On the other hand, if the person is just randomly browsing the album, the French translation is "Je regarde des photographies. The partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As for prepositions, de le contracts combines into du , and de les contracts into des. Also, de l' is used in front of words starting with vowels. When speaking about food, the partitive article is used sometimes, while the definite article le, la, les is used at other times, and the indefinite article un, une in yet another set of situations.
In general "de" refers to a part of food a piece of pie whereas the definite article le refers to a food in general I like pie in general. The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food I would like a whole pie. When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article. If the noun taken in a partitive sense happens to be preceded by a qualifying adjective, or a negative verb, then de is used alone. Wikipedia has related information at French articles and determiners.
In French, all nouns have a grammatical gender ; that is, they are either masculin m or feminin f. Most nouns that express people or animals have both a masculine and a feminine form. For example, the two words for "the actor" in French are l'acteur m and l'actrice f. The two words for "the cat" are le chat m and la chatte f. However, there are some nouns that talk about people or animals whose gender are fixed, regardless of the actual gender of the person or animal.
For example, la personne f the person is always feminine, even when it's talking about your uncle! The nouns that express things without an obvious gender e. This form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture the car can only be feminine; le stylo the pen can only be masculine. There are many exceptions to gender rules in French which can only be learned. There are even words that are spelled the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, le livre m means the book , but la livre f means the pound.
Some words that appear to be masculine like le photo , which is actually short for la photographie are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that just don't make sense; la foi is feminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver. A pronoun replaces a noun in a sentence.
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Often used to prevent repeating the noun. French has six different types of subject pronouns: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person plural. Tu is informal and used only with well-known acquaintances. In case of unknown persons you have to use the polite form Vous.
A good example, to explain that is the following: If two business acquaintances meet another, they say Vous. If they later fall in love, they say Tu. When unsure, it is better to say "vous. However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun.
Ils is used with all-male or mixed groups, elles is only used when all members of the group are female. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely matches the English "one", except that it is not so formal, and is more common. It has a number of uses:. On does not have ordinary direct- and indirect-object pronouns, only the reflexive pronoun se. Similarly, its disjunctive-pronoun form, soi , is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity. The pronoun quelqu'un "someone" can fill some of the roles of on , in the same way that one and someone are sometimes interchangeable in English.
A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns je, tu Similarly, direct objects, such as "la balle", can be replaced by pronouns. Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition. An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. When used with the direct object pronouns le, la , and les , lui and leur come after those pronouns.
Note that while le, la , and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. Also note that unlike le and la , which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened. Note that lui and leur , and not y , are used when the object refers to a person or persons. The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de for which en is used.
When expressing positive commands, there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. These are:. Wikipedia has related information at French Pronouns. In the introduction of the book the description of a sentence, versus a phrase was outlined. A sentence, and not a phrase, is a grammatical unit, which may have nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.
Like English, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark. This word order is pretty much the same as English. While this is true in the literal sense, it doesn't mean you can't get the point across in another way. In the second example you will see that the direct object and indirect object have been swapped. In order to translate an English statement like this, you would have to slide the indirect object to its proper place.
Il aime les bonbons. He likes sweets. Il aime les bonbons? Does he like sweets? To form a question, attach "Est-ce que Sometimes "que" has to be modified to "qu'" for elision. Est-ce is actually the inversion of c'est "it is". Like all inversions a '-' dash is required. These questions in this form are typically mean't to elicit a "Oui" or "Non" answer. If you want more than that, you must precede it with an interrogative: Quand est-ce que, Qui est-ce que, or Quel est-ce que, for example. Some of these later examples can more easily be said by just leaving the inversion off. If the question is negative, then the form is: n'est-ce pas, as in: N'est-ce pas qu'il fait beau temps?
It is good weather, is it not? Example: Il aime ce film. He likes this film. This is considered to be the most formal way to ask a question out of the three. The indicative form of the following sentences will be placed in parentheses for comparison. To ask a question by inversion, simply invert the verb and the subject the pronoun and insert a hyphen un trait d'union in between. Example: Do you like apples?
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You like apples. Aimes-tu les pommes? Tu aimes les pommes. In the case where the verb ends in a vowel while the subject starts with one, a "t" needs to be inserted to avoid elision. Example: Did she make the decision already? She made the decision already. For third person plural verbs ending in "ent" , there is no need to insert the "t". Example: Are they buying a house? They are buying a house. If the subject is a noun instead of a pronoun, invert the verb and the pronoun that represents the subject. Example: Did Marie choose this shirt?
Marie chose this shirt. Marie a choisi cette chemise. For negative such as "ne You didn't eat the whole pizza. Example: Have you been there? You have been there. Si tu finis tes devoirs, je te donnerai des bonbons. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters.
Exprimer ses sentiments synonyme
Sort order. May 08, Owlseyes inside Notre Dame, it's so strange a hour blaze and He would be a dangerous president for France] "Macron loves only himself and he will fight to defend their fragile identity. Apr 14, LaBibliodeCaro rated it liked it. May 12, Buck Jones rated it liked it. A year ago, most of the French had no idea who he was. Today, he is the new president of France. The youngest, at 39, to have ever been elected to that office, and the youngest head of state of France since Napoleon. This book does not tell the story of how he got there from a political, strategic basis.
Nor does it explain the vast reservoir of disenchantment the French feel towards their economic reality -- girded tightly to the European Union led by an austerity obsessed Germany under Angela A year ago, most of the French had no idea who he was. Instead the author, Anne Fulda, documents from a series of interviews where Macron came from, what formed him, and hopefully, from these fragments of stories are we able to learn more about this quite spectacular man.
He was born into a family of upper middle class provincial professionals. His father a doctor, his mother also in the medical field, and from the earliest age was treated as a "gift from God" by his non-religious parents he was born a year after the miscarriage of their first child, on December 22nd; Emmanuel in Hebrew is translated as "Gift from God". But he was especially doted on by his grandmother, "Manette", who lived down the street from the Macrons in Amiens.
She was a former school mistress of one of the local schools, and treated young "Manu" as a precocious intellectually curious child -- feeding him books, discussing French literature, teaching him history and poetry. It is this genesis story of him being taken in by those older than him, of him becoming the "adopted son" or "younger brother" from a long list of powerful men and influential women such as his grandmother that we learn about Emmanuel Macron's character.
He is at once described as intellectual and intelligent, but also with a profound, deep sense of empathy. Many of those interviewed describe the experience of talking with him, and feeling absorbed in his deep blue eyes as he soaks in their conversation, taking in every word, every syllable, as if you are the only person that matters at that moment. As he progresses from childhood into his adolescence, he yearns to become a writer, even a playwright perhaps.
In his high school he discovers his talent for writing and experiments with theatre, and falls in love with his drama teacher, a woman 24 years his senior who is married with three children Emmanuel's age. They keep their affair discrete at first, but once his parents inadvertently discover the truth, it his grandmother "Manette" who finally gives her blessing to the pair. But it isn't immediate that the two of them become a public couple. First, Emmanuel is shipped off to Paris -- his father hoping that the distance will cool things off between him and Brigitte as he studies for his final year of studies before taking the all important entrance exams for university.
He is accepted to university, and is not distracted by girls or the typical post-adolescent shenanigans of his peers since he has Brigitte back home. Instead he throws himself into his school work, and develops close mentoring relationships with influential professors who push his boundaries of thought and challenge his ideas. He is universally seen, again the repeated refrain, as both highly intelligent and deeply empathetic.
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But there begins the soft questioning of some as to whether the empathy is genuine, can someone really be "so perfect"? When someone has a different opinion from him, he wants to engage them, find out why they feel that way, and debate them on the merits or demerits of the idea. He is competent, sometimes frustratingly so, and cautious in defining what he believes -- ultimately he are led to believe that what guides him is to be liked, even loved, by others.
Particularly his elders. The book was ready to come out by the end of the year, but for economic reasons Gaston Gallimard delays it. This knowledge of the language reflected clearly in his own work, especially in his self-translation work. Even if Giuseppe Ungaretti was not the main translator of his poems in this instance, he still oversaw and partially collaborated to the translation work done by Chuzeville.
It would be important to know, because I have reworked the Porto, in this new edition, and I wish the translation that will be published to be after this new lesson. Between these two editions there are significant textual and structural changes. These poems are the ones present in almost every publication, and will thus be the most telling. This section is the shortest one of the book only five poems , it was written during the journey towards the French front and his stay there and was produced after a few months of poetic silence Radin: Afterwards, with some modifications and a new typographical appearance, Ungaretti had translated them and included them in La Guerre Before starting the analysis, it is necessary to supply some explanatory remarks to facilitate the reading.
The poems are indicated with their French title as translated by Chuzeville, between parenthesis is the Italian final title. The verse numbers are taken from AL31 unless differently stated. The full texts, in their several editions, are presented in the Appendix A in the same order of the analysis.
Obviously, the rhythm of the poem results modified. This effect is strengthened by the syntactic rearrangement: instead of having the two verbs of the composition at the beginning v. A consequent result of such grammatical rearrangement is a prosaic appearance of the sentences, to which Chuzeville also adds punctuation. Even more remarkably, in CL53 the word order follows exactly the Italian one. Although many of the words he employs are the same that were chosen by Ungaretti in G19 and that will be proposed again by Lescure in CL53, there are two main exceptions.
AL31 v. It does not matter that Ungaretti will decide to eliminate it from the Italian later editions, because Chuzeville could not have known that.
Even if the number of verses does not change in an apparent way, it takes only one reading to notice the interpolation of a new verse VH39 v. This line cannot be traced back to a specific verse of the Italian original or any of the previous editions , its meaning being only implied in the original text. The rhythm of the poem is, therefore, perceptibly changed, once again, towards the prose. Furthermore, Chuzeville, in an approach consistent throughout the whole book, adds again the punctuation that Ungaretti had rejected. Lastly, concerning the lexical choices, there are a few elements that suggest again that Chuzeville might have had the French version of La Guerre at hand.
In particular, he proposed again the translation of v. In the first stanza, Chuzeville has unified two lines into one and in the second stanza four lines into one. The resulting four verses have gained a symmetry that lacked in AL VH39 stanza one v. These four verses are also noticeably longer than the original, a consequence of which is a modification of the poetic rhythm. The distribution in two stanzas of two verses each of the poetic text is also an indication of the aforementioned simplifying trend. The AL31 vv. Ungaretti divides these two terms of comparison in two separated stanzas only from AL36; however, the Italian poet does so in a radically different way than Chuzeville.
Thus the metaphor is subjected to a simplification process that attributes the whole poem to one subject the land and only briefly establishes a comparison with the other the young mother. As a consequence of this translation decision, Jean Chuzeville has left out two verses, v. Moreover, such simplification also entailed some grammatical changes; in particular, Chuzeville drops v. However, this modification entailed a change in the meaning of the poem, because the direct object v. For example, v. Moreover, Chuzeville systematically employs words that create a darker, heavier, atmosphere. Instead of a delicate adjective such as v.
Another example is VH39 v. To reinforce this dark atmosphere, Chuzeville also introduces a new line, v. Another signal of the problems posed by the Italian text is the numerous transpositions operated by Chuzeville. Apart from the aforementioned case at v. In the first case, the adverb is changed to an adjective linked to the noun into which the original verb is transmuted: VH39 v.
Even if the four stanzas of the original have been maintained, the number of verses has been halved from eighteen to nine lines, with the second and fourth stanzas being the ones most affected by this reduction: the first went from six to two lines and the last one from three verses to only one. A striking choice, considering Ungaretti extremely scarce use of them, is his decision to integrate suspension points in conclusion of every single stanza. Such syntactic rearrangement appears in another line as well, v. Ungaretti will restore the French text to the original play in the translation done with Lescure CL Similarly, the CL53 translation restored those words that Chuzeville had not translated.
The Italian poem was also more rich in temporal adverbs, v. This transformation is straightened out without such reservations by Ungaretti and Lescure in CL53 vv. Thus, the transition from one language to another sometimes even reveals the origin of this or that poem and provides an undeniable insight into its origin. I am not a French poet and those poems seemed a strange exercise only to be forgotten letter to Alberto Mondadori, 11 Nov. Non sono un poeta francese e quei componimenti mi sembravano uno strano esercizio da dimenticare.
In a previous letter to Raimondi, dated march , Ungaretti is talking about the publication of his poems in Italian and in French and states that: The French text will not be a translation, but poetry; I possess for it the instinct of that language suckled with the first words uttered while starting to recognize myself on earth. Letter to Soffici [26 Aug. Cristiana Maggi Romano, in her critical edition of Allegria published in , writes that it is possible to prove that the French version featured in La Guerre of some of the poems is the original one and the base for the subsequent Italian poem p.
It rather seems that the approach — the quest — to the final text happens through the in-between situation itself, particularly in an almost perfect bilingual poet as Ungaretti. Nevertheless, in Ungaretti was satisfied of his work and the French public positively welcomed the publication of La Guerre. Why do I translate? A last remark on La Guerre is a recapitulation of the findings of the previous chapter.
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This work, which was welcomed by positive reviews e. Braga and was signalled in the newspapers e. I had at least ten friends from the office, those in which you and I can have the most confidence, read it: no one understood a word. However tell him that no one at the NRF had understood his writing. Les Cinq Livres Giuseppe Ungaretti, however, must have shared some of his friends concerns if he decided to change translator and ask Jean Lescure for a collaboration. I have as much respect for your French as not than for your Italian.
They celebrated me like never before for anyone. From the analysis of the text it resulted that the second translator had not agreed with the choices of the first in any but one case a lexical choice ; all of the opposite, Lescure had stayed as close as possible to the Italian text.
Some of his translations of Ungaretti will be included by Jaccottet in VH On the contrary, it is plausible to advance the hypothesis that it was in response to this first translations that it grew in Ungaretti the desire to propose to the French public a book that mirrored more closely its Italian work. The Italian poet, being a translator himself, was well aware of the problems of translating poetry, a task that he declared impossible on several occasions.
Possibly this decision was influenced by the hope of a closer collaboration with Chuzeville for this second translation, a possibility that was denied in the first case due to the fact that he was, at the time, in Brazil as a university professor. Moreover, Ungaretti could collaborate closely with Lescure and Jaccottet and both works were received more positively. For what concern the texts of the two subsequent translations, in both cases the syntax, the grammar and the lexical choices are more close to the Italian original, abandoning almost all the changes proposed by Chuzeville, in a clear reaction to this first translation.
As is clearly demonstrated by the investigation of his private and public connections and by the insight into his own perceptions of the matter revealed in some private letters, it is self-evident that Ungaretti was very interested and directly involved in the French literary scene. Therefore, it is natural that the first publication of his translated work was going to be carefully observed by him and that it would have had a similar status to his own production in French.
Furthermore, Ungaretti was also an extraordinary translator and he used the practice of translation as a way of testing his own work in a different language Vegliante, 9. First of all, the publication has been presented in its completeness and then six poems have been singled out for being the ones bound to provide more interesting information. To do so the six poems have been analysed one by one in comparison with the original text from AL This confirmation has not come in a direct form, indeed only in one instance a solution proposed by Chuzeville has been maintained in the following French translation and also integrated into the Italian text.
In particular, several passages which had been modified in the first translation have later been restored to a closer version of the Italian one. Moreover, from the textual analysis, it seems clear that Chuzeville looked at La Guerre while working on his own translation, taking liberties to similarly modify the line lengths and the number of verses of the poems. Lastly, the positive reception of the French work might have favourably prepared the audience for the new book.
Having said that, he still decided to collaborate with Lescure for a new publication of his translations, instead of trusting Chuzeville again. Les Cinq Livres, a translation done conjointly by Lescure and Ungaretti, had great public success. These two works are placed at the two opposing poles of translation theory: one being excessively free and the other keeping too close to the original. Plon, Chuzeville, Jean. Jaccottet, Philippe.
Gallimard, , pp.
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