This helps with creating biomarkers with many and well distinguished colours. The core itself might have several layers and be multifunctional. For example, combining magnetic and luminescent layers one can both detect and manipulate the particles. The core particle is often protected by several monolayers of inert material, for example silica.
Nanoscience: Nanobiotechnology and Nanobiology
Organic molecules that are adsorbed or chemisorbed on the surface of the particle are also used for this purpose. The same layer might act as a biocompatible material. However, more often an additional layer of linker molecules is required to proceed with further functionalisation. This linear linker molecule has reactive groups at both ends. One group is aimed at attaching the linker to the nanoparticle surface and the other is used to bind various moieties like biocompatibles dextran , antibodies, fluorophores etc.
Natural bone surface is quite often contains features that are about nm across. If the surface of an artificial bone implant were left smooth, the body would try to reject it.
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Because of that smooth surface is likely to cause production of a fibrous tissue covering the surface of the implant. This layer reduces the bone-implant contact, which may result in loosening of the implant and further inflammation. It was demonstrated that by creating nano-sized features on the surface of the hip or knee prosthesis one could reduce the chances of rejection as well as to stimulate the production of osteoblasts.
The osteoblasts are the cells responsible for the growth of the bone matrix and are found on the advancing surface of the developing bone. The effect was demonstrated with polymeric, ceramic and, more recently, metal materials. In the end this findings would allow to design a more durable and longer lasting hip or knee replacements and to reduce the chances of the implant getting loose.
Titanium is a well-known bone repairing material widely used in orthopaedics and dentistry. It has a high fracture resistance, ductility and weight to strength ratio.
Unfortunately, it suffers from the lack of bioactivity, as it does not support sell adhesion and growth well. Apatite coatings are known to be bioactive and to bond to the bone. Hence, several techniques were used in the past to produce an apatite coating on titanium. Those coatings suffer from thickness non-uniformity, poor adhesion and low mechanical strength. In addition, a stable porous structure is required to support the nutrients transport through the cell growth. It was shown that using a biomimetic approach — a slow growth of nanostructured apatite film from the simulated body fluid — resulted in the formation of a strongly adherent, uniform nanoporous layer [ 19 ].
The layer was found to be built of 60 nm crystallites, and possess a stable nanoporous structure and bioactivity. A real bone is a nanocomposite material, composed of hydroxyapatite crystallites in the organic matrix, which is mainly composed of collagen. Thanks to that, the bone is mechanically tough and, at the same time, plastic, so it can recover from a mechanical damage. The actual nanoscale mechanism leading to this useful combination of properties is still debated. An artificial hybrid material was prepared from 15—18 nm ceramic nanoparticles and poly methyl methacrylate copolymer [ 20 ].
Using tribology approach, a viscoelastic behaviour healing of the human teeth was demonstrated. An investigated hybrid material, deposited as a coating on the tooth surface, improved scratch resistance as well as possessed a healing behaviour similar to that of the tooth. Photodynamic cancer therapy is based on the destruction of the cancer cells by laser generated atomic oxygen, which is cytotoxic. A greater quantity of a special dye that is used to generate the atomic oxygen is taken in by the cancer cells when compared with a healthy tissue.
Nanoscience : nanobiotechnology and nanobiology
Hence, only the cancer cells are destroyed then exposed to a laser radiation. Unfortunately, the remaining dye molecules migrate to the skin and the eyes and make the patient very sensitive to the daylight exposure. This effect can last for up to six weeks. To avoid this side effect, the hydrophobic version of the dye molecule was enclosed inside a porous nanoparticle [ 28 ]. The dye stayed trapped inside the Ormosil nanoparticle and did not spread to the other parts of the body.
At the same time, its oxygen generating ability has not been affected and the pore size of about 1 nm freely allowed for the oxygen to diffuse out. The ever increasing research in proteomics and genomic generates escalating number of sequence data and requires development of high throughput screening technologies. Realistically, various array technologies that are currently used in parallel analysis are likely to reach saturation when a number of array elements exceed several millions. A three-dimensional approach, based on optical "bar coding" of polymer particles in solution, is limited only by the number of unique tags one can reliably produce and detect.
Single quantum dots of compound semiconductors were successfully used as a replacement of organic dyes in various bio-tagging applications [ 7 ]. This idea has been taken one step further by combining differently sized and hence having different fluorescent colours quantum dots, and combining them in polymeric microbeads [ 29 ]. A precise control of quantum dot ratios has been achieved.
The selection of nanoparticles used in those experiments had 6 different colours as well as 10 intensities. It is enough to encode over 1 million combinations. The uniformity and reproducibility of beads was high letting for the bead identification accuracies of Functionalised magnetic nanoparticles have found many applications including cell separation and probing; these and other applications are discussed in a recent review [ 8 ].
Most of the magnetic particles studied so far are spherical, which somewhat limits the possibilities to make these nanoparticles multifunctional. Alternative cylindrically shaped nanoparticles can be created by employing metal electrodeposition into nanoporous alumina template [ 30 ]. By sequentially depositing various thicknesses of different metals, the structure and the magnetic properties of individual cylinders can be tuned widely. As surface chemistry for functionalisation of metal surfaces is well developed, different ligands can be selectively attached to different segments.
For example, porphyrins with thiol or carboxyl linkers were simultaneously attached to the gold or nickel segments respectively. Thus, it is possible to produce magnetic nanowires with spatially segregated fluorescent parts. In addition, because of the large aspect ratios, the residual magnetisation of these nanowires can be high. Hence, weaker magnetic field can be used to drive them. It has been shown that a self-assembly of magnetic nanowires in suspension can be controlled by weak external magnetic fields.
This would potentially allow controlling cell assembly in different shapes and forms.
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Moreover, an external magnetic field can be combined with a lithographically defined magnetic pattern "magnetic trapping". Proteins are the important part of the cell's language, machinery and structure, and understanding their functionalities is extremely important for further progress in human well being.
Gold nanoparticles are widely used in immunohistochemistry to identify protein-protein interaction. However, the multiple simultaneous detection capabilities of this technique are fairly limited. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy is a well-established technique for detection and identification of single dye molecules. By combining both methods in a single nanoparticle probe one can drastically improve the multiplexing capabilities of protein probes.
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American Journal of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration. American Journal of Robotic Surgery. Cancer Hallmarks. Energy and Environment Focus. Gene and Gene Editing. Journal of Advanced Mathematics and Applications. Journal of Advanced Microscopy Research. Journal of Advanced Physics.
Journal of Bioinformatics and Intelligent Control. Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery.
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