The Drinking of Spirits


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Search form Search this site: Submit Search. Tool - Is your drinking okay? Tool - How much are you drinking? Where to get help About addiction treatment Standard drinks What's a standard drink? Moreover, sensation-seeking, impulsive, and aggressive adolescents were found to drink for enhancement motives Cooper et al. Since wine drinkers were found to drink moderately, we expect a wine preference to be negatively related to drinking levels and to the frequency of risky drinking occasions.

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Since drinking for conformity motives was also found to be related to moderate drinking habits e. Cooper, ; Kuntsche et al. Owing to the positive and attractive image of alcopops among adolescents Hughes et al.

Present data were collected by means of a paper—pencil questionnaire which was administered in class between the end of April and the end of June To avoid systematic dropouts, the exact date of the distribution of the questionnaires was not communicated to the school boards ahead of time. Teachers who administered the questionnaires in the classroom were advised only to respond to adolescents' queries about the procedure and to guarantee the independent completion of the questionnaire without interference from classmates.

According to the Helsinki Declaration World Medical Association, , the students could freely choose to participate and confidentiality was ensured at all stages of the study. Table 1 provides an overview of the variables used in the study. Beverage preference defined as the proportion of a specific beverage on the total amount of drinks consumed at the last drinking occasion.

If so, how much? All amounts were converted into drinks of 15 g of pure ethanol, thus reflecting the average drink size of ESPAD measures. Finally, the beverage-specific proportion sum for each beverage was obtained by dividing the amount of each single beverage by the total amount of drinks consumed at the last occasion sum of consumed quantities of alcopops, beer, cider, wine, and spirits. Detailed information about these questions can be found in Wicki et al. Drinking motives. The Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised DMQ-R: Cooper, is a item self-report measure that includes the four conceptually and empirically distinct dimensions of enhancement motives, e.

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Participants were instructed to consider all the times they have drunk alcohol and to indicate how many of these occasions they have drunk for the particular motive. The exact wording of all items is given in Cooper as well as in Kuntsche et al. Bland and Altman, ; Crichton, ; George and Mallery, , the items of each motive dimension were added up to summary scales, as originally suggested by Cooper Quantity-frequency index QF. Midpoints of categories were used and 45 occasions for the highest category [highest category plus half range to mid-point of adjacent category Wicki et al.

The usual quantity question assessed the total amount of standard drinks of any alcoholic beverage beer, wine, spirits, and alcopops as examples consumed on a typical occasion. Midpoints of categories were used, with 0. The quantity—frequency index was obtained by multiplying these two measures. Risky single occasion drinking RSOD. How many times if any have you had five or more drinks in a row? Midpoints of categories were used and Random cluster sampling was used, where classes served as the primary sampling unit.

An overall response rate of The sample can be considered as representative for all 8th, 9th, and 10th graders in public schools in the German, French, and Italian speaking regions in Switzerland. The advantage of this imputation method is that it uses the maximum available information for an individual from other items of the same concept cf. Kuntsche et al. The final sample consists of to year-old students of which The total mean age was The present study tests whether the association between beverage beer, spirits, wine, and alcopops preference and adolescents' alcohol use drinking levels and risky drinking occasions is mediated or moderated by drinking motives enhancement, social, conformity, and coping.

Figure 1 provides an illustration of moderation and mediation effects in the link between beverage preference, drinking motives, and adolescent alcohol use. First, for mediation, beverage preference was regressed on drinking motives Step 1 in Figure 1. Second, in a first hierarchical multiple regression model, only beverage preferences were included as independent variables Step 2 in Figure 1 to determine quantity—frequency and frequency of risky drinking occasions.

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In the second model, drinking motives were added Step 3 in Figure 1. If a significant association between beverage preference and alcohol use occurs in the first model but was reduced or disappeared after inclusion of motives in the second model, this would provide evidence of mediation cf. Illustration of moderation and mediation effects in the link between beverage preference, drinking motives, and adolescent alcohol use.

To test moderation, interactions between beverage preference and drinking motives were included in the third model of the hierarchical regression, and a backward stepwise selection strategy on all possible interactions was applied to identify significant interactions. The interaction terms were obtained by multiplying each drinking motive with each beverage preference as standard procedure for including interactions in multiple regressions Jaccard et al. If a significant interaction occurs in the third model this provide evidence of moderation cf.

All regression models were adjusted for sex and age. Since the participating students were selected by means of cluster sampling, all regression analyses were adjusted for design effects of clusters school classes by using the Huber—White sandwich estimator for standard errors in the statistical software package STATA 7. About two-thirds of the boys and one-third of the girls drank at least one beer at the last drinking occasion; about one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls had at least one glass of wine; more than one-third of the boys and one-third of the girls had at least one glass of spirits Table 2.

Nearly one-third of the boys and more than half of the girls drank more alcopops on the last drinking occasion than any other alcoholic beverage. Multiple regression analyses revealed that enhancement motives were positively related to the consumption of beer and spirits and negatively to the consumption of wine and alcopops Table 3. For example, as regards enhancement motives and beer preferences, the coefficient of 0.

Social motives were positively related to the consumption of alcopops and negatively to wine consumption.

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Conformity motives were positively related to wine consumption and negatively to beer consumption. Drinking motives as predictors in multiple regression analyses unstandardized regression coefficients and standard errors and t -values in brackets. The preference for beer or spirits was related to high quantity—frequency drinking and to a high frequency of RSOD Table 4. No associations emerged between a wine and alcopops' preference and adolescent alcohol use. The opposite, however, was not the case because those who had the highest drinking levels preferred beer and spirits, but also drank wine and alcopops, albeit to a lesser extent.

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Drinking motives, beverage preference, and their interactions as predictors unstandardized regression coefficients and standard errors and t -values in brackets of adolescent alcohol use quantity—frequency and risky single occasion drinking. The second model reveals that, independently from beverage preference, all drinking motives were significantly associated with adolescent alcohol use Table 4. However, compared with the inclusion of beverage preference only, both the coefficients of a beer and spirits' preference were reduced and only a spirits' preference remained significant for both quantity—frequency and RSOD when drinking motives were added in the second model.

In addition to the main effects of beverage preference and drinking motives, their interactions were included in the third model. Two interactions emerged from the backward selection method in this model. To reach a better understanding of these interactions, the relation between the proportion of a particular beverage and the frequency of having five drinks or more at single occasions according to a particular drinking motive was plotted on a graph. This was done using the results of the third model and the lowest and highest category of the particular beverage preference and drinking motive.

Figure 2 shows a slight and non-significant decrease in the frequency of RSOD, with an increasing percentage of alcopops in the total amount consumed at the last drinking occasion. The decrease, however, was steeper among those who indicated drinking almost always for social motives than among those who indicated that they never drank for social motives.


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The increase in the frequency of RSOD with a higher percentage of spirits in the total amount consumed at the last drinking occasion was steeper among those who indicated almost always drinking for coping or enhancement motives than among those who indicated that they never drank for coping or enhancement motives Figure 2. Illustration of the interaction between beverage preference and drinking motives in predicting the frequency of risky single occasion drinking.

Apart from associations between beverage preference and alcohol use, the present study investigated the motives behind adolescents' preference for a particular beverage, i. It appears that certain adolescents, particularly those who preferred beer and spirits but not wine and alcopops like to have fun, to feel the effects of alcohol, and to get drunk. It might be the case that these adolescents consider spirits as the most effective way and beer as the cheapest way to achieve the desired effects Edwards et al.

Adolescents who prefer wine tend not to drink excessively. If they drink, they seem to do so in order to conform to the drinking group norm, i. This might also be related to the rather normative use of wine in the adult drinking culture Smart, ; Smart and Walsh, and because it is a social habit Alvarez and del Rio, Furthermore, adolescents consume alcopops particularly together with peers at social gatherings, celebrations, or parties apparently due to the positive and attractive image of this alcoholic beverage Hughes et al.

The popularity of alcopops Roberts et al. The results also confirm that both beer and spirit consumption is related to high drinking levels and an increased frequency of risky drinking occasions e. When the latter were included in the second model, the effects of a preference for beer and spirits were markedly reduced and in the third model, the effects of a beer preference became non-significant for both quantity—frequency and RSOD.

The Drinking of Spirits The Drinking of Spirits
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