in Grenada prior to the American invasion in Documents captured by an American soldier. Yoel Hoffmann, who in his later phase revealed himself to be the gifted author of what might be termed poetic prose, carving for himself a unique place in modern Hebrew literature, published earlier in his career three books of poetry translations, two in Hebrew and one in English, the latter paralleling one of the Hebrew books.

Although not considered a poet per se he succeeded, as I will try to show, by merging poetic creativity with scholarly abilities, in creating some remarkable translations of Japanese poetry. The book was printed on high quality paper, in hard cover and attractive design all of which were already uncommon in Israeli publishing at the time, and have become even rarer since then , and also includes some Zen paintings and calligraphy.

It contains 48 Zen stories some with short annotations and, on the page facing each story, one, two or three translated haiku are printed, 85 in all. The haiku are also transliterated in vocalized Hebrew script at the back of the book, including macrons to indicate long vowels. In his page-long introduction Hoffmann first explains the world-view of Zen Buddhism and then the form and nature of haiku poetry. On the final two pages of the introduction he also imparts his opinion on how better to translate haiku, to which I will return later on.

Although basically similar, there are also some conspicuous differences between the two versions, which must have been prepared in close proximity. The Hebrew version was published in , once again in a fine edition by Massada. Surprisingly, unlike the first book, and contrary to standard publishing custom, the back of the title page does not include any information in English.

However, at the end of the long introduction p. I assume that Hoffmann translated the book from Hebrew and the poems from Japanese and Chinese into English himself, and received assistance in editing it. Like the Hebrew version it is divided into three parts, but close inspection reveals several differences. The English version of the introduction is arranged more methodically historically and thematically ; many paragraphs and poetic examples have been moved around, and the whole text is divided into shorter paragraphs with additional explanatory subtitles.

Some sentences and several poetic examples in the Hebrew introduction are not included in the English version. For example, the death poem of Mishima Yukio, for which Hoffmann appends a sarcastic remark p. Also missing are several other modern poems by the mother of Matsunaga Goichi, p. I would venture a guess that these poems were omitted due to copyright concerns, which may have been disregarded in the Hebrew edition but could not be ignored in the English one issued by Tuttle in Japan.

It should also be noted that while some parts of the Hebrew text were omitted, as far as I can tell nothing was added to the English version of this part. The second part of the book contains death poems by Japanese Zen monks written originally in Chinese, some accompanied by short or more elaborated explanations. In both versions the poems are organized alphabetically according to the Buddhist names of the monks, and since the Hebrew and English alphabets are quite different in order, so is the order of the poems in each edition. Had the poems been arranged historically this discrepancy would not have occurred.

This is not very surprising. All those familiar with the Japanese writing system are well aware of the enormous problems one faces when trying to read personal names correctly, and in particular some of those obscure Buddhist names which are also different from the original personal names of the poets. Another difference is that the Hebrew edition contains 46 poems, two of which are missing from the English one Taigu, p.

So on the whole the two editions are similar but not identical. If I counted correctly, there are haiku poets represented in the Hebrew edition, compared with in the English one; in both cases some poets are represented by more than one poem, so the number of poems is considerably larger. Once again I assume that the reason for the absence of these poets from the English edition was due to copyright concerns. To compensate, the English edition includes 16 poets, mostly from the 18th and 19th centuries, who do not appear in the Hebrew book. Evidently the nature of the two editions is different: while the Hebrew one includes much modern material bringing examples of haiku poetry up to our time, the English one is limited to older periods, with very few early 20th century examples.

There are a few more differences between the two books. The English book has an index of poetic terms as well as a general index, both of which are missing from the Hebrew version. It was in turn translated in the English version pp. A successfully rhymed haiku may indeed contribute to the beauty of the translation, but because of the extreme brevity of the haiku style, rhyming more often than not makes a jingle of the poem.

The one structural precept adhered to throughout is that each haiku is translated in three lines — usually a short, a long, and a short one again. So Hoffmann is basically in favor of free translation, but he is aware of the great responsibility and difficulty in choosing the right words and putting them in the right order. He also makes sound arguments against insisting on the rhythm in translation or the use of rhyming. The nature of the language is an advantage in this regard; in Hebrew, pronouns can be indicated by the form of the verb, the definite article is attached to the noun, and the construct state allows the linking of two nouns without a preposition.

Still, Hoffmann excels others in putting these advantages to good use, and in some cases he manages to be even briefer than the original. Blyth V. In the introduction to the English edition of Japanese Death Poems p. So all in all, the translation gains in brevity what it loses by avoiding the rhythm. Just as he experimented with two-line translations, Hoffmann also offered some four-line versions of haiku, but again managing to maintain extreme brevity in some cases.

His choices also demonstrate the well-established fact that any translation is also an interpretation, and that when translating haiku, the meaning of which can sometime be somewhat obscure, the translator must make a choice between different interpretative options. I will offer a few examples in which a certain choice or interpretation stand out. Blyth v. Due to the lack of a plural indicator in Japanese, the translator must decide which form to use: one rock or many rocks?

And what about the insect? The sound of a singular cicada, as anyone who has experienced the Japanese summer can testify, conveys a very different feeling than that of a multitude of them. Blyth opted for the plural, but Hoffmann preferred the singular in both cases, and he even made one more daring choice Where, p.

Is this choice justifiable? It is a matter of personal preference, although as a translator I would probably not go that far. Interestingly, however, Donald Keene also replaced the cicada with locusts Keene, p. Blyth did not commit himself in his translation although he opted for a singular trap and for dreams in the plural , but Hoffmann made a more daring choice Where, p. Again, is this justifiable? The poet? All of us? But Hoffmann takes the meaning a little deeper Where, p.

In Japan tonari usually means literally next door, to either side of where one lives; in the Israel in which Hoffmann grew up but perhaps less so today the people in the opposite tenement or house, seen through the windows and verandas open to the sea breeze in towns and cities along the Mediterranean coast, were more conspicuous and also more mysterious. It is therefore possible that by adding the preposition mimul, Hoffmann once again made a cultural translation.

Hoffmann is a conscientious translator who strives to be faithful to the haiku he rendered into Hebrew but the above examples show him also to be a daring translator with a great amount of self- confidence and a unique way of interpreting his material. His translations demonstrate that once he believes he has caught the spirit of a haiku he conveys it in his translation in a way that fits it best. The usual order of words in a Japanese sentence is more or less the reverse of the order in an English or a Modern Hebrew one, so when translating a Japanese sentence into Hebrew or English translators start from the end and work their way back.

This may happen in poetry as well, and in some cases cannot be avoided, but translators should be sensitive to this point. It could be asked: why is the order important, especially in a haiku which is read in one breath? However, I maintain that the order by which information is conveyed even in the short haiku is one of the tools of the poet, and therefore one should try to remain faithful to it in translation as well. In this case, if the order is reversed, much of the charm and power of the haiku is lost. I found that in a little more than half the cases Hoffmann was loyal to the order of information in the original poems, but in many cases he was not.

For example, the line aki no kure autumn evening appears in five of the haiku translated in the book; in one case p. Only in one case p. There is no real consistency, and in some other poems where a certain season is explicitly named, Hoffmann sometimes maintained the original order, but in other cases he turned it around. It must be assumed that he tried different translations for such poems, and chose the one which to his ears sounded the best in Hebrew. In Israel his later literary output may have overshadowed his earlier work as translator, although all those interested in Japanese poetry are no doubt aware of his work and appreciate it.

In my personal view he remains the best translator of haiku into Hebrew we have ever had. Where did the Sounds Go? The English edition is still in print, and it must have had a much wider impact than the Hebrew one. The novel describes the life of some of the Australian prisoners and Japanese military men before, during and after the war.

Although the circle may be the same and is wordless in itself, we should be aware that it underwent translation along the way from the old Zen master to the contemporary Australian author through the intermediary work and inspiration of Yoel Hoffmann. As we shall see below, Hoffmann experimented with form more freely in his early Hebrew translations. Through his book Japanese Death Poems, which he translated into English from the original Hebrew, he also occupies an important place in English-language studies of traditional Japanese poetry.

First published by Tuttle in , this book is still in print and widely available. Japanese Death Poems is a unique book, one of those unclassifiable treasures that are at once strongly individual and yet speak of universals. It has even spawned a Facebook page. This then seems a good time to reassess it. I had known about it for years, but felt unable to judge it because the poems and stories seemed so distant from their original contexts.

There was an entire section of poems by Zen monks that were, Hoffmann said, originally in Chinese. In other cases, the original Japanese sources were given but they were first editions of pre-modern block-printed books without publisher or page numbers. And there were other cases, which I only discovered later, in which the original Japanese source was nowhere to be found.

Buoyed by the enthusiasm of my haiku friends, I sought out modern editions of the pre-modern books Hoffmann acknowledged and compared them to his own renditions. I also looked into the sources for the Chinese poems. As I dug deeper, I came to realize that while the death poem is a recognized genre in Japan, until very recently there were no collections devoted to it exclusively.

Hoffmann had to wend his way through a mass of material picking out the works that served his vision. Stubbornly sticking to his own perspective, mining only what is gold for his subject, he let the rest fall away like dross, shaping and reshaping as he went, acting as translator, editor, and interpreter. It was the creative aspect of the book that had made me wary of it, but I came to realize that it was that very aspect that makes it so compelling.

The history of Japanese poetry that Hoffmann outlines in Part One gives less space than most accounts to the imperial anthologies of waka and zooms forward as quickly as possible to the haiku. It then shifts direction to a discussion of Japanese attitudes towards death.

Having given this exhaustive survey in the brief compass of 40 pages , Hoffmann suddenly shifts direction, leaping from humorous poems about death to a profoundly serious question. What can it tell of his death? One poet may search in vain for a poem as long as he lives; another repeats one poem again and again; yet another lives and dies in every poem that he creates. A few pages later, coming to the end of Part One, Hoffmann returns to this theme, making a declaration regarding the mutual inability of individual human beings to understand each other, a declaration which I feel may be fundamental to his sensibility: Let us not forget, however, that when someone dies, it is not a nation but an individual that is dying.

And what stands behind that name, which belongs to the man alone, will never be understood by another For Hoffmann, what could better illustrate an idea than a poem? We are offered certainty only to have it torn from our hands. And on that note, which ends the Introduction, we are left to turn the page and enter Part Two, the poems of Zen monks. But he explains that they are similar in several ways: The attitude expressed by haiku poets, however, often reflects Zen Buddhist elements; indeed, many haiku poets took a deep interest in Zen Buddhism, some to the point of donning a robe and wandering up and down Japan begging rice from door to door, after the manner of Zen monks.

Despite the historical gap and the consequent cultural differences, a strong spiritual kinship can be discerned between the farewell poems written in Chinese by Zen monks and many of the poems written by haiku poets. By contrast, tanka, at least with regard to death poems written in this genre, tend to reflect a rather different perception of the world Hoffmann, in other words, has begun with a diachronic—historical—approach in his charting of the history of Japanese poetry, but now returns to his real interest, which is synchronic, that is to say, thematic.

Like the English novelist and critic E. Forster in Aspects of the Novel almost a century ago , or the contemporary scholars of world literature for example, David Damrosch who are opening up the borders of comparative literature today, Hoffmann imagines all the writers in his world sitting around a table, transcending borders of time and space. Both books consist of biographical sketches in modern Japanese of well-known Zen monks, and include quotations from their sayings and last words and, where they exist, their death poems. As an example, take the account of Bassui Tokusho, which opens Part Two.

If you see it as it is You will never err. To put it another way, Hoffmann gets a lot done in a very small space, which of course resembles his short yet suggestive novels in which the mundanity of the everyday often bumps up against the infinite spaces of everything we cannot say. Hoffmann likes concision. The original phrase itself compels because of the rich imagery and powerful concision of the Sino-Japanese. The mystery of silent words lies at its heart, as Furuta stresses.

As the Senegalese novelist Boris Boubacar Diop says, in translation loyalty is sometimes more important than fidelity. Here a picture substitutes for the words that Shisui refused to say. He grasped his brush, painted a circle, cast the brush aside, and died It indicates void—- the essence of all things—-and enlightenment. There is perhaps a connection between the figure of a circle and the shape of the full moon, another symbol of enlightenment And yet that is not all. At the beginning of the story, Hoffmann inserted a picture of a circle drawn with a brush.

The original text does not have a picture of a circle, but it does say that Shisui drew one. By adding the circle, Hoffmann has restored the wholeness of the original event. It is almost as if we were there, seeing what the monk drew for his followers, and being encouraged to meditate on what the circle might mean.

Small but highly effective touches like this make one respond to Japanese Death Poems as a work of art based on a translation, rather than a translation only. Yes, we have translations and we have works of art, but we also have works of art whose first layer is translation. Perhaps only a translation that values loyalty above fidelity can become art. Hoffmann makes it even shorter. Almost all proper nouns are excised. However, when Unrei settles in Izumozaki, where he intends to live out his days and where he dies, the details are translated in full.

Again, we feel the sense of individuality that is so important to Hoffmann. Above I have discussed how Hoffmann revised and reshaped his sources to create the brief but compelling poem-narratives of Japanese Death Poems. Hoffmann writes: In many of the death poems written by Japanese women, the reader may sense a longing for a place of refuge from the many hardships the women encounter.

The following death poem belongs to a woman named Oroku and dates from the first part of the seventeenth century. Oroku marries a certain Sakon, the retainer of a provincial ruler, and bears him a male child. She is treated cruelly by her mother-in-law, however, and finally kills herself. Even if she had chosen life, the darkness would never have lifted for her, Oroku says. Better to die, for in death she shall see the moon, symbol of salvation and relief from suffering. The translation conveys the meaning faithfully and yet there are small inventive touches which have large effects. Subtle sound patterns also contribute to the effect.

The translation, however, is remarkably effective. It includes bareness but suggests sterility as well. Sterile branches, sterile insect, sterile world. If the personification of autumn were obvious, it would injure the effect of the poem, but it is subtle. Hakanaku is usually translated as fleeting, empty, evanescent, passing, mortal. Meter also adds to the effect. At first I imagined that such elements might have been inspired by his encounter with Japanese poetry. After my own encounter with him through Japanese Death Poems, I would instead suggest that the measure ran the other way.

As a translator, Hoffmann is being most himself when he has a genuine source and is being faithful to it but at the same time keeps it partly hidden from his readers. The distance—or shall we say the silence—so created leaves him free to perform the alchemy by which a translation becomes a poem. Hoffmann does not make it clear whether he consulted the works in these difficult to read and relatively rare first editions, or if he consulted them in modern movable-type editions, or both.

In any case, with the rise of online digital archives at the National Diet Library NDL and many university libraries, these sources may often be found online. Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei, Vol. This edition is available online, and any university library in Japan will have the more recent revised edition. Morrell, Sand and Pebbles Shasekishu. The Tales of Muju Ichien. A Voice for Pluralism in Kamakura Buddhism. State University of New York Press, Williams and Alban M.

Responsibility for any mistakes or infelicities is mine. Also translated as Sino-Japanese, kambun was widely used in Japan until modern times. However, Furuta himself apparently preferred to Anglicize his name. Haikai Kafu Shui, , but with no publisher or page number. I cannot tell if Hoffmann actually used the original edition of this book or not, but it also exists in several modern editions. I searched this work, which consists of an index of names arranged in iroha order and of poets arranged according to date of death, with death poems if they have one , for both the poet and the poem, but could find neither.

What borders are crossed by Hoffmann, and in what way? Moskowitz from cement and gravel built a breakwater. He stood like Prometheus when the ea- gles plucked at his liver with his face pointing northwest, towards Con- stansa, and his back to the monastery on the port hilltop. The vibrant marking of this register of spoken Hebrew is strengthened by another feature of the speech distinctive to people who immigrated from Central and Eastern Europe, which is the mix of words from different languages in their speech.

What was adon Moskowitz, or, in the English version, Mr. Moskowitz, doing? The great endeavor to which I refer here is precisely the translation of the Bible to the languages of East Asia which plays a crucial role in East-West encounter. Chinese was the first East Asian language to which the biblical text was conveyed in the first decades of the nineteenth century, followed by the Japanese translation completed by Different Bible-in-Chinese versions have been published since the first quarter of the nineteenth century.

Published in , it was the most used Chinese version in the nineteenth century. Schereschewsky,12 a member of the Peking Translation Committee, was the first to translate the Scriptures not into the classical language, but rather to the modern language, bai hua,13 based on the northern vernacular. The fourth version under examination is the Union Version.

The fifth is the Roman Catholic version translated by a team at the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Sinense, and published in While examining the Chinese translations, my attention was obviously drawn to the cases where I located dissimilarities between the various versions and occasionally also some blatant deviations from the original in conveying the biblical message, although no formal restrictions on the part of the Chinese language seem to have caused these deviations.

Whatever text in a certain language is naturally imbued with cultural and linguistic premises of the culture and the language in which it is written. When the text is translated, be it a direct translation or a relay indirect one, the text in the target language is the one carrying the cognitive- cultural load that is transmitted to the reader.

As part and parcel of the transmission project that the translator or translators have undertaken, cultural patterns as well as modes of thinking that are characteristic of the target language are present in the translated text. Cultural considerations and cognitive decisive factors in translation, although at times intermingling, differ from each other, as each kind is motivated by a dissimilar mechanism: cultural translation is dictated by the politico-cultural agenda of the translator s which is most often dependent on the cultural set of premises and values inherent to the worldview prevalent in the target society; cognitive translation or lingo-cognitive translation is, on the other hand, motivated by cognitive traits common in the target socio-linguistic system.

The following cases illustrate this tendency. In the Hebrew original of the verse, it is the mother who comes first in order, the father figuring in the second place. The answer has to do with Confucian perceptions of hierarchical order. What is more, hierarchical order was well integrated into cosmological theories by connecting it to yin and yang,19 where yang was preferred over yin.

Another deliberate translational amendment, that was performed by the Delegates and followed by Schereschewsky, has also to do with relations emanating from the Confucian ethical code. Looking at ways of how father-son relations were rendered in the early Chinese versions of the Bible, I came across cases in which some of the Chinese versions simply do not convey part of the original. The answer lies, here too, in the Confucian ethical code, according to which filial piety was extolled for centuries as the highest virtue. They are: accuracy in definition; concreteness as opposed to abstraction ; refraining from extreme expressions; and numerical representation of phenomena.

Thus, the faithfulness here is not to the literal wording in the original text, but to reality, in that it conveys to the Chinese reader the proper state of the relationship between Laban and Jacob. What exactly should Adam and Eve eat of the trees? What part should not be touched by them? The tendency of Chinese for concrete designation of things is here revealed. The translators to Chinese made it a point to clarify who exactly in the city was perplexed: the people. A vivid illustration is drawn from the Chinese translation of a very well-known scene in the Judeo-Christian tradition: Cain and Abel, sons of Adam and Eve, each presented his offering and made sacrifice to God.

God favored Abel's sacrifice instead of Cain's. In the Chinese Bible translations this tendency is reflected when numerical expressions are employed to render expressions that in the original do not consist of numerical or quantified expressions. Trifle or gigantic, main or trivial, from here or from there, in this language or in another — things all seem to come up to one.

Dream or reality, dream and reality? Is there a clear cut line between dream and reality? That is the question. Soon I awaked, and there I was, veritably myself again. Of a man? But, without a doubt, there was life within it. Curriculum vitae, 2 I want to know: are there colors and smells in the brain? The pig farmer is dead and now the old sow is running through the streets of my mind across wooden bridges looking for him. Christ of the Fish, 37 Or, is there a distinction line between East and West? Hoffmann makes it a point to elucidate his total rebuff of marking borders and even the sheer irrelevance of borders.

Shunra and Schmetterling are both foreign words for the Hebrew reader. Hoffmann moves swiftly from one cultural setting to another, from one Weltanschauung to another. But, without the slightest attempt to make the text comprehensive to his readers: Just as his relatives and other people who immigrated from the Austro-Hungarian sphere to the Asiatic sphere in Palestine were not aware of the fact that some of their sayings were not clear at all to the audience. I did not know that it was Zhou. Suddenly I awoke, and was myself again, the veritable Zhou.

I did not know whether it had formerly been Zhou dreaming that he was a Schmetterling, or it was now a Schmetterling dreaming that it was Zhou. Liberated yet with full consciousness he takes his reader on a very lucid journey in which the dream is very real. Am I dreaming?

The Sounds of Earth. Selection from Chuang- Tzu. Translation from Chinese and commentary Massasa. As Hoffmann states, it is a kind of relay indirect translation, as he relied also on Japanese translations of this text, especially that of Fukunaga, Soshi, asahishimbunsha publishing. Lassar and J. Coniectanea Biblica. New Testament Series 19, , p. Schereschewsky , Leiden: Brill, Sankt Augustin: Monumenta serica Institute, Camps, Arnulf. Allegra, O. Queen, Sarah A. Stanford, California, His stories have been translated into more than 45 languages and are read worldwide.

On the other hand, it is a book about his family, too. His son is born and grows up during these seven years. There are stories about his brother, who read his first story and made him want to be a writer, and who now lives in Thailand as a social activist, and one about his sister who turned to religion and became an Orthodox Jew, and one about his father, a Holocaust survivor, who suffers from cancer and passes away at the end of the book.

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  8. If we use the metaphor of fabric, the warp of this book is Jewish and Israeli stuff and the weft weaving them together is the family. Etgar Keret writes in his native tongue, Hebrew, and in interviews he often makes claims for the uniqueness of his language. Keret responds to the interviewer who asked him what he thought is lost in translation as follows: A lot.

    As Keret says, Hebrew is a very unique language which had only been used as a written language for years and then suddenly and quite arbitrarily became a spoken language, and in order to adjust to the new reality, it adopted, imported and invented a lot of new words. However, there are few readers who can enjoy the uniqueness of his language, because the number of Hebrew speakers around the world is estimated to be no more than 9 million. Although this concerns him, he seems resigned to the inevitability of the loss, and to the fact that for a writer who writes in a minor language, translation is the only realistic way to obtain a wide readership.

    However, The Seven Good Years is actually quite different from his other works in one important respect, because although this book has been translated into more than 20 languages, there is no original Hebrew edition to work from. The book consists of 36 essays which were originally written by Keret in Hebrew, and then translated into English by various translators and published in a variety of English language media such as The New Yorker, The New York Times, and Tablet, an English web magazine on Jewish matters.

    The definitive edition is the English translation, and all the other editions are translated from this English edition, not from the original Hebrew; that is to say, all the editions except the English one are examples of retranslation, or indirect translation, which is usually not recommended in academic literary studies. What I want to discuss in my paper, though, is whether indirect translation is always undesirable and should be avoided. I will argue that it may well sometimes bring about advantages and thus have value and importance as a literary practice.

    For example, the first Keret book published in Japan was his picture book Dad Runs Away with the Circus, which was originally written in Hebrew, and then translated into English, and from that translation, translated into Japanese. When it comes to serious literature, on the other hand, indirect translation is not without problems. The book was translated and published in Germany but later it turned out that this German version was in fact an indirect translation from the English translation by Jay Rubin.

    When the German edition was translated from this abridged English edition, although the English edition was authentic as a source text, it is different from the original Japanese edition even in the matter of physical length. Singer wrote in Yiddish, but some of his stories were translated into English and won a wider readership in America.

    Moreover, Singer recommended using the English translation as the source text when his works were translated into other languages. But The Seven Good Years does not exist publicly in an authoritative original form. It is quite a rare book that has many translated editions but no published original edition.

    And for me, never publishing nonfiction before, this is something that is very, very stressful. And I feel that there are many intimate details in the book that it's easier for me to share overseas. Keret focuses on the nature of the material, and claims publishing in translation is less personal and helps to define the kind of audience he wants.

    The pieces in The Seven Good Years are sometimes about his family members or personal reflections that are written about in a way which involves a degree of caricature and irony. So it is, perhaps, understandable that he feels nervous about sharing them with his countrymen who could easily identify the individuals he writes about. At the same time, nonetheless, this book is also about how people in Israel survive their never-ending state of hostilities, and sometimes he cannot help but be critical of his own country. Therefore, it is understandable that Keret refrained from sharing it with his countrymen in anticipation of criticism from them.

    So, there are plausible reasons for his decision to forgo an original edition in Hebrew. All we can know here is that Keret chose that his stories be translated from English translation, not from his native tongue, even at the risk of indirect translation. Translation Studies: Domestication or Foreignization? In translation studies, Friedrich Schliermacher has argued as quoted below about the methods of translation: [T]here are only two. Either the translator leaves the author in peace, as much as possible, and moves the reader towards him; or he leaves the reader in peace, as much as possible, and moves the author towards him Schliermacher.

    Accordingly, he criticizes the fluent, and therefore, domesticating translation into English as reinforcing the ethnocentrism of Anglo-American culture, as if taking postcolonial theory into translation studies. I suspect it is an artificial dichotomy. My feeling is that translation is always a kind of compromise. However good your translation might be, it can never be the exact equivalent of the original text.

    There is always going to be some distance from the original text, and something can be lost at each stage. We can easily find this kind of filtering out in other languages, too. For example, in Japanese we have a range of different first person singular pronouns, such as watashi, boku, ore, washi, and atashi, which reflect the gender, age, social position and self-recognition of the utterer.

    The subtle nuances of the original Japanese words cannot generally be rendered. So, the important thing is what you filter out and what you leave in the translated text. A uniform policy of either domestication or foreignization would not produce a satisfactory result in practice.

    Similar authors to follow

    The source text is quoted below: When I was a kid, I always thought that Hebrew Book Week was a legitimate holiday, something that fit comfortably amid Independence Day, Passover, and Hanukah. In short, it is a matter of story or information. If you have to sacrifice either story or information, you have to make a choice, and my choice was to sacrifice a little of the information about the cultural background. Holidays in Israel are listed just as examples of legitimate holidays, so for ordinary Japanese readers, the necessary information is just that there are several holidays in Israel where they have different customs from those in Japan.

    I judged that the specific and detailed information about the dreidels was not significant enough to break the flow of the passage. So, it can be said that I chose domestication here, but it depends on what you think the priority is at each point in the translation. Venuti might criticize this as an instance of domestication. He insists uncompromisingly on the authenticity of the foreignizing method. But I believe the translated text should be continually moving between the dichotomy of familiarity and foreignness according to circumstances.

    When it is successfully done and shedding the details twice, what is left after the process is a purer and more essential core of the story. When I compare my translation of The Seven Good Years with the translation of another Keret book available in Japanese, Suddenly a Knock on the Door, translated by another translator who worked from the original Hebrew, I have to say that I feel my translation is more fluent and easier to read for the Japanese audience, and I think this is partly due to the process of indirect translation, which necessarily involves delocalizing and shedding details twice.

    Because this book is nonfiction, readers already have a certain knowledge and know that this is a story about some foreign country. Here is an example that may help to prove the point. But this kind of thing regularly happens to Keret. It is a very demanding experience to be expected to speak as a representative of your country abroad.

    Even when you know what is wrong with your country, you sometimes find yourself in the position of having to defend it, although in your own country you are widely regarded as someone who routinely speaks ill of it. You might feel like keeping your mouth shut, but you cannot escape from the stereotypical images other people have about you….

    The Warming

    It can be readily appreciated that this reviewer saw the book as depicting something specific to Israeli and Jewish people and therefore emphasized the uniqueness of their experience as something others will never have or understand. I find these two distinct reactions quite interesting. The book is the same, yet the readings are contradictory, and I think they can both be right, and that interpretive diversity is part of the appeal of this book.

    The hardship Jewish people suffered throughout their history is specific to them and the memory of the Holocaust and the current situation in which Israel exists permanently in a virtual state of war with some of the peoples and nation states in the region makes her situation unique. With few exceptions, it is hard for the rest of us even to imagine what it must be like to be an Israeli, let alone claim to understand from our own experience.

    The racial stigma, which had unjustly been cast upon Jewish people, is the worst in scale, and I cannot say that I really understand how it must feel to experience it. But at the same time, what this book is really depicting is, to a much smaller degree, what we all experience every day. Sometimes it is difficult for us all to escape the national stereotype within which other people seek to constrain us, and we all sometimes find ourselves speaking or being spoken of in a racist manner, even if it is unintentional.

    They give up their daily routine such as washing dishes, fixing a wet spot on the ceiling and taking care of plants, anticipating they are going to be wiped out soon. Finally, discovering that the rumor is not trustworthy, they feel afraid of peace. So I got up and swept the living room. And I think as long as that core of the story remains after the process of translation, it does not much matter how domesticated or foreignized the translated text is.

    It is inevitable that through the process of reading and responding to the text, each reader will fill the blanks in the translated text. This can stop people debating specific issues, denying them the possibility of criticizing the side with which they identify. Careful application of this new label might enable us to delve deeper into the essential arguments around the conflict and its resolution, instead of merely squirting water at one another in the shallow end of the pool.

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