Reconquérir maintenant (French Edition)

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Louis Nardin was appointed in editor-in-chief and content manager of Worldtempus. By placing it on a par with French, Acadian novelists attempt to legitimize it as the language of a modern and urban Acadie.

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Their task is a difficult one, to which they respond with ambivalence: Chiac inscribes a difference which marginalizes them, whereas its absence amounts to a disappearance into the French norm. As a consequence, writers using Chiac face the challenge of making room for hybridity without dissociating themselves from their francophone identity. In their encounter with Chiac, translators of Acadian literature into English face a challenge of their own.

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Both multilingualism and vernacular languages have been deemed untranslatable, and Chiac happens to be at once multilingual and a vernacular. The dilemma faced by these translators is hence not too far from the dilemma of writers of Chiac: how much difference should they erase, how much should they insist on it at the risk of confirming stereotypes? How can they assist and pursue attempts at legitimization? How can they avoid assimilation into English on the one hand, and ethnography on the other? Keywords: Chiac, Acadian literature, Acadian literature in translation, literary multilingualism, sociolects and vernaculars.

A mix of French and English, Chiac is the vernacular spoken by many Acadians in the south-east region of New Brunswick, especially around Moncton. Indeed, from a sociological perspective, Chiac connotes a specific Francophone identity, as only Acadians speak Chiac. Incidentally, writing about it in English [4] makes me realise how connected Chiac is to the French-speaking world.

There are special challenges to writing about Chiac in English. Not that Chiac is familiar to Francophones around the world. On the contrary, Chiac is a local code with little influence outside its limited sphere, a code that subverts many grammar rules in standard French. According to Perrot, in Chiac, French acts as a matrix but is nonetheless modified by the inclusion of English:. However, regardless of the challenges that Chiac imposes on French, only in the French-speaking world is this subversion sometimes noticed.

And when it is, it is not always described with accuracy. It is mostly in French, not in English, that these writers are published. It is with Francophone readers in mind that their texts are edited. Writing in Chiac and, to a lesser extent, writing about Chiac is to be part of a battle against the ideological stigmatisation, under the influence of Parisian literature, of the literary use of vernacular languages in all literatures written in French.

Despite its strong affiliation both to the French language and to a Francophone identity, whether Chiac can belong to French is far from obvious when ideology is taken into account. Yes, Chiac is a language of identity, but it is also a language of contact. More importantly, it is a language of asymmetrical contact between speakers of French and English. It has a tradition of equating its collective future with the preservation of the French language. As a result of such assumptions, Francophone intellectuals in Canada have been suspicious of linguistic hybridization. Their belief is generally that Quebec needs to protect itself from linguistic hybridization such as is observable in Chiac.

In Chiac, they see a fate that Quebec must avoid if it is to maintain its culture. This understanding of Chiac as indicative of assimilation into English is also present in Acadie. Increasingly, however, such an understanding is being challenged. Language loyalty Weinreich, is therefore being questioned. With globalization comes a legitimization of languages in contact. This new trend seems to free Chiac from its stigma and gives it a certain appeal. Moreover, on a local scale, Moncton is doing well, both culturally and economically. Long perceived as the place where Acadian identity dissolved, Moncton is now driving this identity to further achievements.

In this new context, Chiac no longer seems so threatening. With the help of writers and other artists, Chiac is being reinvented as the language of a modern and urban Acadie. Indeed, writers are attempting to contribute to the change in status of Chiac by increasingly using it in their works of fiction. As Annette Boudreau and Matthieu Leblanc remark:. This activism is, at its roots, an attempt to legitimize Chiac.

Such an activism uses Chiac as a subversive tool with the potential of challenging the traditional representations of Acadie, while still normalizing it through written, public use. While far from triumphant, [14] this attempt to legitimize Chiac has resulted in the successful change of its perception by many Acadians, especially within the Moncton artistic community.

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  8. If protecting the French language remains an important goal for Acadian writers, the potential of Chiac to widen the breadth of possibilities of literary works written in French is increasingly becoming a worthwhile ambition. Chiasson, thus, is no longer so ready to depict Chiac as nothing but a threat to Acadian identity; instead, he now proposes viewing its literary use as an ambiguous strategy of resistance:. Such an evolution in the perception of Chiac seems to be widespread.

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    According to a survey done by Perrot, it is shared by Francophone highschool students in the Moncton region. In , the students met by Perrot were speaking Chiac but did not mention it as a language. Furthermore, the ambiguity described by Chiasson as a strategic reason for writers to use Chiac seems to find echoes throughout the Acadian community in Moncton:. They find it convenient to take pride in their local identity through their linguistic practice while still being open to intercultural contacts.

    In this respect, Chiac is facilitating the expression of a local Francophone identity while at the same time weaving itself into the cloth of an English-dominated global culture. His project, as far as Chiac is concerned, substantiates the double strategy described by Chiasson and Perrot. Leblanc dedicated his entire writing career to turning Moncton, a somewhat small town with very little going for it, into a great literary metropolis R. Boudreau, , forthcoming. Despite the fact that Acadians do not form a majority in Moncton, this literary capital, as created by Leblanc from the s to his death in , had to be Acadian.

    It also had to be open to the world, a cosmopolitan city on a par with other metropolises. In this respect, the novel Moncton Mantra , published in , is particularly interesting. In telling the autobiographical story of how he became a writer, Leblanc describes the birth of Acadian literary institutions. He comments on the work and personalities of the instigators of literary modernity in Acadie.

    More importantly, he insists on the role of Moncton and its language in Acadian modern literature. Elder, cover. In Moncton Mantra , Leblanc writes:. I craved for stories of the city, the contradictions and exaltations of urban life and the here and now.

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    They were what fuelled my creativity. The language I spoke was a mixture of standard French and the old Acadian French spoken in my village, sprinkled with bits of English. Chiac was all this too, but its mixture was smoother, an original symbiosis. Instead of being perceived as contaminated French, Chiac, thanks to Leblanc, is rather viewed as enriched French. It has the advantage of acknowledging multiple influences. Despite these advantages, including Chiac in literary works remains quite a risky venture. Gilles was teaching me to appreciate the music of this language, the music of the experience of the city, the way you could play with speech.

    The writer insists on the pleasure he gains from using local words and expressions:. However, such pleasure is only enjoyed in moderation.

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    Ton livre marche vraiment. Aaron G. Ma copine et moi sommes de nouveau ensemble et plus heureux que jamais. On dirait que tu as encore fait un super boulot. Oh, encore une petite chose Alonzo R. Elle et mon fils sont tout ce qui compte pour moi. Robert K.

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    Je me suis remis ensemble avec ma copine. Andrew H. Non seulement elle est de retour dans ma vie, mais nous nous amusons ensemble encore plus que jamais.

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