Communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking combined with digital literacy are the foundation of the 21C approach. Practices and principles of learning approaches need to continuously adapt to the reality of current situations by developing competencies that are used in the real world. We examine how learners can develop 21C competencies in addition to the typical language-focused competencies.
While there are slightly different versions of 21C skills, Compass examines the five critical areas of the framework. The 21C world combines ubiquitous, unabated access to information with ever-blurring lines of accuracy of the same information. As such, educators and publishers need to prepare learners for this world. Gone are the days of learners working from a rote memorization of vocabulary and language points which focus on one-way narrative of knowledge acquisition. Learners need more than ever to discern between alternative facts, fake news, real news, and everything in between.
Meanwhile exposure to authentic real- time content from multiple sources has never been higher. Thus, it is essential for students today to truly master wide range of subjects such as English, world languages, arts, mathematics, science, economics, geography, history, and politics. In addition, these subjects should be taught in a way that enables understanding on global issues, world finance, health, and environment. The classroom also needs to accept technology rather than resist it.
Learners have increased exposure to content, but access within the learning context provides more positive output when digital literacy is paired with increased communication, developed collaboration, improved creativity, and developed critical thinking skills. Digital literacy in the 21C is more than just access to information. It is about using that information in the right way. Learners can build that ability through gaining experience using multiple platforms for both input and output.
Content designed to develop young minds is filled with bright and vivid images. Fundamental phonemic awareness and phonics skills are presented through interactive and enjoyable activities. Compass provides the first step on getting your learners on the right track. Cognitive and basic motor skills will be developed in the Starter book, providing the necessary skills to learn the alphabet and single letter sounds through analytic phonics in books 1 and 2.
Learners will become familiar with and learn to love the characters that appear throughout this series! Lewis Jungle Phonics is a four-level phonics series designed for the early beginning learners of English. The series will focus on proper phonemic awareness skills and provide simple learning methods for students to build crucial foundational skills.
Activities, practices, and images are designed to engage learners throughout this process in an active and enjoyable manner by incorporating verbal and writing skills together. Jungle Phonics not only builds from individual letters, but allows growth through blends and simple word construction to allow more confidence in practical usage. Sounds Great initiates the path to English fluency with a systematic presentation of the alphabet, vowel combinations, and consonant blends. The full-color illustrations and vast assortment of activities in each unit allow learners to develop their reading and writing skills.
The interactive Hybrid CDs provide helpful pronunciations of the target letters and sounds, as well as activating computer-based learning skills. Sounds Great is an easy-to-use series designed to make phonics not only easier for children, but also for the teachers! Each reader contains four stories related to the content and skills developed throughout the series.
Sounds Fun! Writing for Fun! Complimentary Downloads compasspub. Whether at home or in the classroom, Songbirds will provide hours of music and fun! With TPR activities, students have an easier time recalling vocabulary from the songs through repetition of the lyrics and connection of the words to rhythms and melodies. The audio CD contains many familiar Christmas carols. Educators, parents, and kids will find the melodies lively and refreshing. Out of the 25 songs, four are accompanied by games and activities that will keep children involved and interested.
Nature 2. Animals 3. People and Places 4. Games 5. School and Friends Three Themes 1. Activities 2. Actions 3. The audio CDs contain many familiar tunes, including classroom songs, nursery rhymes, folk songs, and sing-alongs. Children can dance, role-play, pantomime, walk like an elephant and quack like a duck!
At home, at school, or just riding in the car, songs bring out the kid in all of us. Scan to view sample unit! Comprehensive skills incorporating a wide range of proven pedagogies provide flexibility for educators while allowing learners to experience different learning strategies. Learners will improve their competencies through the use of our courses.
Treehouse Hang Out! Students join our characters on a different adventure in each unit, and are engaged through a variety of fun and exciting activities to help the story progress. These elements combine to help students learn vocabulary, foundational grammar structures, colors, shapes, numbers, phonics, values, and cross-curricular content.
This comprehensive language program is developed around a CEFR-based curriculum, and gradually takes students from producing simple phrases to complex sentences in a widening-range of topic areas and situations. Through vivid illustrations, realistic readings, and engaging comics, students follow a family of characters in their daily lives, building their knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, common grammar structures, and useful expressions.
Each unit of Hang Out! This comprehensive language program is a fresh and interesting way for beginner students to study English. Through the series, students will advance from simple phrases to complex sentences with ease and comfort. As the name suggests, English Chest is a treasure trove for teachers and students alike. Each lesson includes conversations, stories, language builders, songs, games, and activities specifically developed to improve reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills.
The wide variety of exercises guarantees that students of all learning styles will find entertainment and satisfaction. Teachers receive step-by-step instructions for each section with warm-up ideas, activity organization, and tips. In addition to teaching strategies and supplemental activity ideas for each unit, the accompanying CD-ROM includes MP3 audio files, PowerPoint unit walk-through, a placement test, 12 lesson reviews, 12 vocabulary tests, a final test, printable flashcards, wordlists, song lyrics, and more.
Each book of this four-skill series focuses on a separate skill, allowing students to concentrate on the necessary techniques and strategies for that particular skill, without having to encounter multiple skills. Each level introduces and teaches of the most common headwords encountered in communication and academic study. Learners completing all four levels of the Drive Series will study 2, different headwords.
This course is appropriate for students learning English for the first time, and for those who have studied for years and need a fresh and communicative approach. Grammar is introduced systematically and integrated with situations and topics students need to communicate in English. Students learn structures through student-centered activities and apply them in practical situations.
Fun activities, humor, and appealing characters help to draw the student into the course. All language targets are constantly brought alive through personalization and interactive activities. Vocabulary and patterns are recycled through the course allowing sustained practice in a supportive environment. Each unit provides useful expressions for everyday settings with various types of speaking and writing practices. As students learn through practicing dialogues in pairs or group activities and review questions, they will gain familiarity with diverse situations of English-speaking culture.
Similar design layout with Communicate, Motivate contains content of slightly higher difficult to make smooth transition from intermediate to upper intermediate. The series engages learners with relevant content, appealing aesthetics, and meaningful outcomes in every lesson. Interact is a multi-level communicative language course for foundation pre-AI to upper intermediate B2 learners of English. Competency outcomes are attained through the proper balance of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. With a deliberate emphasis on integrated skill activities, the series includes clear language focus through grammar points and supportive vocabulary.
Activities designed to develop communication skills, collaboration competency, creativity, and critical thinking ability are integrated throughout the series. Digital components help learners develop digital literacy and expand the lessons. From introducing basic greetings and social situations to dealing with select academic or vocational topics, the Blueprint series will provide the mature learner with relevant practical skills. Grammar, vocabulary, speaking patterns, and listening activities will allow practice essential for the development and mastering of real world usage.
Watch as their minds expand and explore the world outside the classroom.
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Our carefully selected readers allow English learners to improve their reading skills step-by-step simultaneously increasing their reading independency. English-language learners will enjoy developing their vocabulary acquisition, grammar application, reading fluency, and overall ability through use of these materials. What are graded readers? Graded readers, also known as leveled readers or language-learning literature, are short fiction and nonfiction books with audio that are carefully developed to meet the specific needs of English-language learners.
They are designed to keep learners interested and motivated through tight control of the plot, vocabulary, and grammar, and have been specially written or adapted within a controlled vocabulary level and grammatical syllabus, with difficulty increasing through the levels. Why use graded readers? Graded readers help students to learn how to read confidently, fluently, and quickly. Reading fluently is a skill that must be learned and practiced to quickly and confidently process text for its meaning, not just as a language exercise. Developing the skill to read fluently will not only help students to learn and use English, it will help them to do better on tests and in other real-life situations that require reading in English.
However, it also offers students the freedom to select titles that interest them, and to read at their own pace when and where they want. Whole-Class Reading Program Creating and implementing a whole-class reading program ensures all students have read the same graded reader. This method provides students with the opportunity to discuss the reader in a group setting which can promote team-building. Lewis Tip Top Readers is a book series developed to help very young learners build their foundation on phonics. Carefully written stories reflect a systematic presentation of the alphabet to help readers recognize sound patterns while reading fun-filled stories with captivating illustrations.
Each reader is coupled with a workbook filled with fun activities to review the story as well as phonics objectives. This series provides a unique array of fiction and nonfiction graded readers that have been creatively designed to develop vocabulary, reading comprehension, and reading fluency.
This award-winning series provides 60 traditional tales rewritten in easy-to-understand American English, over six-levels, with colorful illustrations. Young English-language learners will enjoy developing their vocabulary and reading fluency throughout this series. The book includes wonderful illustrations and a playlet for a class performance. This series provides 60 carefully designed and retold tales in easy-to-understand American English, using vocabulary and sentence structures appropriate for each of the six levels.
Each reader is certain to help English-language learners enjoy developing their vocabulary, fluency, and love of reading. Workbooks The activity-filled pages encourage learners to practice their listening, speaking, and writing skills. Designed to transition learners from graded readers to authentic texts, each story includes engaging content that offers real-world knowledge to the learner.
This captivating series gives young learners suspects, clues, and important information that will make them feel like they are mystery solvers. Look for icon! Reading is fun to teach and learn! Teachers and learners can monitor reading history with a progress chart and reading log.
The level test is divided into two parts: a vocabulary test and a reading comprehension test. The learner is then placed into an appropriate level and provided with recommended titles. Flashcards and a recordable sing along section is also provided. Books for older children use increasingly complex language, normal print, and fewer if any illustrations. The categories with an age range are these:.
Pictures have always accompanied children's stories. Generally, artwork plays a greater role in books intended for younger readers especially pre-literate children. Children's picture books often serve as an accessible source of high quality art for young children. Even after children learn to read well enough to enjoy a story without illustrations, they like their elders continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books. According to Joyce Whalley in The International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature , "an illustrated book differs from a book with illustrations in that a good illustrated book is one where the pictures enhance or add depth to the text.
Acting as a kind of encyclopedia, Orbis Pictus had a picture on every page, followed by the name of the object in Latin and German. It was translated into English in and was used in homes and schools around Europe and Great Britain for many years. Early children's books, such as Orbis Pictus , were illustrated by woodcut , and many times the same image was repeated in a number of books regardless of how appropriate the illustration was for the story.
One of the first uses of Chromolithography a way of making multi-colored prints in a children's book was demonstrated in Struwwelpeter , published in Germany in English illustrator Walter Crane refined its use in children's books in the late 19th century. Another method of creating illustrations for children's books was etching , used by George Cruikshank in the s. Most pictures were still black-and-white, and many color pictures were hand colored, often by children. Twentieth-century artists such as Kay Nielson , Edmund Dulac , and Arthur Rackham produced illustrations that are still reprinted today.
After World War II, offset lithography became more refined, and painter-style illustrations, such as Brian Wildsmith 's were common by the s. Professional organizations, dedicated publications, individual researchers and university courses conduct scholarship on children's literature. Wolf, et al. Typically, children's literature scholars from literature departments in universities English, German, Spanish, etc. This literary criticism may focus on an author, a thematic or topical concern, genre, period, or literary device and may address issues from a variety of critical stances poststructural, postcolonial, New Criticism, psychoanalytic, new historicism, etc.
Results of this type of research are typically published as books or as articles in scholarly journals. The field of Library and Information Science has a long history of conducting research related to children's literature. Most educational researchers studying children's literature explore issues related to the use of children's literature in classroom settings.
They may also study topics such as home use, children's out-of-school reading, or parents' use of children's books. Teachers typically use children's literature to augment classroom instruction. Controversies often emerge around the content and characters of prominent children's books. The academic journal Children's Literature Review provides critical analysis of many well known children's books. In its th volume, the journal discuses the cultural stereotypes in Belgian cartoonist Herge 's Tintin series in reference to its depiction of people from the Congo.
After the scramble for Africa which occurred between the years of and there was a large production of children's literature which attempted to create an illusion of what life was like for those who lived on the African continent. This was a simple technique in deceiving those who only relied on stories and secondary resources. Resulting in a new age of books which put a "gloss" on imperialism and its teachings at the time. Thus encouraging the idea that the colonies who were part of the African continent were perceived as animals, savages and un human like.
Therefor needing cultured higher class Europeans to share their knowledge and resources with the locals. Also promoting the idea that the people within these places were as exotic as the locations themselves. Examples of these books include:. Eske Wollrad claimed Astrid Lindgren 's Pippi Longstocking novels "have colonial racist stereotypes",  urging parents to skip specific offensive passages when reading to their children. Criticisms of the novel The Secret Garden by author Frances Hodgson Burnett claim endorsement of racist attitudes toward black people through the dialogue of main character Mary Lennox.
The picture book The Snowy Day , written and illustrated by Ezra Jack Keats was published in and is known as the first picture book to portray an African-American child as a protagonist. Middle Eastern and Central American protagonists still remain underrepresented in North American picture books.
Additionally, only 92 of the books were written by Africans or African Americans. Latimer has criticized popular children's books for their renditions of people as almost exclusively white, and notes that Dr. Seuss books contain few ethnic minority people. The first black family did not appear in the series until the s, thirty years into its run. Writer Mary Renck Jalongo In Young Children and Picture Books discusses damaging stereotypes of Native Americans in children's literature , stating repeated depictions of indigenous people as living in the s with feathers and face paint cause children to mistake them as fictional and not as people that still exist today.
Barrie 's Peter Pan are widely discussed among critics. Wilder's novel, based on her childhood in America's midwest in the late s, portrays Native Americans as racialized stereotypes and has been banned in some classrooms. Lynn Byrd describes how the natives of Neverland in Peter Pan are depicted as "uncivilized", valiant fighters unafraid of death and are referred to as "redskins", which is now considered a racial slur.
The presence of empire as well as pro-colonialist and imperialist themes in children's literature have been identified in some of the most well known children's classics of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the French illustrator Jean de Brunhoff 's picture book Histoire de Babar, le petit elephant The Story of Babar , The Little Elephant , prominent themes of imperialism and colonialism have been noted and identified as propaganda. An allegory for French colonialism, Babar easily assimilates himself into the bourgeois lifestyle. It is a world where the elephants who have adapted themselves dominate the animals who have not yet been assimilated into the new and powerful civilization.
Rey and Margret Rey 's Curious George first published in has been criticized for its blatant slave and colonialist narratives. Critics claim the man with the yellow hat represents a colonialist poacher of European descent who kidnaps George, a monkey from Africa, and sends him on a ship to America.
Details such as the man in colonialist uniform and Curious George's lack of tail are points in this argument. In an article, The Wall Street Journal interprets it as a "barely disguised slave narrative. Baum 's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
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With many women of this period being represented in children's books as doing housework, these two books deviated from this pattern. Drawing attention to the perception of housework as oppressive is one of the earliest forms of the feminist movement. Little Women , a story about four sisters, is said to show power of women in the home and is seen as both conservative and radical in nature. The character of Jo is observed as having a rather contemporary personality and has even been seen as a representation of the feminist movement.
It has been suggested that the feminist themes in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz result from influence of Baum's mother-in law, Matilda Gage , an important figure in the suffragist movement. Baum's significant political commentary on capitalism, and racial oppression are also said to be part of Gage's influence. Examples made of these themes is the main protagonist, Dorothy who is punished by being made to do housework. Another example made of positive representations of women is in Finnish author Tove Jansson 's Moomin series which features strong and individualized female characters.
In addition to perpetuating stereotypes about appropriate behavior and occupations for women and girls, children's books frequently lack female characters entirely, or include them only as minor or unimportant characters. Seuss , would typically be assigned the gender-specific roles of receptionists and nurses. Milne , are primarily male, with the exception of the character Kanga , who is a mother to Roo. On the one hand Growing up with Dick and Jane highlights the heterosexual, nuclear family and also points out the gender-specific duties of the mother, father, brother and sister,  while Young Children and Picture Books , on the other hand, encourages readers to avoid books with women who are portrayed as inactive and unsuccessful as well as intellectually inferior and subservient to their fellow male characters to avoid children's books that have repressive and sexist stereotypes for women.
She also says that capitalism encourages gender-specific marketing of books and toys. She argues girls have traditionally been marketed books that prepare them for domestic jobs and motherhood. Conversely, boys are prepared for leadership roles and war.
S; during that time, male characters outnumbered female characters by more than 3 to 2, and male animals outnumbered female animals by 3 to 1. I'm Glad I'm a Boy! I'm Glad I'm a Girl! The book informs the reader that boys are doctors, policemen, pilots, and presidents while girls are nurses, meter maids, stewardesses and first ladies. Mehdi Ghasemi draws attention to the ways Janaki Sooriyarachchi — the writer and illustrator of The Flying Train — validates feminine and masculine voices and visions and balances gender issues both in the story book's narratives and illustrations.
Nancy F. Cott, once said that "gender matters; that is, it matters that human beings do not appear as neuter individuals, that they exist as male or female, although this binary is always filtered through human perception. I should add that when I say gender, I am talking about meaning. I am talking about something in which interpretation is already involved. A widely discussed and debated topic by critics and publishers in the children's book industry is whether outdated and offensive content, specifically racial stereotypes, should be changed in new editions.
Some question if certain books should be banned,  while others believe original content should remain, but publishers should add information to guide parents in conversations with their children about the problematic elements of the particular story. Jenkins suggests that parents and educators should trust children to make responsible judgments. Some books have been altered in newer editions and significant changes can be seen, such as illustrator Richard Scarry 's book Best Word Book Ever.
Several versions of Little Black Sambo have been remade as more appropriate and without prejudice. Bruno Bettelheim in The Uses of Enchantment , uses psychoanalysis to examine the impact that fairy tales have on the developing child. Bettelheim states the unconscious mind of a child is affected by the ideas behind a story, which shape their perception and guides their development. Their environment and interaction with images in picture books have a profound impact on this development and are intended to inform a child about the world.
Children's literature critic Peter Hunt argues that no book is innocent of harbouring an ideology of the culture it comes from. She also attributes capitalism , in certain societies, as a prominent means of instructing especially middle class children in how to behave. Ausdale claims children as young as three have already entered into and begun experimenting with the race ideologies of the adult world. She asserts racist attitudes are assimilated  using interactions children have with books as an example of how children internalize what they encounter in real life.
International awards also exist as forms of global recognition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Children's Literature journal. For the A. Byatt novel, see The Children's Book. For the song, see Children's Story. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Library of Congress Collections Policy Statement. Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 June Twentieth-Century Children's Writers.
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