Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55 , European Psychologist, 18 , Goebel, S. Language affects symbolic arithmetic in children: the case of number word inversion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. On the interrelation of multiplication and division in secondary school children. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 , Cognitive control in number magnitude processing - Evidence from eye-tracking.
Psychological Research, 78 , A computational modelling approach on three-digit number processing. Topics in Cognitive Science, 5 , Language influences on numerical development - Inversion effects on multi-digit number processing. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, Bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity modulates bilateral cognitive processes differentially. PlosONE, 8 8 : e Processing pathways in mental arithmetic - Evidence from probabilistic fiber tracking. A neural disconnection hypothesis on impaired numerical processing.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7 , Object-based neglect in number processing. Walk the number line — An embodied training of numerical concepts.
Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 2 2 , Influences of cognitive control in numerical cognition - Adaptation by binding for implicit learning. Topics in Cognitive Science, 5 2 , Magnitude representation in sequential comparison of two-digit numbers is not holistic either. Cognitive Processing, 14 , Thompson, J. The link between mental rotation ability and basic numerical representations. Domahs, F. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language.
Frontiers in Psychology , Mann, A. On the development of Arabic three-digit number processing in primary school children. Meyerhoff, H. Multi-digit number processing beyond the two-digit number range: A combination of sequential and parallel processes. Learning and development of embodied numerosity. Cognitive Processing, 13 , A unitary or multiple representations of numerical magnitude? Frontiers in Cognition, Sensori-motor spatial training of number magnitude representation. Helmreich, I. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42 , The influence of implicit hand-based representations on mental arithmetic.
Attentional strategies in place-value intergration: a longitudinal study on two-digit number comparison. Two-digit number processing - holistic, decomposed or hybrid? A computational modelling approach. Psychological Research, 75 , Representation of multiplication facts - Evidence for partial verbal coding. Three processes underlying the carry effect in addition - Evidence from eye-tracking. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36 , Effects of finger counting on numerical development: A review of neuro-cognitive arguments and those from mathematics education.
Frontiers in Cognition , Early place-value understanding as a precursor for later arithmetic performance — a longitudinal study on numerical development. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32 , Nuerk, H. Extending the mental number line - A review of multi-digit number processing. Whorf reloaded: Language effects on non-verbal number processing in 1st grade - a trilingual study. One language, two number-word systems and many problems: Numerical cognition in the Czech language.
Embodied numerosity: Implicit hand-based representations influence symbolic number processing across cultures. To carry or not to carry — is this the question? Disentangling the carry effect in multi-digit addition. On the cognitive foundations of basic auditory number processing. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6 Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition. Oscillatory EEG correlates of an implicit activation of multiplication facts in the number bisection task. Predictors of performance in a real-life statistics examination depend on the individual cortisol profile.
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Biological Psychology, 85 , Eye fixation behaviour in the number bisection task: Evidence for temporal specificity in information integration. Sequential or parallel decomposed processing of two-digit numbers? Evidence from eye-tracking. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62 , Basic number processing deficits in developmental dyscalculia. Cognitive Development, 24 , Internal number magnitude representation is not holistic, either.
The European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21 , Decomposed but parallel processing of two-digit numbers in 1st graders. The Open Psychology Journal, 2 , Zuber, J. On the language-specificity of basic number processing: Transcoding in a language with inversion and its relation to working memory capacity. Hoeckner, S. Impairments of the mental number line for two-digit numbers in neglect.
Cortex, 44 , Wood, G. All for one but not one for all: How multiple number representations are recruited in one numerical task. Greipl, S. A fun-accuracy trade-off in game-based learning. Board Games for Training Computational Thinking. Leifheit, L. New York: ACM:. Dias, P. Veltkamp Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Training computational thinking: Game-based unplugged and plugged-in activities in primary school. Mock, P. Using touchscreen interaction data to predict cognitive workload. Nakano, E. Nishida, L. Morency, C. Pelachaud Eds. Schmitt, A. Sterdt Eds. Stendal: KFB.
Mastorakis, A. Rudas Eds. Cognitive control in number processing - A computational model. Stewart Eds. Ottawa: Carleton University. Computer-supported training of the mental number line. Wong, C. Liu, T. Hirashima, P. Lukman Eds. ICCE , pp. Cress, U. The use of a digital dance mat for training kindergarten children in a magnitude comparison task. Gomez, L. Radinsky Eds. Karl Feistle. Obersteiner, A. Alibali Eds. Basel: Springer. Cress Eds. Heidelberg: Springer.
Fritz, S. Ricken Eds. Weinheim: Beltz. Soltanlou, M. Hesse Eds. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Moskaliuk, J. Sonntag Ed.
Meaning of "Kindergartenalter" in the German dictionary
Math with the dance mat: On the benefits of embodied numerical training approaches. Lee Ed. New York, NY: Routledge. Multi-digit number processing - Overview, conceptual clarifications, and language influences. Dowker Eds. Bochum: Verlag Dr. Diagnostics and intervention in dyscalculia: Current issues and novel perspectives. Breznitz, O. Rubinsten, V. Molfese Eds. Balzer, C. Balzer, J. Berger, G. Caprez, A. Gonser, K. Keller Eds. Rheinfelden: Normdaten Verlag. Berechnung und Anwendung der Normwerte.
Specific headwords for the section research and methods. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. HR Performances, 6 , Finger begreifen Zahlen: Einsatz von Tablets im mathematischen Erstunterricht. Magazin Digitale Schule. In-Mind, 3. InMind, 3. Hilft Fingerrechnen in der ersten Klasse beim Rechnen-Lernen?
Infobrief Schulpsychologie BW, 3. Dietrich, H. Development of a brief verbal test of basic numeracy. Re-inverting inversion of German number words through changes in writing direction. Loughborough, UK. Evidence on co-activation of number words in symbolic number processing. Number word inversion influences mental arithmetic in English-speaking adults. Oxford, UK. Barrocas, R.
Finger-based numerical representations predict preschoolers' cardinal number knowledge longitudinally. The longitudinal influence of fingers on the acquisition of discrete cardinal number knowledge. Geneva, Switzerland. Different aspects of non-canonical finger patterns and their association with arithmetic performance.
Bressanone, Italy. Neurofuctional changes in fraction learning: results of a training study. Neurofunctional plasticity in fraction learning. Los Angeles, USA. Evaluating a computational model of fraction arithmetic in adults. Task preparation and emotion regulation in numerical cognition. European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. London, UK. Neurofunctional plasticity in fraction learning assessed by pre-post intervention fMRI. Neuronal mechanisms of higher visual perception in visual quantification. Braeuning, D. Differential association of symbolic and non-symbolic numerical abilities in children with and without MLD — Evidence from large-scale assessment data.
Dresler, T. Influences of basic numerical competencies on fraction processing. Galefski, S. Effectiveness and benefits of game-based training for rational number understanding. Quantifying emotions in a game-based vs a non-games-based learning task. Increased emotional engagement in game-based learning. Palermo, Italy.
Solution strategies in bounded and unbounded number line estimation: A comparison of contour analysis and data modelling. Lambert, K. Basel, Schweiz. Sophia Antipolis, France. Hector Core Course: Verstehen wie Computer denken. Qualification Seminar. Influences of basic numerical competences on graphical literacy. Embodied number magnitude estimation. LEAD Retreat. Haptic feedback improves number magnitude estimation. Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen TeaP.
Increased emotional engagement in game-based math learning. Munich, Germany. Game-based training of rational number knowledge. Invited talk at Behavioural Science Institute. Nijmegen, Netherlands. Rebholz, F. Helping hands: Fine motor skills predict basic arithmetic abilities in preschool and first grade. Dots and Dice - Coding of non-symbolic quantities in the Intraparietal sulcus. Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Rennig, J. Neuronal Mechanisms of Gestalt Perception in visual Quantification. Linguistic influences on place-value processing in arithmetic fact retrieval. Potsdam, Germany. Strategies in negative fraction comparison. Spatial arrangement and set size influence the coding of non-symbolic quantities in the IPS. Vancouver, Canada.
Spatial arrangement and set size influence the coding of non-symbolic quantities in intraparietal sulcus. IDeA Winter School. Rodgau, Germany. The structure of number sense and its predictive value for future mathematic achievement.
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Impact of phonology and rule knowledge beyond domains? Maier, C. Inversion effects on mental arithmetic in English-speaking participants. Neurokognition und Rechnen. Bundeskongress Legasthenie und Dyskalkulie. Haptic feedback and abstract concepts: Touching numbers. European Workshop on Cognitive Neuropsychology. Brixen, Italy. Using a game-based number line estimation task to assess conceptual fraction knowledge. Tampere, Finland. Data-driven design decisions to improve game-based learning of fractions.
International Games and Learning Alliance conference. GALA Lissabon, Portugal. Manipulated Social power influences magnitude estimation. Differential influences of arithmetic abilities on number line estimation performance in children with and without mathematical learning difficulties. Leuven, Belgium. A common neural substrate of processing symbolic and non-symbolic proportions - Evidence from fMRI. Klein E. Premature birth selectively impairs the neural underpinnings of numerical cognition. Magnitude or multitude: What counts more? A common neural substrate for processing symbolic and non-symbolic proportions.
Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Same same, but different - on the neural correlates of processing symbolic and non-symbolic proportions. Zahlen im Kopf: Wie unser Gehirn Zahlen verarbeitet. Utrecht, The Netherlands. Finger dexterity and finger gnosis: Unique predictors of preschoolers numerical abilities.
Schwenk, C. Differential influences of domain-general and domain-specific abilities on number line estimation in children with and without MLD. Time matters — Temporal dynamics of number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. The bounded number line task - A reliable measure? With regard risk is often viewed as an important goal. Research on to substance use problems, their records more often the efficacy of interventions designed specifically for show an early onset of substance consumption [6,7], children from substance-affected families has mainly earlier drunkenness experiences , increased binge focused on two kindes of interventions: family-focused drinking rates  and an elevated risk for developing prevention efforts aimed at increasing supportive and substance use disorders at a younger age than compar- nurturing parenting  and mainly school-based able peers .
Approximately 33 to 40 percent of all peer group programmes that draw on the effects of children with a substance-using parent will develop a positive peer influence and mutual support . The substance use disorder themselves . Substance pro- majority of these studies have demonstrated positive blems are transmitted to the next generation via several programme effects in the area of coping skills, pro- pathways, especially genetic disposition [12,13], exposure gramme-related knowledge and social behaviour . Family environmental characteristics such as tive prevention programmes targeting children of sub- problematic family relationships, family conflict or stance abusers still remains rather scarce, especially absence of supportive parenting  also play an impor- outside of the United States.
Children from substance-affected families In Germany, it is estimated that approx. Paradoxically, at the same time they often depencence until they come of age . A more recent acquire the same positive expectations about the effects study concludes that five to six million youth under the of substance consumption that their substance-abusing age of twenty have at least one parent with alcohol pro- parent exhibits [18,19]. Learning from the example sub- blems . It is likely that an additional large number stance-dependent parents set, children later come to use of unreported cases exist .
Germany holds a highly substances as maladaptive coping strategy in stressful differentiated addiction care system for alcohol and drug and difficult times . Behavioural consequences in users that includes low-threshold offers such as outreach childhood and adolescence are gender-specific: while work, but also outpatient treatment centres, inpatient females lean toward withdrawal and social isolation, treatment services in psychiatric clinics as well as inpati- males often show antisocial behaviour .
In general, ent rehabilitation treatment. Outpatient treatment facil- male children seem to have more difficulties with com- ities are widespread, in urban as well as rural areas, and pensating for family problems resulting from parental provide low-threshold and cost-free counselling that is alcohol or drug use. Staff members within these cen- problems . However, not all children from sub- tres have diverse professional backgrounds ranging from stance-affected homes show maladaptive functioning. In social workers, pedagogues, psychologists and psy- fact, about one third of them exhibit no psychosocial chotherapists to medical staff.
Due to their different problems in spite of the adverse circumstances asso- roots, institutions operate with a variety of philosophies ciated with parental substance use [24,25]. These per- and therapeutical concepts. Outpatient walk-in and day clinics specialised likely to have social resources outside of their parents in alcohol and drug treatment also exist in larger medi- such as caring relatives or friends . Second, they cal centres. Patients may also enter all of these medical may be less exposed to parental alcohol or drug pro- centres directly, without referral. Therapeutic approaches group programmes were indicated most frequently are usually multimodal, combining different psychother- These are applied in a diag- also reported by In recruiting nosis-oriented treatment and offered as individual or children for the interventions, about two thirds of them group therapy.
Thus, in the vast majority of all cases, were recruited by their parents who were receiving professional assistance for persons with substance- counselling in the centre itself or by other institutions related problems is available and covered by insurance. Only few cases were Often, however, the situation of children is not taken referred into the programme by school or daycare cen- into account when a parent enters the German drug aid tres, even though it can be assumed that staff in these system.
Even though current data do not exist, statistics institutions should often be able to identify children from show that when parents receive addiction with substance-abusing parents. They Recently, the abovementioned findings on the develop- were also neither manualised nor evaluated . There- mental risks for children of substance-affected parents fore, the study at hand will be the first to provide data have spurred diverse local efforts to help, especially in on the effectiveness of a manualised group programme out-patient settings.
Arenz-Greiving and Kober  esti- for children from substance-affected families in mated in that about interventions for this Germany. These interventions included a wide variety of concepts and Objectives and hypotheses settings such as individual counselling, group pro- The objective of our study is to assess the effectiveness grammes, parent work, play groups, holiday camps and of the community-based group programme TRAMPO- many others. The authors also found a few inpatient LINE for children aged years with at least one sub- programmes for children of parents receiving alcohol or stance-abusing parent.
The effectiveness of the drug treatment in medical centres. Other than in the intervention will be tested two weeks and six months United States, for example, schools do not offer selective after the intervention. We expect that as a direct result programmes for children of parents with drug problems of the intervention, participants in the intervention con- for fear of stigmatising them.
Taking into account the dition will show a significant improvement in the use of large number of affected children, however, help for constructive coping strategies in general and within the children of parents with alcohol or drug problems is still family compared to the control condition. We further- rare in Germany. In addition, programme deliverers fre- more hypothesise that this effect will continue or quently face substantial recruitment challenges that will become stronger in the 6-month follow-up data collec- be detailed in the next section. Many existing pro- tion point primary hypothesis.
We also expect that grammes are not ongoing, but remain project-type exposure to the intervention will lead to other signifi- efforts. This is mainly due to funding issues: interven- cant improvements in the intervention participants, tions for children from substance-affected families are especially in the area of psychological stress and addic- not covered by German health insurance, but are funded tion-related knowledge compared with the control con- - often for a limited period of time only - by the com- dition secondary hypothesis.
Here also, we expect that munities, the federal states, or regional initiatives. All in these effects will be demonstrated directly after the all, there are several programmes for these at-risk chil- intervention and in the 6-month follow-up measure- dren, but programme delivery is rather unsystematic ment. We will explore for affected families. Moreover, previous efforts are not if these parent modules are also effective in improving evidence-based. The help from the outside.
Also we will Trial design explore regional effects such as differences in urban or The effectiveness of the nine-session group programme rural settings on program success. Out-patient counselling facilities across the substance-affected families, by applying a broad battery nation were chosen as project facilities since they cur- of measurements, because this population is still vastly rently have primary access to the target group in Ger- understudied in Germany.
With regard to process eva- many. It is involved children. The control which programme deliverers meet recruitment challenges. Even if their spouse ies strongly between facilities due to their heterogeneous or other relatives would like to see the child in such a pro- approaches and is in many cases hardly comparable to a gramme, the substance-abusing parent will object to their structured group programme e. Thus, to ensure comparabil- private and should be kept so. They also often fear the consequence of the ting. This will enable us to identify effects of TRAMPO- help system intervening if their problems become known, LINE that go above and beyond a general group setting up to the point of fearing that their children will be taken with effects resulting from variables such as trainer atten- out of the family and placed with foster caregivers.
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For many parents, having a child talk . Although the programme is high threshold request. If after screening for children whose developmental status families have to drive extended distances to participate in a fits in with this age group, allowing for the occasional 7 programme, this will lower their motivation. For many to 13 year-old. For each project centre, our research insti- families a weekly programme in itself can pose a substan- tute randomly assigned participating children either to tial problem of daily routine organisation, especially if this the intervention condition or to the control condition.
At routine is already difficult to handle due to substance pro- the time this manuscript is drafted, the field phase is blems.
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Families with lower socioeconomic status and few ongoing, with baseline data collection already completed. Feelings of distrust toward research and randomisa- derived from existing literature. During the pro- that a child can cope more constructively with difficult ject, we developed detailed recruitment strategy situations if it interprets them as a challenge. He or she recommendations to address these possible barriers to the will then actively react to the situation and, from this feasibility of conducting a group programme for children feeling of control, as also described in Rotter , will from these families.
We will specify these in the discussion eventually develop inner strength and resilience. In their section. Hence, interpretation and appraisal are targeted protection and a soft landing. In this way, the pro- at different times during the intervention. The stress- gramme aims at empowering participating children coping-support model by Velleman and Templeton  while at the same time providing support and a safe adds to this by postulating that stress and distress place to be.
In the first step, we structive coping strategies e. From this review, side. Antonovsky  posits that a sense of substance abuse and on handling difficult situations aris- coherence is a central influencing factor on health and ing from it. A sense of coherence is aquired when certain oriented and build on the strengths of participating chil- stimuli or events are experienced as understandable, dren. As children from sub- to remain fun and interesting for the children, i. In sense of coherence. From this knowledge exchange might come up in oneself or in the other.
This was ing of sessions within the programme. This process tegies for coping with stress, such as improving their further enhanced the foundation of the programme with emotion regulation, enhancing their problem solving regard to content and feasibility. In the third step, we skills in addiction-related and other problem situations conducted and closely monitored a pilot trial of the pro- and encouraging them to seek help in an appropriate gramme in one of the participating centres, after which way from significant others 2 to reduce the psychologi- further amendments were made.
The and accept further help and support in raising their chil- themes are delivered in an interactive and age-based dren. We also sion, then introducing the new topic of the day and gathered data on their relevant activities in the area by working on this with a variety of the didactics already sending out a questionnaire on their work with children mentioned. In between learning activities, there also are from substance-affected families . Each session is finished off by a relaxation programme and received financial incentives for their par- exercise.
As a number of facilities agreed to cooperate, The two parent sessions can be attended indepen- but could not recruit enough participants to conduct the dently, taking into account that in volatile families like intervention, several efforts had to be made during the those at hand programme providers cannot assume that entire field phase to engage and train new cooperation parents will come to both, or even one, of the sessions. In the end, 27 cooperating out-patient counsel- The content of the first session, conducted at the begin- ling centres participated in the project.
Centres were ning of the programme, is to inform parents about the almost uniformly distributed across the country with at programme their children will be attending and about least one participating centre in nearly every federal state. Also, parents some were youth and family support services or other share hopes they have for living together with their chil- groups. Participating facilities recruit participants using dren and are encouraged regarding parenting skills and their existing recruitment strategies as well as recruitment their importance for their children.
The content of the material provided by the research team flyers, webpage, second session, conducted at the end of the programme, posters, newspaper advertisements. They conduct intake is to inform parents about how the programme went talks with children and parents, inform them about the from the trainer perspective, to answer questions about content and goal of the programme and screen participat- issues that may have come up at home in the course of ing children for eligibility.
Inclusion criteria for children the programme and to sensitize parents for the needs of are: 1 age at beginning of the programme between 8 and children in substance-affected families and how care- 12 years, in exceptions after careful screening between 7 givers may be empowered in the future. Also parents and 13 years if developmental phase fits 2 current or are motivated to seek and accept further support in recent within the last year substance misuse or depen- their parenting role. The manual provides for parent dency in at least one parent 3 children either live with questions, group discussion and practical exercises in the substance-affected parent or have regular contact with both sessions.
We described the culties or if 2 they have received any kind of addiction- group as equally attractive to parents and children to specific treatment relevant to the study goals up to six minimize recruitment problems resulting from the ran- months prior to the intervention. Participating children domisation. Trainers are requested to refrain from initi- child and interview. Parents in the control con- Data are gathered at three points: At baseline, i. To address the expected literature shows that medium effect sizes can occur, but parental concerns about anonymity mentioned above these studies utilise wait-list controls so that effects may and to avoid bias, we trained bachelor-level students of be stronger than in the study at hand.
The students visited the families at all 0. Data will be ana- naires. For example, even though a mother had dren that actually participated in the programme from been informed that this was a group programme on start to finish. In cases like this, the interviewer called the analysis will be conducted.
Missing data will be imputed. For computations, the SPSS standards instruments, where possible, to assess our outcome vari- software will be used. Children report on socio-demographic data, cur- rent parental substance use, stress level and coping Quality assurance strategies, self-worth, self-efficacy and satisfaction with Whenever possible, standardised instruments are used. Parents ideally both or primary caregivers by the researchers was passed on to the student inter- report on psychological stress, their own substance use, viewers in a one-day training session. Coop- competence, parenting style, child coping strategies and erating centres received detailed study guidelines, child behavior.
An overview of measurements is given in informal information via telephone, recruitment material Table 1. Interviewers are blind to condition at baseline and the manuals themselves. The intervention in both and at t1, but not at t2 due to the fact that only the par- conditions is delivered by expert staff in the cooperating ents in the intervention condition participate in group institutions, mainly social workers, pedagoges, and psy- sessions and are asked about them in t2.
Course instructors in and experience in conducting group formats. Trainers the participating centres complete an extensive docu- received an intensive one-day training with regard to mentation on relevant variables adherence, interaction delivering the intervention and are advised to keep close with the group, possible disturbances after each child contact with the research group. At least two trainers and parent session.
Also, the instructors are required to are trained per cooperating centre to ensure a stand-in conduct visual recordings of two out of the nine child solution in case of illness or absence. Researchers con- sessions chosen by the research team. Children and par- duct regular supervisory phone calls to ensure ongoing ents evaluate each session they participate in directly communication about the intervention and its delivery. In addition, course instructors The satisfaction of trainers and participants is assessed and institute managers complete questionnaires on rele- at the end of each session and will be analysed as part vant characteristics such as structural data on their of the process evaluation.
These data will be used to analyse the quality of manual adherence and to Ethical considerations identify possible influencing factors such as instructor Participating centres, all participants and their parents qualification or group atmosphere. Statistical analyses Parents and children need to give written consent to be The sample size for our study is based on a power ana- able to participate in the study. Participants in the con- lysis for detecting small effect sizes. It is hypothe- or other services offered by participating facilities after sised that the addiction-specific group programme data gathering is completed.
All procedures are approved by unrelated play group on several relevant indicators such the ethics committee of the Chamber of Physicians in as coping skills or psychological distress. By working all federal states of Germany where participating centres together with many different institutions, we also hope to are located. The grammes targeting children from substance-affected study and its intervention have several strengths: First, families. This, in turn, requires sub- of practitioners in the field.
Second, the intervention is stance-affected parents to have insight into their own designed to be delivered by non-therapists and is easy to substance problems, know about services such as TRAM- deliver due to the manual and to its modular structure. POLINE and to be willing to overcome their inhibitions Thus, we view it as a pragmatic, low-threshold pro- for confronting their children with the topic of addiction. Third, there is a strict separation between pro- gible for the programme, only a small percentage is gramme deliverers and programme evaluators so that accessible to us.
In addition, the methodological require- bias is reduced. Fifth: we conduct a rigorous grammes of a comparably short duration, but usually evaluation by comparing the effects of the programme work with families over a very long period of time, mean- with an intervention of similar dosage, but without addic- ing months or even years.
Since this requires a lot of tion-specific content. Also, many substance-affected par- inviting children into open groups that run weekly and ents will not let their children participate in the are ongoing. We have approached these issues by provid- programme, thus creating a selection effect in the sam- ing cooperating facilities with a detailed guide specifying ple from the start.
Related Emotionsregulation bei Kindern im Kindergartenalter (German Edition)
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