Lou, une femme libre: Théâtre (French Edition)

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Santé végétale : vers un réseau de surveillance mondial ?

Le grand Homme! Quel jeu magnifique. Vraiment dommage. De belles performances des acteurs. Merci Alexis Michalik, que je ne connaissais pas. Bravo et merci. Excellent spectacle pour toute la famille. Un grand bravo. Beaucoup de plaisir. Phiippe B. Je recommande vivement. Pierre Mazille. Un vrai Cyrano servi par un Edmond attendrissant. Un vrai moment de bonheur. A voir.

Strapontin relativement confortable. Allez y on jubile du vrai theatre. Des acteurs epoustouflants. Une merveille…. Par hasard, nous avons vu Alexis Michalik le dimanche suivant sur A2. Merci beaucoup. On ressort en pleine forme! Magnifique spectacle, le plus beau depuis longtemps. La piece, bien sur, ce monument du theatre francais.

Enfin la joie de jouer une vraie piece devant des spectateurs amoureux du Theatre…et de Roxane. Formidable spectacle. Intelligent, dynamique, sans temps mort ni facilites. Qui dit mieux? Mais attention au choix des places…. Les acteurs sont magnifiques. Quel moment exceptionnel! Courez y. Dieu que cela fait un bien fou! Quant aux acteurs que de talents!!

A revoir. Au final, un grand moment! Nombreux rappels. A conseiller et voir. Super spectacle! Excellente piece : du rythme, des acteurs excellents, un texte intelligent. Texte brillant, inventif. Spectacle fabuleux! Un texte, du rythme, des acteurs … que demander de plus? Merci M. Bon rythme. Tous les acteurs excellents.

Et les acteurs sont prodigieux. Juste magnifique! Troupe lumineuse, fluide, harmonieuse. Mille merci. Les textes sont subtiles. A voir!!!!! Rire ou sourire 2 h durant quel bonheur!! Bravo a tous. Michalik : bravo et merci! Quelle merveille! Pas une fausse note. Excellent spectacle! Une vraiment bonne soiree. Bien dommage! Mille fois merci pour ce bijou! Merci pour ces deux heures de pur plaisir! Mesmerizing play.

Et puis, il y a Cyrano en filigrane. Tout simplement merveilleux! On en redemande! Et bravo M. Alexis Michalik nous plonge en et nous faite revivre la naissance de Cyrano avec brio. De superbes acteurs! A voir! Enzo, 14 ans. On rit beaucoup. Fabian, 12 ans. The latter play attracted more than 20, people. Production costs did not include actors' or directors' fees, as none of the group's members were salaried.

Although these enthusiastic young people and their leader, Jean-Guy Sabourin, worked out of converted basements, bakeries, and garages, critics praised the consistently professional quality of their work and their judicious selection of plays by some of the best modern playwrights. Beckett, Durrenmatt, lonesco, Brecht, Albee, Frisch, and Obaldia were all included in their repertoire. With an average of six plays a season, generally very 26 The Duplessis Era well attended, the Apprentis-Sorciers contributed in a small but important way to the development of a mature theatre public in Montreal.

In the fall of Yvette Brind'Amour gathered together some of the artists with whom she had worked in the late forties and re-opened the Theatre du Rideau Vert. There was no fixed schedule, so that when a play "worked," it had an extended run. The Theatre du Rideau Vert also dabbled in more serious drama, but when it did so, it performed in larger playhouses, such as the Gesu, and for shorter runs. In time, the Theatre du Rideau Vert slowly but surely established itself as an interesting and valid troupe that could always be counted upon to present a fine production of comedy or drama.

Summer theatre became a popular pastime among the province's Francophones throughout the s and s. In , for example, Jan Doat directed an elaborate production of Racine's Athalie. La Poudriere, as it was named, had a season that ran from March to November. Plays there were performed in four languages: German, English, French, and Spanish. Along with light comedies and suspense plays, La Poudriere also produced puppet theatre for children and mini-operas for adults.

As a result, the English productions, which were usually held in the summer months, consistently drew the larger audiences. Perhaps the most noteworthy and long lasting of these small companies was L'Egregore, organized by Francoise Berd in the fall of In addition to and perhaps because of the appearance of a more firmly entrenched Quebec theatre industry, the fifties saw another major development in theatre in Quebec, in the form of official government recognition and financial assistance: in the Quebec government created the Conservatoire d'art dramatique, with campuses in Montreal and Quebec.

The staff, both full and part-time, were drawn for the most part from Quebec's own theatre world, although French-bom Jan Doat was the Conservatory's first director. In the Montreal Arts Council, instituted in by Jean Drapeau, began subsidizing struggling local troupes like the TheatreClub and the Theatre du Rideau Vert; in , the provincial government contributed to the welfare of Quebec theatre by supporting the Canadian Amateur Theatre Association, ACTA Association canadienne du theatre d'amateur , founded, for Francophones by Quebecois actor and director Guy Beaulne, who had been involved for many years with the Dominion Drama Festival; was also the year the Canada Council handed out its first scholarships to aspiring writers and artists and gave substantial sums of money to established theatre companies such as the Theatre du Nouveau Monde.

The government was soon assisted in its efforts by private and corporate funds. Now that this and other theatres were providing training, experience, and steady work to many local actors and directors, the development of an indigenous body of plays, could follow. In the meantime, the new, positive and financially tangible interest in Quebec's theatre activities expressed by various government and private agencies clearly demonstrated that theatre had come of age in Quebec and was at last 28 The Duplessis Era being recognized as an important and worthwhile element of Quebec's socio-economic and cultural development.

How times had changed! The only form of entertainment which provided some measure of legitimacy for theatre artists was radio and eventually, television. As mentioned earlier, it was especially true in the forties, that radio provided the economic basis of survival for many writers. Gratien Gelinas, who is probably the single individual who most contributed to the creation of modern Quebec theatre, began his theatre career as an amateur actor at the College de Montreal and the Montreal Repertory Theatre but was eventually hired to play in Robert Choquette's radio serial, Le Cure de village The Village Priest.

Fridolin told stories of his daily adventures and misadventures in a sometimes funny, sometimes serious, always deceptively simple and disarming fashion. Gelinas's stories singled out aspects of the Quebec community that made it unique. Some of his skits were slightly risque, and the double meanings were greeting with howls of laughter.

However slowly, times were indeed changing in Quebec. The subjects developed in his skits were closely linked to everyday occurrences and topics of conversation in Quebec and varied from modern prisons, local gossips and Bingo, to City Hall, wartime housewives, and the conscription issue. His entertaining and poignant monologues were interspersed with dances, sing-a-longs, and instrumentals. Offstage, a number of highly skilled individuals always kept things running smoothly. Fred Barry directed, Andre Laurendeau oversaw the music, and Aime Lavoie verified the technical aspects of the shows.

The revues were presented at the Monument National, which had a seating capacity of more than one thousand. At a time when most plays had no more than five or six productions, Les Fridolinades usually ran for three or four weeks, with the most popular going on for several months. Fridolin, a young boy in short pants, and a tricolor hockey sweater just like that worn by the Montreal hockey team Les Canadiens, got French Canadians to laugh at themselves and pulled at their heart strings at the same time.

He was such a huge popular success that Gelinas brought him to the stage and wrote yearly revues around him from to Les Fridolinades The Adventures of Fridolin kept people coming to the theatre during that difficult time in history. Nevertheless, during the forties and fifties, it was mainly radio that supported local writers many of whom wrote radio dramas for the CBC which actively encouraged dramatists.

This new medium provided a wealth of valuable experience for Quebec's actors, directors, and writers. Jacques Languirand and Francoise Loranger both wrote several teletheatres for the French-language network, while Robert Choquette and Marcel Dube were among the most productive TV writers. More than original serials and plays were produced for Quebec television from to The companies that were founded in the wake of the Compagnon's first year of fame and glory also concentrated on a continental repertoire and did little to encourage 30 The Duplessis Era Canadian dramatists. In spite of the unfavorable atmosphere, the works of Eloi de Grandmont, Paul Toupin, Andre Langevin, Felix Leclerc, and others were produced in Quebec between and For obvious reasons few of these writers chose to devote their entire working time to playwriting.

Grandmont, for example, remained a newspaper columnist. Toupin worked as a journalist and university professor. Langevin returned to producing radio shows and writing novels and television dramas, while Leclerc concentrated on becoming one of French-Canada's best-known chansonniers. Their work is significant nonetheless, for it demonstrates the socio-political and moral attitudes of the Duplessis era, both in the themes it dealt with and the reaction of the critics and the public. Grandmont exemplifies this as well as any of the writers mentioned. Although he may be best known today for his brilliant adaptation of George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, it was a production of his drama Un Fils a tuer A Son for the Killing at the Gesu in that made the critics sit up and take notice of this young playwright.

The hero, Jean, a young man born of French parents in New France, wishes to seek adventure on the continent instead of remaining on the family farm. His father, who has toiled to establish a decent life for himself and his family in a rugged, often hostile land, will have no part of Jean's plan which he sees as a rejection of his own way of life. Since neither Jean's sweetheart, Helene, nor his loving mother can persuade him to remain on the land, his father shoots him rather than have a "deserter" in the family.

Although Jean's ambitions are the starting point of the play, it is really his authoritarian, unbending, and unfeeling father who is the central character. When Grandmont exposes him as a narrow-minded despot, and not the stern but wise paternal figure he imagines himself to be, he draws a subtle but real parallel with Maurice Duplessis's authoritarian rule.

Two other of Grandmont's plays were performed in the fifties. Then, in , his patriotic comedy, Soif d'aimer Thirst for Love , written in collaboration with Louis-Georges Carrier, was produced at the Anjou. Brutus, the only one of Paul Toupin's several plays to be produced, was performed by L'Equipe in and at the Comedie-Canadienne in As the name suggests, this play is a dramatic version of Julius Caesar's assassination by a group of dissatisfied Romans led by Caesar's best friend, Brutus. On the whole, Toupin disregards the reasons that might have led Brutus to commit his cruel act, and ignores altogether the role Mark Anthony played in Brutus's bleak fate after the assassination.

His play focuses on Brutus's emotional state after his deed. Obsessed by the fact that he has betrayed a friend, an unpardonable crime in his mind, Brutus eventually commits suicide. His solution to this personal crisis anticipates the extreme reaction of Gratien Gelinas's hero in Bousille et les justes Like Brutus who naively lies for the welfare of the state, Bousille is forced to lie and to betray God in order to save his family's honour.

In both cases, the protection of moral teachings traditionally upheld by the Church was represented as being more important than any secular considerations. In , in an attempt to promote Canadian plays, the Theatre du Nouveau Monde inaugurated a contest to stimulate playwriting in French Canada: the Concours d'oeuwes theatrales du Theatre du Nouveau Monde. The winning play would be performed by the company. Andre Langevin won the first competition with his politically inspired mildly successful comedy, L'Oeil du peuple The People's Eye.

The party executive intends to purify the masses, preaching restraint and the rejection of all pleasurable, and therefore sinful, activities. In spite of these worthy plans, everyone except The Boss breaks down the night before the election and falls into the arms of some willing partner. The representative from the town's Pleasure Committee, is relieved to learn that he can continue planning for pleasure and the photographer the "people's eye" of the title gets the inside story he came for.

His pictures of the goings-on at party headquarters are distributed among 32 The Duplessis Era the voters and subsequently bring about the defeat of the Purifying Party, whose headquarters will be converted into an efficiently run brothel. Langevin's implied satirical references to the clean-up campaign of Montreal's mayor Jean Drapeau and to the conservative rule of Maurice Duplessis Le Chef were somewhat vague but this is not surprising in view of Duplessis's repressive regime.

Le P'tit Bonheur was more like a revue than a play: it included a dozen brief sketches and several tales as well as songs also written by Leclerc.

Théâtre du Palais-Royal | Edmond

The action of Sonnez les matines takes place at the residence of a parish priest. Leclerc pokes light-hearted fun at the cure, a respected figure in his French-Canadian rural parish who enjoys theorizing about marriage and family until he generously and foolishly offers to mind five small children for an hour and then has to become a makeshift father for several days. The whole household soon becomes a minor disaster area, in spite of the help the cure gets from his housekeeper and the young curate.

After the cure's harrowing real-life experience, he admits that bringing up a family may not be as simple as it appears. Thanks to the children, who run him ragged, he also reaffirms his belief in the saintliness of motherhood. As in most of Leclerc's humourous works there is a moral to the story: priests should be priests and mothers should be mothers, each respecting the work and particular talents of the other.

In spite of their valiant efforts, none of these many writers had any individual impact on the growth of Quebec theatre. In the forties and fifties, it was only Gratien Gelinas, Jacques Languirand, and Marcel Dube who made important contributions to Quebec's playwriting and who went on to achieve national status.

The work of all three dramatists reflected the nature and preoccupations of the society in which they were first produced. This drama was performed more than times in at Montreal's Monument National and Gesu theatres46 before successfully touring the province. Gelinas codirected the play with Fred Barry and played the title role.

He also made sure that the publicity campaign was well organized, lured students and workers to see the play with reduced prices, and lowered the price of a ticket for matinee performances as well. Tit-Coq was later translated into English and played to full houses in Montreal and Toronto in But the bubble finally burst in the United States: Tit-Coq received mixed reviews in Chicago and was a definite flop on Broadway. Nevertheless, it was made into a full-length film in Tit-Coq is the story of an illegitimate child who grows up feeling lost and lonely.

The hero's illegitimacy has plagued him for years. We first meet him as an angry young man in the army who falls in love while on leave with a fellow soldier's sister. When Tit-Coq returns from the war to find his sweetheart unhappily married, he tries to persuade her to run away with him but finally gives her up when the army padre reminds him that since there was no question of divorce in Quebec , their children would be bastards like himself.

Gelinas lets the spectator draw his own conclusions as to the symbolic nature of Tlt-Coq's illegitimacy and its social implications for the average French Canadian. The fact that Tit-Coq was imbued with many traditional French-Canadian values certainly accounted for a large measure of its success in Canada and perhaps explains its failure in the United States where the audiences would not have had much to identify with. In the course of the action which takes place in a small town, in the city, and on various army sites, Gelinas manages to reveal the important role that religion and the Church played at the time in the daily lives of French Canadians for whom close family ties formed an integral part of their value system.

If, in the play, Marie-Ange marries someone other than Tit-Coq, it is not only because he is absent for a long time, but because 34 The Duplessis Era social pressures are exerted on her to marry young, thus protecting her chastity. Moreover, she is persuaded to doubt someone who has no known relatives, Tit-Coq is the only character fighting what those around him accept stoically-the Jansenistic attitude that what will be will be and that one should be thankful for what one has.

Tit-Coq's lonely search for identity and his constant struggle against his social inferiority are shown to be futile and senseless. The theme of submission and the Jansenistic ideal of predestination found a particularly sympathetic audience in Quebec. Yet, in Ttt-Coq, Gelinas was indirectly attacking the Catholic leaders of French-Canadian society who thought that moral issues were either black or white with little or no grey. That Gelinas's criticism of institutional controls and the corresponding enthusiasm of his public was so discreet could perhaps also be explained by the ultra-conservative political regime that existed in Quebec at that time under Maurice Duplessis.

In his next play, Bousille et les justes Bousille and the Just Gelinas attacks the oppression of the underdog much more violently. Bousille et lesjustes was first produced at the Comedie-Canadienne in and was later performed on numerous occasions both in English and French throughout Quebec and English Canada. Everything in the play takes place over the space of thirty-two hours.

The Grenon family the Gravels in the English version have come to Montreal to attend the trial of Aime Bruno in the English version , who is accused of murdering his rival, Bruno Maltais Marc Lepage in the English version , in a restaurant brawl. Although Aime is known to be a bully and a drunk, the family is determined to prove his innocence; should Aime be convicted and sent to prison, the scandal would be unbearable.

They eventually physically force their simple-minded cousin Bousille, who saw the fight, to withhold evidence that Aime had premeditated his attack. Aime is acquitted, but for Bousille, not to tell the whole truth when one has sworn on a Bible to do so is an unforgivable sin. He commits suicide soon after his court appearance. Once again Gelinas presented the public with an innocent figure who could find no peace in this world.

Bousille is a poor orphan with a weak knee and an ailing heart, a pitiful character who has always been taken advantage of but who has never hurt anyone in his life. Gelinas insists on his naivete, his deep, almost superstitious faith, and his intolerance of pain. Bousille is the epitome of the underdog. Aime's mother and his sister Aurore are constantly referring to God, racing off to mass, and making everyone kneel for the nightly rosary; but they are selfish and unfeeling, and chiefly concerned with keeping up the appearance of respectability.

His brother Henri is a brute who insists on getting his own way, no matter how, while his brother-in-law is a weakling who knows Aime is guilty and the rest of the family devoid of moral principles, but who does nothing to stop their ridiculous and cruel pretense of goodness. These are all people who consider themselves "good Catholics. Small-town residents maintain their lofty opinion of themselves while at the same time exploiting a weaker member of their family. The play suggests that some serious self-criticism must take place in Quebec if French Canadians are to mature and become responsible, dynamic, and forceful.

Gelinas's last play, Hier les enfants dansaient Yesterday the Children Were Dancing appeared first at the Comedie-Canadienne in and was revived several times both in English and in French. This time there is less physical action than in his other plays since the two main characters discuss their points of view at some length.

As the curtain of Hier les enfants dansaient rises, Pierre Gravel has just learned that the Prime Minister of Canada and the Liberal Party want him to run for office and an eventual post as Minister of Justice. As luck and Gelinas would have it, Pierre's son Andre has chosen that very evening to publish a manifesto, to set off a bomb, and to give himself up to the police, ail in the name of Quebec's political independence. Andre and his father, who love each other dearly, have a long discussion on the pros and cons of Confederation.

Pierre Gravel believes that Quebec is best served by the federalist system, while Andre tries to convince him that only independence will remove the colonialist yoke that weighs on Quebec. Finally, after a tearful scene in which father and son shake hands, Andre goes off to jail, hoping thus to serve the cause of Quebec's independence, while Pierre prepares to accept the government post and to tell the people in Toronto that the same problem that has divided his house will divide all of Canada if something is not done soon. Gelinas intention in this play was clearly to emphasize the human dimension of an increasingly difficult political situation: the first separatist political organizations had been formed, the first FLO bombs 36 The Duplessis Era had exploded in Montreal, and the first part of the Laurendeau-Dunton controversial report on bilingualism and biculturalism had been published.

Gratien Gelinas is considered to be the father of modem Quebec theatre, not only because of the huge success of his plays but also because he was the first successful dramatist to put ordinary French Canadians and their everyday problems on stage. The distinctive nationalistic quality of his characters is underlined by their use of colloquial French while his heroes are unmistakably French Canadians whom one can closely link to aspects of French-Canadian social, religious, and political life.

In , Gratien Gelinas founded and became the first director of the Comedie-Canadienne, a well-equipped hall whose main purpose would be, Gelinas declared, the promotion and encouragement of Canadian plays and playwrights. Gelinas kept his word until the theatre closed in His contribution to Canadian theatre has been officially recognized on various occasions.

In the Toronto Drama Bench, composed of Canadian critics and actors, gave him a special award for his Distinguished Contribution to the Canadian Theatre. Of the three plays, Klondyke, proved the most popular, running for over a month and attended by more than 18, people. Unfortunately, it was a critical failure. Afterwards Languirand devoted most of his efforts to producing and hosting radio and television programs.

Highly imitative at times, Languirand's theatre cautiously experimented with new ideas and new forms of expression, influenced by Artaud, Brecht, Beckett, and the existentialists. The substance of Languirand's work relates only indirectly to Quebec, and his assiduous attempts at universalism suggest a certain revolt against political and cultural isolationism and provincialism.

Languirand's plays often feature one very naive man and one very tough and calculating one.

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The women are generally unfaithful to their men, who choose not to do anything about it. Along with the personality clashes and psychotic unions, Languirand often introduces an element of traditional conflict in Quebec between the proponents of two different philosophies of life: the "home bodies" and their nomadic and belligerent associates. While the lines of battle are clearly drawn, Languirand's plays do not pretend to offer a simple solution to the dilemmas of the modern world. These conflicts and clashes are particularly evident in his first play Les Insolites The spectator sees ten people brought together by chance in a bar.

They include Gerard, a homeless youth just back from the war who meets his long-lost mother; Jules and his wife Brigitte who, it turns out, has had affairs with several of the men present; a strange man who uses a divining rod to seek out death; and the bartender who tries to mind his own business while listening to everyone else's. The play's atmosphere is one of riotous folly in a world where communication is impossible, death senseless, justice inhuman, and love mechanical. Languirand's disorienting style, keeps the spectator jumping from one subject to the next with little time for the development of anything other than bewilderment.

The hero of Le Gibet is Perplex, a hopelessly idealistic character who tries but fails to break the world flagpole-sitting record. Aloft in the middle of the public square, he observes, but does not understand the comings and goings of his neighbours and his wife, Luna, Although Perplex suffers physical and emotional discomfort nobody comes to his aid; he doesn't even get an umbrella when it rains.

A few lovers speak kindly to him but in general he is surrounded by meanness, dishonesty, and infidelity. Le Gibet, although absurdist, is not a comedy. There are very few amusing scenes, but a certain tension and lyricism situate the play in the realm of modern existentialist drama.

Languirand's next play Les Grands Departs has more political overtones than Le Gibet but the pessimistic image of a world full of despair and malaise persists. The play revolves around Hector, an unsuccessful writer, and the various disgruntled members of his family: his wife Margot who accuses Hector of living off her and her family; his daughter Sophie who would like to leave her dreary home and seek adventure elsewhere; Eulalie, his sister-in-law, who once supported them all, and is now sickly, poor, and feeling deserted; his father-in-law who lies silent and apparently paralyzed on the floor.

Surrounded by boxes and trunks, they are all about to leave their too costly apartment and are waiting for the movers to arrive. At the end of the first act, Albert, an old boy friend of Eulalie's, arrives unexpectedly and persuades her to leave with him. Sophie also leaves, purportedly to see a movie, but actually to run away with her boyfriend. Eulalie and Sophie subsequently return home, disillusioned with life and men. Both these women have fled the outside world to return to the safe, inner sanctum of the family.

Their tearful reunion, however, is interrupted by the grandfather who suddenly no longer paralysed, gets up from the floor, picks up his suitcase and goes out the door, leaving everyone speechless. The surprise and somewhat absurd ending implies the departure cycle is about to begin again. It also underlines the symbolism inherent in the play's treatment of the struggle to leave the "nest. Although Languirand avoids any direct reference, linguistic or other, to either Quebec or Canada one cannot help but see the implications of the morbid attachment of his characters to traditional values, and the veiled but harsh criticism of those who would grasp hopelessly to the past in Quebec, unjustifiably refusing to seek to function in the modern industrialized world.

Even more bitter than Les Grands Departs is Les Violons de I'automne an absurdist, poetic drama in which the characters are called simply "He," "She," and "The Other Man," emphasizing the basic, universal nature of the story line. The plot concerns the futile efforts of "He" and "She" to consummate their marriage; they are both very old.

The "Other Man" finally seduces "She" and kills "He. Klondyke is an unusual work for Languirand in that it is set in a specific time and place: the gold rush days in the West. Even here, however, he takes pains to internationalize various gold rush terms by supplying the public with a mini-lexicon. Klondyke further differs from his other pieces in that it is a musical comedy. The plot is centered loosely around the adventures of two prospectors, embodying the extremist positions we expect in Languirand's characters: one an idealist Pitt , the other a hard-hearted materialist Joe.

They both eventually leave the Klondyke, penniless, a clear warning to the audience of the dangers of crass materialism. In ail his works, Languirand expresses definite concern with universal problems of communication and the psychological and social forces that keep people apart. At the same time his theatre cannot be totally separated from its socio-political context. On the one hand, for instance, as if in opposition to the closed society of the Duplessis era, Languirand's early plays represent a conscious effort to adopt a nonisolationist outlook on life. On the other hand, at a time when Quebec was in the middle of a modernization program, he refuses to condone society's search for "gold," material wealth, and personal happiness.

His early play Zone brought him public attention when it won first prize at the Dominion Drama Festival held in Victoria. Dube and the amateur troupe who performed Zone were showered with honours upon their return to Montreal, including an official reception at City Hall. Dube proved his worth as a dramatist with Zone and immediately became a symbol of the new indigenous theatre in Quebec. This first triumph would be followed by scores of others. Le Barrage which the Theatre-Club produced the same year, was not a critical success, but it nevertheless ran for eighteen performances.

Both plays drew large crowds and ran for more than a month. His contribution to French-Canadian culture, the subject of many books and articles, won him official recognition by the literary community. He won the coveted provincial government award, the Prix David, for his life's work, in Dube is one of the few Canadian dramatists to have succeeded in making a living by his writing talent alone. Of course, much of his writing was for the lucrative television market over twenty-five plays and included numerous adaptations and works in collaboration.

Bilan Statement of Accounts , for instance, appeared on television in before its production by the Theatre du Nouveau Monde in An earlier play Un Simple Soldat, first televised in , was produced at the Comedie-Canadienne in and again in The student of Dube's plays can trace in them the socio-economic and cultural development of FrenchCanadian society through the fifties and sixties.

As the province itself struggled to catch up with the rest of the world, particularly in the field of technology and industrial development, so Dube's characters fought their way up the ladders of social, financial and political success. Zone, , Un Simple Soldat, , Le Temps des Was, , and Florence moved the Quebecois audiences with their portrayal of insecure young men and women of modest and sometimes less than modest means. During the sixties, Dube abandoned the world of poverty and degradation featured in his first plays to deal with that of Quebec's nouveaux riches.

He switched to the problems of the new middle class at a time when, for the first time, many French Canadians in Quebec were beginning to enjoy the material profits of urbanization, industrialization, and economic reform. His earlier characters had used popular speech to communicate with each other. When Dube began writing about Quebec's emerging middle class,57 his characters appropriately assumed a more standard French and affected those English words and expressions that one was likely to hear in the English-dominated business world of the sixties.

Santé végétale : vers un réseau de surveillance mondial ?

Zone, Dube's first major success, presents a gang of juvenile cigarette smugglers led by an older youth, Tarzan. As his name suggests, Tarzan desperately wants to be both feared and respected by the weaker mortals he controls. The young members of the gang are really children who are frustrated by the inevitability of a life of poverty. They naively tell themselves that what they are doing is not really stealing.

In any case they say they will stop as soon as they get enough money to buy themselves and their family a few little things to relieve their drab existence. The gang is quickly caught, betrayed by Passe-Partout Skeleton Key , a good-for-nothing informer who is jealous of Tarzan. The young smugglers in Zone have tried to build a dream for themselves from which they are rudely awakened by the death of Tarzan. They must now return to face the harsh reality of dead end jobs, endless poverty, humiliation, and a closed world from which there is no apparent escape.

Un Simple Soldat does not paint a much brighter picture of the lot of another poor French Canadian, Joseph Latour. At the beginning of the play, Latour returns from the war to find that nothing has changed back home: his stepmother Bertha still can't tolerate him and he can't 42 The Duplessis Era stand her; his father Edouard, as weak as ever, lets himself be pushed around by his wife, his stepson, and his boss. Joseph feels he has nowhere to go and nothing to do of any value.

Even his stepsister Fleurette, who adores him, and his drinking buddy Emile, who admires him, cannot persuade him to get a steady job and settle down. The play ends when Fleurette learns that Joseph, who has gone off to fight in the Korean War, has been killed in action. He died as he wished, Fleurette declares stoically: just a soldier. Un Simple Soldat is a play about a man who cannot find peace with himself. Lack of love and education stack odds against him that he cannot overcome.

He never learns to live with his shortcomings or with those of his family. Joseph Latour is in some ways a post-war Tit-Coq. Both of these heroes found emotional security only in the army and are now haunted by an inescapable loneliness. But where Tit-Coq has at least dreamt of having a warm and close family of his own, Joseph Latour has no long-term desire other than to go to war, and no place where he longs to stay other than on the battlefield. The past the family and the present the City in his own country only torment him. Although Dube soon switched to the world of the financiaily-at-ease citizens of Quebec, his theatre continued to present a black picture of a degenerate and unhappy society.

In Les Beaux Dimanches Fine Sundays , produced at the Comedie-Canadienne in , the audience meets four middle-class couples trying to spend a Sunday afternoon together without dying of boredom and tearing each other apart. The host, Victor, keeps plying everyone with drinks in the hope that the conversation will keep flowing for at least a few more hours.

In the meantime, his daughter Dominique comes home after having spent the night with Etienne. Although this time she slept on the sofa, the audience soon learns that she is pregnant with Etienne's child. Determined to free herself from her milieu, disgusted with the life her parents are leading, Dominique decides to abort her baby rather than have it witness their empty and depraved world. Throughout the play, Dube implies that Dominique's personal and somewhat questionable ambitions and her parents' tenacious pursuit of pleasure are the unfortunate consequences of a society whose definition of the good life is too closely linked to material well-being.

Dube continues his sombre themes in Au retour des oies blanches The White Geese , a Freudian melodrama first performed at the ComedieCanadienne in The play concerns a long-established upper middleclass family whose hypocrisy is as great as its moral standards are low. Genevieve also gets her mother, Elizabeth, to admit that she once had an affair with her brother-in-law, Tom, while Achilles was overseas during the war.

It is Tom who has just left two white geese in the front hall, inspiring Genevieve's terrible game of truth. Her game goes too far, however, and Genevieve commits suicide when she learns that her uncle, a man she adores and with whom she had sexual relations when they were hunting together, is really her father. This tragic play is yet another contribution to Dube's condemnation of the hypocrisy, infidelity, and corruption of modern Quebec.

In the Theatre du Nouveau Monde presented one of Dube's most powerful and comprehensive works, Bilan. In this play Dube exposes a world in which two value systems are at loggerheads with each other: one exalts love and friendship, the other believes in money and its attendant power as the key to success and happiness. Difference of sex as a topic of jurisprudence and legislation. The Amours of Messalina, late queen of Albion. Item identification number 16; In which are briefly couch'd, secrets of the imposture of the Cambrion prince, the Gothick league and other court intrigues of the four last years reign, not yet made publick.

Amram, David Werner, The Jewish law of divorce according to Bible and Talmud with some reference to its development in post-Talmudic times. Philadelphia [Press of E. Amsterdam, Nationale tentoonstelling van vrouwenarbeid, Amsterdam, H. Bijeenverzameld door Jhr. Ancelot, Marguerite Louise Virginie Chardon dame, Paris, J. Usi nuziali dei contadini della Romagna. The lady's preceptor; or, A letter to a young lady of distinction upon politeness.

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Item identification number ; by Whyte Avis [pseud. Anderson, Christopher, Book for parents. Item identification number ; The genius and design of the domestic constitution, with its untransferable obligations and peculiar advantages. From the Edinburgh edition. Anderson, Florence Mary Bennett Religious cults associated with the amazons. New York, Columbia University press. Anderson, James, of Edinburgh Rev. The ladies of the Covenant. New York, Redfield. Item identification number ; Memoirs of distinguished Scottish female characters, embracing the period of the Covenant and the persecution Ladies of the Reformation, memoirs of distinguished female characters, belonging to the period of the Reformation in the Sixteenth century.

Item identification number ; England, Scotland, and the Netherlands. Memorable women of the Puritan times. Anderson, Mary E. Scenes in the Hawaiian Islands and California. Anderson, Rufus, Philadelphia, American Sunday School Union. Andorf, Johannes Christophorus. De jure mulierum quibus expressa hypotheca a marito constituta est.

Jena und Leipzig, Eugen Diederichs. Andreini, Isabella, Lettre della signora Isabella Andreini Padovana, comica gelosa. Venetia, Alla Minerua. Lettre et ragionamenti d'Isabelle Andreini Padovana. Andrew, Elizabeth Wheeler Heathen slaves and Christian rulers. Oakland, Cal.

Andrew, Nell. For our mothers. Fort Worth, Taylor-made printing. Item identification number ; To honor Mother's day. Andrews, Edmund, Prostitution and its sanitary management. Andrews, Eliza France, The war-time journal of a Georgia girl, Andrews, Fanny Fern Phillips. Photograph of Fanny Fern Phillips Andrews.

Photograph numbers: P27 - P Andrews, Irene Osgood Economic effects of the war upon women and children in Great Britain. New York [etc. Item identification number ; assisted by Margarett A. Andrews, John, Remarks on the French and English ladies, in a series of letters; interspersed with various anecdotes, and additional matter, arising from the subject.

London, Printed for T. Longman, and G. Men and women of the Italian reformation. Item identification number ; by Christopher Hare [pseud. The most illustrious ladies of the Italian renaissance. A princess of the Italian reformation, Giulia Gonzaga, , her family and her friends. A queen of queens and the making of Spain. Andrews, Matthew Page, The women of the South in war times. Baltimore, The Norman, Remington co. Item identification number ; comp.

Andrews, Stephen Pearl, , ed. Love, marriage and divorce, and the sovereignty of the individual. Boston, Mass. Andrews rejected by the Tribune. Schiller und die Schwestern von Lengefeld. Detmold, Meyersche hofbuchhandlung. Angelica's Ladies Library; or, Parents and guardians present. London, Hamilton. Item identification number 21; with eight elegant plates designed by A. Kauffman and H. Angell, C. Photograph of Rev. Item identification number ; [par] Laure Conan [pseud. Angiolella, Gaetano. La questione della donna dal punto di vista biologico e sociale. Ferrara, Tip.

Item identification number ; Conferenza tenuta all'Associazione Fillodrammatica Nocerina il 23 Dicembre Anjos, Luis dos, d. Jardim de Portugal. Coimbra, N. Recopilado novamente. Anker, Ella, Women's suffrage in Norway. Anna Archdale; or, The Lowell factory girl. Boston, F. Item identification number ; And other tales.

Annesley, Maude. My Parisian year; a woman's point of view. Annuaire dramatique. The social and political dependence of women. Anthony, Katharine Susan, Feminism in Germany and Scandinavia. Holt and co.

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Margaret Fuller, a psychological biography. New York, Harcourt, Brace and Howe. Mothers who must earn. New York, Survey associates, inc. Photograph of Katharine Susan Anthony. Anthony, Katharine Susan, , ed. The endowment of motherhood. New York, B. Item identification number ; with a preface, by Katharine Anthony. Anthony, Lucy E. Photograph of Lucy E. Anthony, Mary S. Photograph of Mary S. The marriage relation, polygamy and concubinage, the law of god. Anthony, Susan Brownell, An account of the proceedings on the trial of Susan B.

Anthony, on the charge of illegal voting, at the presidential election in Nov. Jones, Edwin T. Marsh and William B. Hall, the inspectors of election by whom her vote was received. Rochester, Daily democrat and chronicle book print. Photograph of Susan Brownell Anthony. Photograph numbers: P34 - P Photograph numbers: P39 - P Woman suffrage question. Lockport, M. Item identification number ; U.

Circuit court vs. Photograph of Susan Brownell Anthony with Rev. Anna Howard Shaw. Anthony, Susanna, The life and character of Miss Susanna Anthony. Printed at Worcester, Mass. Item identification number 23; consisting chiefly in extracts from her writings. Compiled by Samuel Hopkins, D. Antin, Mary, From Plotzk to Boston. Item identification number ; with a forward by Israel Zangwill. Anti-Polygamy Standard. Appeal to the women of the nominally free states.

Boston, Isaac Knapp. An appeal to the women of the nominally free states. Item identification number ; issued by anti-slavery convention of American women, held by adjournments from the 9th to the 12th of May, Anti-Suffrage essays. Boston, The Forum publications of Boston. Item identification number ; by Massachusetts women, with an introduction by Ernest Bernbaum.

Anzoletti, Luisa, Il divorzio e la donna italiana. Milano, Cogliati. Item identification number ; Discorso. La donna nel progresso cristiano. Item identification number ; 2a ed. Ap Richard, pseud. Marriage and divorce. Apolant, Jenny. Stellung und Mitarbeit der Frau in her Gemeinde. Leipzig und Berlin, B. An Apology for Mrs. Antonia Bourignon: in four parts. Brown [etc. Apostolico, Enrico. Il divorzio e la separazione personale rispetto alla salute pubblica. Castellamare, Tipografia Commerciale Spagnuolo.

L'apotheose du beau-sexe. A Londres [i. Hollande] Chez van der Hoek. An Appeal against anarchy of sex to the Constitutional convention and the people of the state of New York. New-York, J. Item identification number ; by a member of the press. An Appeal to the electors of the state of New York to vote against woman suffrage on November 6, Appleton, Elizabeth. Private education; or, A practical plan for the studies of young ladies. London, Printed for H. Item identification number ; with an address to parents, private governesses, and young ladies.

Appleton, Elizabeth Haven, In memory of Elizabeth Haven Appleton. Cincinnati, R. Item identification number ; this selection from her lectures. Appleton, Marjorie. Photograph of Miss Marjorie Appleton. Appleton, Nathan, Introduction of the power loom, and origin of Lowell. Lowell, Mass. Item identification number ; Printed for the proprietors of the locks and canals on Merrimack river. Apprenticeship and Skilled Employment Association. Trades for London girls and how to enter them; a companion book to Trades for London boys.

Aragona, Tullia d', Dialogo della signora Tullia D'Aragona della infinita di amore. Vinegia, Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari, et Fratelli. Rime della S. Tullia de Aragona; et di diversi a lei, nuouamente corrette et ristampate. In Vinegia, Appresso G. Giolito de Ferrari. Camilla: or, A picture of youth. Payne, T. Cadell, jun. Item identification number 29; by the author of Evelina, and Cecilia.

Cecilia; or, Memoirs of an heiress. Brimley Johnson, illustrated by W. Curbitt Cooke. Evelina; or, The history of a young lady's entrance into the world. Item identification number 30; A new ed. Arblay, Frances Burney d', London, Macmillan and co. Item identification number ; as edited by her niece Charlotte Barrett; with preface and notes by Austin Dobson. The early diary of Frances Burney, Bell and sons. Item identification number ; with a selection from her correspondence, and from the journals of her sisters Susan and Charlotte Burney; ed.

Arbois de Jubainville, Henry i. Marie Henry d', Paris, E. Archambault Mlle. Dissertation sur la question, lequel de l'homme ou de la femme est plus capable de constance?. Archbald, Anna. The fusser's book; rules. Archbald, Mary Ann Wodrow Commonplace books, Item identification number M1. Journals, Reel: Letters, Archiv Fur Frauenkunde und Konstitutionsforschung. Arendt, Carl, Berlin, H. Item identification number ; Von Prof. Argentine Republic.

Congreso Camara de Diputados. Buenos Aires, Tip. El Comercio. Item identification number ; Debates en la Camara de Diputados. Laws, statutes, etc. Ley de matrimonio. Buenos Aires. Item identification number ; Decreto nombrando visitadores. Instrucciones y formularios de actas.

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  • Proyecto de ley de matrimonio. The Argosy memorial number. London, Allen. Item identification number ; The reign of woman under Queen Victoria. Arguments of the delegates of the National Woman Suffrage Association before the committee on priviledges and elections of the United States Senate, January 11 and 12, Queen Victoria, her life and empire. London and Bombay, G. Aristotle, pseud. Aristotle's master-piece completed: in two parts.

    The first containing the secrets of generation in all parts thereof. New York, Printed for the Company of flying stationers. Item identification number 32; The second part being a private looking glass for the female sex. Treating of the various maladies of the womb, and all other distempers incident to women. Arlt, Ilse von. Die gewerbliche nachtarbeit der frauen in Osterreich. Wien, F. Paris, Impr. Lahure et cie.

    Arms, Mary L. Day Incidents in the life of a blind girl, Mary L. Day, a graduate of the Maryland institute for the blind. Baltimore, J. Item identification number ; [5th ed. Armstrong, Edward, Elisabeth Farnese, "The termagant of Spain". Arndt, Fanny, Die deutschen frauen in den befreiungskriegen. Halle, Buchhandlung des Wisenhauses. Arner, George Byron Louis, Consanguineous marriages in the American populations. Arnhem, Netherlands.

    Reglement op ze zoogenaamde publieke huizen en publieke vrouwen binnen de stad Arnhem. Van Goor, Provincialen Drukker]. Arnim, Bettina Bretano von, Arnold, Arthur. The Hon. Norton and married women. Manchester, A. Arnold, Helen Freeman. Photograph of Helen Freeman Arnold. Paris, Librairie F. Item identification number ; Embellished with engravings from designs by Frank Howard, esq. The Art of good behaviour; and letter writer, on love, courtship, and marriage: a complete guide for ladies and gentlemen, particularly those who have not enjoyed the advantages of fashionable life, containing directions for giving and attending parties, balls, weddings, dinners, etc.

    Arthur, Timothy Shay, Advice to young ladies in their duties and conduct in life. Boston, Phillips and Sampson. Advice to young men on their duties and conduct in life. Boston, Elias Howe. The lady at home: or, Leaves from the every-day book. Item identification number ; of an American woman. Tales of married life: containing lovers and husbands, married and single, sweethearts and wives. Boston, L.

    Crown and co; Philadelphia, J. The young wife; a manual of moral, religious and domestic duties. Philadelphia, Lindsay and Blakiston. Artsybashev, Mikhail Petrovich, Das Weib, und andere Novellen. Item identification number ; Deutsch von Adolf Hes. Asenijeff, Elsa. Ashe, Elizabeth H. Intimate letters from France during America's first year of war. San Francisco, Cal. Ashton, Carrie May, comp. Glimpses of sunshine in woman's century. Ashton, John, Men, maidens and manners a hundred years ago. Item identification number ; with thirty-four contemporary illustrations.

    Social life in the reign of Queen Anne, taken from original sources. London, Chatto. Item identification number ; New edition. Asmar, Maria Theresa, Prophecy and lamentation; or, A voice from the East. Hatchard and son. Item identification number ; An appeal to the women of England, on the regeneration of the East, and the elevation of their sex to the rights and dignities, of which they have been so long deprived by their Mohammedan masters.

    Translated into English. Aspinwall, Alicia Stuart. Story of Marie de Rozel, Huguenot. Paris, Charpentier et cie. Asser, Lodewijk, De matrimonio, secundum novum codicem Belgicum. Lugduni Batavorum, H. Association Feminina de Camaguey Revista. Association for Befriending Children and Young Girls. Report of the Association for befriending children and young girls, House of the Holy Family. Item identification number ; from April 1, Association for Moral and Social Hygiene.

    A doomed iniquity: an authoritative condemnation of state regulation of vice from France, Germany and Belgium. London, Federation for the abolition of the state regulation of vice. Item identification number ; with preface by Josephine E. Association for the Advancement of Women. Historical account. Dedham, Mass.

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