MATILDA USES HER LOAF (MEDIEVAL MAYHEM Book 1)


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THE WINTER CROWN

A funny and poignant time-slip adventure looking at family break-up, bereavement and step-parents. Anna is struggling to understand Bennett, the new boy at school, with whom she shares a mysterious connection. This sweet rhyming book about the tricky business of napping keeps the tone light, with cute and colourful illustrations. Time for a nap! It's time for Miyuki to go to bed, but there are so many things she wants to do with her grandfather before then! One of the most beautiful children's books in recent years. Polly Wally has a problem. Colourful and comical illustrations accompany this appealing story about a hungry little bird hunting her perfect food.

Author: Carrie Jones Publisher: Bloomsbury. A spell-binding tale of two children transported to a world of magical creatures and horrifying happenings. This book will grip, scare and delight young fantasy fans. Author: Sophy Henn Publisher: Bloomsbury. Teeny hands will love turning the flaps of this adorable board book about the very keen and creative Ted on his daily outings. A sweetly interactive read-along that really celebrates the fun of imagination. When year-old Al Chaudry learns there is a time machine sitting in the garage, he has to go and get it - then he can travel back in time and save his father's life.

The reader roots for Al all the way, in this fantastic, funny and original adventure story. The Time Collision changed everything. A cosmic cataclysm from beyond the stars has reshaped earth. Continents have shifted, timelines have merged, but humanity has endured. Author: Alex Scarrow Publisher: Puffin. Maddy should have died in a plane crash. Liam should have died at sea when the Titanic sank.

Sal should have died in a tragic fire. But a mysterious man whisked them away to safety. The clueless, comically self-confident kid detective returns in the sequel to Timmy Failure: Mistakes Were Made. Author: Gud Publisher: Lion Forge. An exciting first volume in an attractive series of graphic novels for junior readers, this tale successfully combines science fiction, humour, family difficulties and environmental concerns in an accessible and entertaining format.

Thirteen-year-old Alice is trying to stop her family falling apart. Tiny Little Fly zips between the elephant's nose and the tiger's claw, outwitting all of the other animals in this beautifully-designed picture book. This is an original, special and memorable book that sets the bar high for illustrated children's non-fiction. Kevin the librarian knows lots of things - but when the books about elephants go missing in the library, can he hunt them down and solve the case?

Available in a sturdy board book with eye-catching and slightly retro illustrations. This readable story, based on material from the National Archives, offers young readers a fresh take on the well-known tale of the sinking of the Titanic. An ideal book for teens and young adults looking for a lighthearted yet worthwhile read. Beginning with this novella set in the magical world of the Old Kingdom series; this is a fantastic collection of short stories, rich in detail and description, featuring vampires, witches, supernatural and fantasy worlds, science fiction, mystery and adventure.

Ravishankar's modern nursery rhyme takes us through an Indian market, to experience the myriad sights and sounds to be found there. Told entirely in emails and letters, this sensitive, often funny book examines what it means to be a family, and what happens when families change. Strong and vivid characterisation makes us feel we really know the characters. Author: Thomas Docherty Publisher: Templar.

A beautifully written, evocative tale with gorgeous descriptions of the Scottish Islands. Perfect for more grown-up Katie Morag fans. When Kitty's ball bounces over the fence, she meets Toad. His friends are upset about peculiar incidents involving meteorites and monsters, so brave Kitty helps to investigate. A wacky adventure about having fun and making new friends. Leo is astounded when he is hit on the head by a flying toad on his way to school. His best friend Rosa is excited because one of her two dads is a television presenter and plans to make a nature programme about the pale, yellow amphibians with bulging red eyes.

However, the toads have an insatiable appetite and as the town of Upper Dab is besieged by these …. Author: Morris Gleitzman Publisher: Penguin. Limpy, the cane toad, deeply disturbed that motorists appear to swerve their cars specifically to run toads over, is determined to put a stop to this needless loss of life. He sets out on a perilous journey to try to persuade humans that cane toads are loveable, friendly creatures. He decides to endear himself to the public by becoming a mascot for the Austr…. Author: Morris Gleitzman Publisher: Puffin. Limpy, the slightly squashed Australian cane toad, is determined to heal the rift between toads and humans.

Table of contents

Madalena Moniz explores an original emotion on every double-page spread of this lovely hardback, which follows a little boy experiencing each one. Helpful for aiding children to talk about their feelings, this is also a fun and attractive alphabet book. An ideal book for sharing - babies will love imitating the sounds in the text and pointing out details in the illustrations.

Author: Sarah Crossan Publisher: Bloomsbury. Allison befriends a woman with dementia, and an unusual friendship develops against the odds. Tom Bailey is always up to mischief and his mother, Lady Eleanor, has had enough. Tom is to go off to Squire School to turn him into a good boy. Author: Publisher: Catnip. Author: Liz Pichon Publisher: Scholastic. The brilliant Tom Gates is back in this, the fourth installment of this award-winning series from Liz Pichon. Tom discovers lots of family secrets when he embarks on a school project. Another hilarious illustrated book for older readers from multi-award-winning illustrator and author Liz Pichon.

This simple picture book effectively reveals what daily life is like for children living in a war zone. With no garden or children to play with Tom feels lonely and unhappy, until one night he hears the clock striking thirteen and discovers a secret garden. Tony Robinson takes children on a headlong gallop through the history of World War II in this entertaining history book, part of his Weird World of Wonders series. If you enjoy books which take a long hard look at family life then this is certainly a book for you.

Spring 12222 Children’s Sneak Previews

Rabbit loves carrots so much that his whole burrow is full of them, and there's no room for him to sleep! Katy Hudson explores the themes of friendship and sharing in this charming and beautifully illustrated picture book. Lulu has too many toys, so she comes up with a generous plan to tackle the problem. A gentle, humorous tale about the excesses of modern childhood, with delightful illustrations.

An original interpretation of the Oliver Twist story reflecting a number of critical and significant contemporary issues. Detective work should be easier with a ghost sidekick — unless that sidekick is your grandad! This story is an absolute delight, from the hilarious characters to the fast-paced, page-turning adventure. Author: Jean Adamson Publisher: Ladybird.

Antonio gives his grandson an account of the hardships of the Spanish Civil War. Readers will empathise with Antonio, while acquiring an understanding of an important European conflict. Author: Mathieu Lavoie Publisher: Phaidon. Toto is a determined little worm. By hook or by crook, he is going to reach the juicy red apple hanging from a low branch.

Author: Alison Jay Publisher: Templar. A touch and feel board book, and one of a 'nursery collection', this volume looks at the toys inside a toy box. A wonderful gift for a toddler or preschooler, this board book is beautifully and sturdily made. The toys have been left outside in the garden one summer night. To help to pass the time till morning, Wonderdoll begins to tell a story about the arrival of a mysterious alien spaceship Transformed in an instant from combat cool to sartorial nightmare, can Traction Man ever be a superhero again?

Sartorial action hero, Traction Man, returns! He and Scrubbing Brush dauntlessly scale the compost heap, cross the swampy pond then return, exhausted. There is traffic jam in town, but what is causing it? This beautiful book bursts with fun rhymes and colourful illustrations, and is a fabulous interactive tool for young readers. Abbot's bright images, with cartoon animals shouting the name of their toy, help young readers to identify and learn the names of objects.

Author: Alwyn Hamilton Publisher: Faber. Traitor to the Throne takes place nearly a year after Rebel of the Sands finishes. The plot races along until the explosive conclusion, which will leave readers desperate for the final book in the trilogy. Author: Publisher: Hesperus Press. Having squandered his wealth, Guido returns to claim the hand of the celestial Juliet, but finds himself censured by her father. After years of selfimposed exile from a civilization rife with degradation and indecency, cynical journalist Spider Jerusalem is forced to return to a job he hates and a city he loathes.

Author: Chris Riddell Publisher: Macmillan. Author: Michael Foreman Publisher: Templar. Michael Foreman takes us on a truly engrossing trip around the world with this gorgeous collection of sketches, drawings and stories. A book for expanding boundaries: 'Hopefully, children the world over, will feel no horizon is too far. The first book in Josephine Angelini's Worldwalker trilogy puts an inventive new spin on the story of the Salem witches. Author: Rick Riordan Publisher: Puffin. Greek god Apollo is having a bad day: he's been stripped of all his powers and banished to earth in the body of a year-old boy.

He can't quite remember what he's being punished for, but is determined to get it over with quickly so heads to Camp Half-Blood, a sanctuary for demi-gods. Except when he arrives, the camp is in chaos: kids are going missing and …. Zara lives in a world where magic means power and those without are forced to work as slaves - but Zara fights against this. Two brother rats must go on an adventure to earn their names and the respect of their clan.

Will they return victorious or will the challenges they face be too great? A little girl called Tabitha decides to swap places with Timothy the hairy troll in this lively picture book. This black comedy has a highly visual, cinematic feel. It is wildly imaginative and rich in description, comedy gore and elaborate use of language, but a little light on plot. Contains strong language and graphic violence.

Early in the thirteenth century, Elinor's parents attempt to marry her off to an elderly nobleman but she escapes disguised as a boy, with a troupe of travelling entertainers. Fifteen-year-old Hannah is in trouble. She's pregnant, and can't bring herself to tell her family or friends the truth. Unfortunately, Magda's fun ideas have a nasty habit of getting Bella in trouble.

A new illustrated series for young readers gets off to a fun start with Magda's naughty antics. The first title in the Bromeliad trilogy, this is an enchanting fantasy from favourite author Terry Pratchett. Author: Paul Dowswell Publisher: Usborne. From animals to astronauts, and captured spies in World War II, this collection of thirteen short stories celebrates some truly amazing, and amazingly true, heroic acts. Main character Annie is forthright and witty, and has cerebral palsy although that's not central to the plot.

An upbeat story with heart. Seventeen-year-old Jayna can't wait to go on holiday with boyfriend Andrew - but their trip has unexpected and terrible consequences. On a Tuesday evening, the sun is setting, and in the distance, an army of frogs on flying lily pads is approaching.

In this retelling of a traditional African folk tale, wily Hare outwits Elephant and Hippopotamus when he challenges them to a game of tug-of-war. Stunning illustrations depict a beautiful African landscape in this story about friendship and realising that everyone is special in their own way, whatever their size. The first in a series of fantasy novels, Tunnels starts slowly, introducing us to Will and building a picture of his unusual and dysfunctional family life.

But the pace picks up with the discovery of a mysterious subterranean psuedo-Victorian parallel world, and the unpleasant Styx, who appears to have malevolent designs on its 21st century discoverers. But when gang leader Shads decides it's time for him to step up and prove his loyalty, Jay realises he has a difficult choice to make.

A fable of human conflict, Tusk Tusk deals with a difficult topic is a wonderfully clear way. Every night at precisely 12 minutes to midnight, the inmates of Bedlam, London's notorious madhouse, all begin feverishly writing - incoherent ramblings that Penelope quickly realises are in fact terrifying visions of the new century to come. Edward seems to hate Bella, but it turns out that he is in love with her and he is afraid of what he might do to her. The irrepressible Mosca Mye returns! Having departed Mandelion under a cloud, she and Eponymour Clent are running out of places to go.

A mixed-up, mashed-up melody is the perfect description for this clever sing-song board book. This book is all about signing and singing-along! The clear hand movements encourage signing as well as dancing.


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Author: Juliette Forrest Publisher: Scholastic. Twister's father has gone missing. Her mother is depressed, and people are accusing her father of starting a fatal fire. Even school is horrible now, despite Twister's love for learning, and other than her Aunt Honey and her dog Point she feels that everyone is now against her. Then one day Twister finds a magic necklace with transformative powers. Will this…. Author: Lydia Monks Publisher: Macmillan.

Mouse does NOT want to go to school and feels sad when she gets there A gentle and sensitive book for nervous little ones. Maybe playing together is better because two can have twice as much fun as one! This is an adorable book about letting others join in your games - and each page has hidden details that young readers will love to discover. Two frogs are sitting on a lily pad in the middle of a pond; one of them holding a stick. But why? This nail-biting thriller is also a challenging story about the lives of the world's poorest children.

Two birds, Betty and Paul are perched in a tree. Lula and Lenka are the best of friends until they have an argument and neither will say sorry. Will they ever manage to make up? Polly Ho-Yen beautifully explores the complexity of friendships and learning that there are always two sides of a story. When his brother becomes seriously ill with leukaemia, Colin is sent to stay with relatives in England.

Determined to get the best help possible, he decides to approach the Queen. Parker Sante hasn't spoken a word in the five years since his father died. However, he's a pretty good writer. This unusual and sensitive love and coming-of-age story features two great lead characters. In the long hot summer of , planes are doing battle over the channel, and the south coast of England is braced for a German invasion. People call him 'That Pesky Rat', but he longs for a real name, a home and someone to care for him. Lucy is a clever little cat who knows how to do everything. She can eat with a spoon and fork, play the xylophone, even fold fabulous paper stars.

In fact, all her friends ask her for help if they cannot do something. When Toshi the panda arrives from far away, Lucy doesn't understand why he does everything differently. She becomes increasingly frustrated wh…. A different bear is introduced on each page of this colourful board book, but there is something not quite right about most of them.

Lots of different fairies are introduced throughout this book, but none of them are quite right. Her wings are too fluffy. This sturdy touch and feel book features a succession of colourful frogs, from one with silky feet, to another with bumpy spots, to another with shiny toes.

One of a growing series of touch and feel board books with interesting textures and shapes for inquisitive fingers to explore. This monster-themed book is an entertaining addition to the much-loved That's Not My This sturdy and durable board book is perfect for the very youngest children, with touch and feel images full of interesting textures and shapes that are ideal for small fingers to explore. Alfie Monk looks like any other year old boy.

However, as the title suggests, he is actually 1,years old. Author: Carla Spradbery Publisher: Hodder. Readers who are happy to suspend their disbelief will revel in a plot that races along with thrills, scares and entire shoals of red herrings littering the path to a gripping and tortuous climax. Ideal for lovers of Point Horror.


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  • Like his desk, Frankie likes life to be orderly and neat. But then Sydney arrives, and disturbs Frankie's carefully organised world, forcing him to ask a hitherto unspoken 10pm question. Griffiths and Denton create a triumph to engage even the most determined hater of books, which includes hilarious cartoon drawings. Author: Publisher: Penguin Children's Books. A few months ago Cassie's biggest problem was that the boy she liked didn't know she was alive. Now she is alone, fighting for survival in a world ravaged by an alien invasion. Three children set out to rescue their Professor Ampersand and his six companions from an evil organisation.

    With minimal text per page and brilliant black-and-white illustrations taking up most of the space, the story zips past at lightning speed and is a really easy, funny read. Best friends Andy and Terry live in an incredible treehouse, but when their publisher's grandchildren come to stay, things soon get out of control. In his first book for young adults, Sherman Alexie tells the story of budding artist Junior, a year-old Native American. For as long as she can remember, the end of October has been the beginning of the Accident Season for seventeen-year-old Cara and her family: cuts, falls and broken bones.

    A spooky and psychological modern classic with a twist. Before he knows it, Joe is thrust straight through the limelight and into a seat at Number Kevin's just your everyday year-old, obsessed with phones and becoming a secret agent. The only reason readers will put down this book is because they're laughing too much to hold onto it.

    When Alfie Onion helps his brother Magnifico on a quest to secure a princess wife, things don't quite go as his fairytale-obsessed mother had planned. A hero does rise - just not the one everyone expected. Seeing the world from the imaginary friend's viewpoint, rather than the child's, sheds fresh light on this familiar yet magical friendship. The stylish, striking, images emphasise its vibrancy against everyday drabness. Catvinkle's peaceful cat existence is disrupted when her owner brings home Ula the Dalmatian. Against the odds, the pair become pals.

    But how will the other cats react? This accessible introduction to Greek mythology unrolls in one hundred episodes, focusing on the god, Hermes. Adventure on the high seas meets spy thriller: a fantastically executed, exciting must-read. A charming collection of short stories about eccentric Miss Petitfour, who loves adventures and always travels by tablecloth with her sixteen cats. The story of the wooden puppet who learns goodness and becomes a real boy is famous the world over, and has been familiar in English for over a century.

    A retelling of 11 Robin Hood stories, from his fight with Little John to the firing of his last arrow in humorous comic-strip format. Baker Street will forever be associated with the famous pipe-smoking detective and his amiable sidekick Dr Watson. Resourceful junior reporter Tintin embarks on a series of exciting international adventures, accompanied by his faithful dog Snowy, in this favourite series.

    We all know that the dish ran away with the spoon but Mini Grey's new book explores what happened to the nursery rhyme characters next. The New Cut Gang are a rag-tag group of resourceful young rascals who get up to all manner of adventures on the streets of Victorian Lambeth. This is a thriller suffused with an air of menace, of insecurity, of complex personal tensions and violence. It's a fast-paced, fun read with amazing visuals that gaming fans will love, as well as anyone else that enjoys a good yarn. An alien boy tries to fit in at his new school on earth in the first in a new series aimed at early readers.

    Filled with humour about the yucky stuff Zeke eats, and wonder at the feats he can perform, this inclusive story makes for a very entertaining tale. Fantastical illustrations complement this exuberant escapade, starring an almost fearless boy who is a tiny bit terrified of the dark. Author: Lucy Saxon Publisher: Bloomsbury. A hilarious story of an unwanted boy's determination to do good despite the efforts of his dastardly parents. First is the kindest, most trusting boy on the planet, but is born to Katiuscia and Gregor Smirth, two penny-pinching, egocentric parents who hate children and merely wanted him as an heir.

    Despite their efforts to teach First that only greed and sel…. Mona's parents call her Groana because she's sometimes grumpy and loses her temper. She and her mother have moved out of their home and into a strange flat on the other side of town. Mona doesn't know why, and plans to put things right as soon as possible. At her new school, she reluctantly makes friends with a boy called Mo.

    Mo knows why the new flat is so …. Moving from the present day to wartime diary and back again, this ultimately uplifting novel illuminates the effects of the fateful events on the lives of those involved and the generations that followed. Based on a true story, this book is beautifully illustrated and gives the horrors of war a human, and animal, heart.

    Author: Philip Pullman Publisher: Scholastic. Lyra and Will, the fiesty protagonists from the first two novels, are reunited to embark on their final, dangerous journey on which the future of all the worlds depend. The graphic novel adaptation of the first volume in the best-selling Bartimaeus sequence makes the series more accessible to readers without taking away any of the wit and magic. Boogie along with the jungle inhabitants who flap, shake, flap and slide their way through this colourful book.

    Sam and Bo reveal their pasts in alternate chapters, each gradually facing the dysfunctional relationships and traumatic incidents which have triggered their current unlikely friendship. Shifting between spy thriller and enchanting fantasy, The Apothecary is a skilful blend of the magical with the very real nuclear threat of the s.

    Oscar's apple tarts bring hope to the sad or desperate. He is loved and appreciated for this special gift. Meg is his best friend, but just as their friendship is about to blossom into love she has to go to New Zealand for sixth months. When Arianwyn fails her witch's assessment, she thinks her life is over - but, really, the adventure has only just begun. A great adventure story, filled with wonderful spells and mysterious creatures. Author: Shaun Tan Publisher: Hachette. In this unusual book, we follow a young man as he packs his bags and leaves his family to go and start a new life in another country.

    David Piper has always been an outsider, labelled a freak by the school bully. Only his two best friends know the real truth — David wants to be a girl. Author: Eric Carle Publisher: Puffin. The little prince is terribly upset; all of his bedtime stories have been stolen! Luckily detectives Cat, Fox and Bear are on the case. This unusual book tells the dark, often harrowing story of Octavian, a boy in the care of a house of rational philosophers in revolutionary Boston. Rory Rooney is unremarkable in almost everything, apart from his capacity to attract the attention of the school bully.

    But when he suddenly and spectacularly turns green, he becomes a superhero! Author: Adam Frost Publisher: Bloomsbury. The vibrant infographics bring these facts about the human body to life, and make the book wonderfully fun and colourful. Have you ever wondered how many muscles you use when you smile, or realised that humans shed three types of tears?

    If you have ever wondered which animal moves slowest, is the most deadly, or even poos the most — then this is the book for you! Sure to be a hit with fact lovers and animal lovers alike. This is a super cool non-fiction book, a little bit like a small version of the Guinness Book of Records. Olivia is in the midst of one of the greatest parties ever - her own 17 th birthday party - when she walks in on her best friend Nicola giving birth on her bathroom floor.

    Fly Pie and Sham are rubbish pickers, who go to the tip every day to pick rubbish for Mother Shelly. Then one day they come across a dying man and a baby. When a mysterious bundle arrives on their doorstep they are overjoyed. This determined baby refuses to go to bed. Resolved to stay up all night, he takes off in his car to search for like-minded friends.

    This book's packed with lots of baby pictures and baby items. It's great for learning and making up stories - this fantastic book will lead to lots of talk with your child. Perfect for fans of the Horrible Science series, this colourful book is full of weird and wonderful facts that will release the science enthusiast inside you. This is a wonderful, inventive and playful picture book about two naughty bunnies and their magic tricks, which will delight young readers and their parents alike. Author: Aaron Blabey Publisher: Scholastic.

    Written like a comic book, this is a very funny story, full of action and crazy characters. It's lots of fun and will probably make you laugh out loud. Children will enjoy this cheeky tale thanks to Asquith's charming writing and Hedderwick's familiar illustrations. A lovely way to make learning to read fun. An elderly Great-Grandfather tells his grandson what happened to him during World War II, and it involves a love affair between Bert's sister and a deserter. Author: Publisher: Curious Fox. In some ways Amelie Day is a teenager like any other, much of her day-to-day life revolving around her best friend, school, loyal boyfriend and fretful mother.

    However, in other ways, she is rather less typical Author: Sam Bosma Publisher: Nobrow. The second in the Fantasy Sports series starts to unfold a slightly more developed backstory. With more epic sports battles and more tongue-in-cheek humour, this high-action tale of good sportsmanship and friendship is another gem. As everyone knows, a gang's den is sacred no matter how dirty, dark or smelly it may be so when the Bare Bum Gang's den is at risk they will do anything they can to save it.

    This is a beautifully comprehensive and thought-provoking picture of the many different ways in which people live around the world. A book to dip into time and time again; a treasure trove of discussion topics, but also an aesthetic delight. The eight stories in this thought-provoking collection of traditional Jewish tales combine folklore and scripture, and are retold for children.

    Gathered from a range of eras and locations, the emphasis of each story is on kindness, compassion and trust in God. Author: Publisher: Bloomsbury Childrens Books. Jack Snap is a 'boy where magic could happen'; and happen it does when he is imprisoned by a darkly powerful Magus, an alchemist who plans to turn Tudor London into gold. Author: Raymond Briggs Publisher: Penguin.

    Young Tilly is delighted when a polar bear clambers through her bedroom window one night - but are mischievous polar bears really ideal domestic pets? The Bear is a warm story about kindness, caring, and letting go. Bear wants a 'cool' new haircut, so off he goes to the hairdressers - but which style will suit him best? A fun story with an attached bear puppet to really bring the tale to life.

    A bear's piano playing makes him a huge star, but he misses the friends and family he has left behind. A moving tale of exploration and belonging from an exciting debut author-illustrator. A group of young bear cubs go to Miss Betsy Bear's baking school for a week of fun in the kitchen - but who will take home the golden trophy for best baker at the end of the week?

    A short, quiet novel that blurs the lines of fantasy and reality in a dream like fable, The Bear Whispers to Me feels traditional and timeless. Parents and children alike will enjoy this touching tale of a father's mission to find his son in this stylish picture book. An epic story of triumph over adversity in the style of traditional folk tales. Elin's mother has a very special job - caring for the magical Toda which protect their kingdom. But when something goes wrong, Elin must flee and discovers an astonishing talent for communicating with creatures.

    A sophisticated fantasy that will have teen readers gripped. Madlyn and Rollo are despatched to live for the summer with their reclusive elderly relatives in decrepit Clawstone Castle. These, warm, funny poems will amuse children and hopefully get them wanting to share the rhyme and repetition by reading them out loud. With illustrations and funny notes in the margins, this is a book for everyone who wants to explore nature.

    Author: Publisher: Vintage. This collection of stories reads like a novel following Rose's life as she moves away from her impoverished roots and forges her own path in the world. Author: Ben Mantle Publisher: Macmillan. When Bear sends out invitations to his birthday party, his guests compete with one another to buy the best present in the toyshop.

    Twelve-year old Philip Wright is a comedian in the making. Then one day, he tells his mother a joke, and she breaks down in tears. It's a brave challenge to unite the themes of cancer and comedy - but this is an entertaining and light-hearted read. The Prince invites entertainers to the palace to cheer up the Princess.

    The puppeteers come too and perform the greatest story — the Christmas Nativity story. Astrid Lindgren award winner Eva Eriksson provides quirky, soft-focus and humorous illustrations for Ulf Nilsson's story about a boy who loves singing but is too shy to perform. Ed, Zac, Becca and Kat are all keen to go on a school trip, but then they learn they'll have to earn money to make it there - and soon it's boys versus girls to see who can make the most cash!

    A dyslexia-friendly book. Author: Mary Hooper Publisher: Bloomsbury. The final novel in Hooper's At the House of the Magician series, in which Lucy is in London, preparing for the imminent arrival of Dr John Dee, the court alchemist and his family. The BFG stands for Big Friendly Giant, who unexpectedly spirits a little girl named Sophie out of bed, and into the land of the child-eating giants. Author: Helen Stephens Publisher: Egmont. When Paul and Sally Small sneak out of bed to take a peek at the goings-on at the Small Hall Grand Ball, Mr Puddles the teddy bear has a nasty accident - he falls through the banisters and simply has to be rescued.

    If you have ever wished you could turn a weedy uncle into an inflatable fairy or a bad-tempered friend into an exploding pencil case then this is the book for you! This wonderful, beautifully illustrated book about all things fishy and ocean-y has a gentle sense of humour: presenting digestible facts, ideal for lower primary children, with a light-hearted twist. Author: Raymond Chandler Publisher: Penguin. Californian private eye Philip Marlowe's entanglement with the Sternwood family - and an attendant cast of colorful underworld figures - is the background to a story reflecting all the tarnished glitter of the great American Dream.

    The beautifully detailed illustrations by Nicola Bayley capture the warmth and magic of this delightful story. A warm and simple rhyming story that explores mixed heritage and identity in an imaginative, colourful way, and reassures in its acceptance of difference and variety. A visually impaired boy introduces us to colours as he experiences them — through his senses of hearing, touch, smell and taste.

    An original and fascinating book by a talented new writer, which explores themes of trust, redemption, forgiveness and natural justice in the context of a dark and gripping mystery.

    Auntie Urooj is lonely so Shaima decides to sign her up with the Truly Deeply Muslims online marriage agency. But her new suitor Rasheed isn't all he appears to be Three children, each with their own special ability, are plucked from the streets in different cities around the world.

    They are brought together and trained as ninjas to continue to protect the Moon Sword - a source of great power. Author: Chris Wooding Publisher: Indigo. In the second gripping installment of the adventures of the Ketty Jay, Captain Darien Frey finds himself seeking an alien treasure on a dangerous island. Author: Teresa Flavin Publisher: Templar. Author: Carter Roy Publisher: Scholastic. Ronan discovers why his mother has filled all his spare time with classes of every kind, from martial arts to fencing.

    Think Anthony Horowitz meets Dan Brown and be prepared for a fast and spectacular ride in this first book in a series. Columba, growing up in Australia on the eve of the Second World War, knows Europe only as a far-away place where mysterious events occur and threaten her life. A poetic account of the Second World War. This teen fantasy, originally published in , is a rip-roaring ride filled with fantasy, girl-power, romance and danger.

    Author: Brian Conaghan Publisher: Bloomsbury. Charlie and Pav's friendship becomes something more complex, when the bombs and the Old Country soldiers come. This compulsive teen read successfully achieves a difficult balance: entertainment and social commentary. An intriguing blend of psychological thriller and fantasy, this is an impressive and unusual debut. Focusing on a friendship between two young refugees, The Bone Sparrow is one of those rare, special books that will break your heart with its honesty and beauty - but is ultimately hopeful and uplifting.

    The year is and Necessity Bonehill lives miserably in a boarding school for young ladies. Overwhelmed by boredom, she is unable to resist temptation when an exotic-looking bottle arrives from her uncle along with instructions never to open it. Author: Tom Wolfe Publisher: Vintage. He has a fashionable wife, a Park Avenue apartment and a Southern mistress.

    This sniggeringly funny, totally deadpan adventure is a joy to read. This glorious book will introduce you to the bee world. It is fantastically illustrated in a cartoonish style that is big, bold and great fun. Author: Robin Wasserman Publisher: Atom. Translating the letters of sixteenth century alchemist's daughter Elizabeth Weston, Nora finds herself on the trail of a powerful secret encoded in the mysterious Voynich Manuscript. This wonderful book about the magic of clouds is full of surprising and original poems, perfect for upper key stage two children either at school or at home.

    Malcolm is drawn into a dangerous world of secrets and intrigue — and a mission to protect baby Lyra, whatever the cost. Joshua Pearl is a fairy prince in a human world, trying to make his way back to his one true love through our history. This sweeping fairy tale of love and memory will bewitch readers who long for epic romance and otherworldly magic.

    A powerful story narrated by Death, about: a girl, an accordionist, some fanatical Germans, a Jewish fist fighter, and quite a lot of thievery. Demanding to be shared, this is a fresh and enormously funny book that children will want to hear time and time again. When Property Jones's family win the amazing opportunity to take over a huge bookshop in London, they can't wait to move. But Property thinks there's something fishy going on.

    This crime caper has lots of warmth and laughs. Author: Mary Norton Publisher: Puffin. The Borrowers are tiny people who live in the secret places of old houses - behind the mantlepiece, inside the harpsichord, under the kitchen clock. Travelling on a gigantic train, The Boundless, Will witnesses a brutal murder - and it is up to Will to save the train. A rollercoaster of a read, with thrilling turns, dazzling characters and non-stop action. A magical old man has asked Kay to protect the Box of Delights, a Box with which he can travel through time.

    But Kay is in danger: Abner Brown will stop at nothing to get his hands on it. The police don't believe Kay, so when his family and the Bishop are scrobbled up just before Christmas, he knows he must act alone When Toby goes to the Globe theatre to thieve, he meets a sad and despairing figure: William Shakespeare. This funny chapter book celebrates the power of art and imagination in all its forms - and has some wonderfully arch illustrations. This is the story about how four classmates have a massive impact on the life of Ahmet, a boy that comes to their school as a refugee from Syria.

    But Vix is regretting being a host — she already has enough to do caring for her disabled mother. Taking place in a believable urban, multicultural environment that will be familiar to many young readers, Polly Ho-Yen's debut is an impressively moving and thought-provoking story that will touch children and adults alike.

    A child's imagination is a wonderful thing and Paul's is more wonderful and vivid than many. He has a theory - that the moon is not really the moon but a great big hole in the sky. Author: Harriet Goodwin Publisher: Stripes. A funny, life-affirming quest for identity that sees year old Elvis Crampton Lucas and his adoptive dad racing across Norway, pursued by a shadowy villain. Captivating and thought-provoking. Author: Lara Williamson Publisher: Usborne. Becket Rumsey decides to investigate the reasons behind the strange actions of some of the adults in his life.

    With the help of his brother Billy and his pet snail Brian, he uncovers some difficult truths - and some beautiful ones. Multi-award-winning author David Almond returns with this pleasingly eccentric story of a ordinary boy who embarks on an unusual adventure. Marcel turns off the sun and plunges the world into the cold and dark. Can he find a way to put things back to normal — and quickly? Bright, glossy, humorous and thought-provoking. Everyone in Penvellyn has grown up on the stories of Ferenor, an abandoned land of mages and magic that now lies in myth and ruin.

    Touches of steampunk and fantasy mix together in this magic-filled adventure. Written, unusually, in the present tense, this dystopian fable expresses an idea about the way the relationship between nature and society could develop. Author: Sathnam Sanghera Publisher: Penguin. The book moves along quickly, never boring, always painting an interesting picture of a family dealing with mental illness and a family dealing with the cultural differences of old and new, East and West.

    Author: Matilda Woods Publisher: Scholastic. Allora is a small town so close to the ocean that fish fly out of the tumultuous sea; it's a town so small that secrets are impossible to keep. Author: Allan Ahlberg Publisher: Penguin. It is , and in Oldbury Town there is to be a football competition. Rood End Primary enters its two best teams, but there are a few others who want to make their mark too. The Beast is enjoying a lovely bit of peace and quiet when terrified villagers from a nearby island beg for his help in finding the source of a horrifying howling.

    Grorks are shy, easily frightened creatures, and the one in this story is no exception. When his friend, the greep, suggests going for a walk to the wood, the grork is terrified Author: Meg Rosoff Publisher: Penguin. This book oozes personality and with so much going on it promises to maintain the attention of young readers for hours at a time. Tomas sets out to find his father, terrified that the Brockenspectre - a mountain monster which his father had told him about - has got him. Celebrating the th centenary of the Children's Crusade, The Broken Road imagines the story of a group of young people to Jerusalem to regain the city from the Saracens for the Christianity, which took place in the 13th century.

    Joe has always lived in a sterile room in a hospital. Author: Phil Earle Publisher: Penguin. Charlie goes in search of something he is good at, that will make him feel better after being picked on at school. When he discovers skateboarding his whole life changes, but can he persuade his overprotective Mum to let him develop his talent? The boy loves his grandmother dearly. Best of all, he loves the stories about her life as a prize-winning architect. One day, she promises she'll build him an extraordinary house. Now his grandmother's gone, and he's heartbroken. But in her garden there are bricks and girder and he begins to build….

    Lindy Jones

    Norman the bear loves honey, so he thinks up an ingenious plan to get his paws on as much as he can eat - by enrolling at Bee School! An endearing tale about friendship and loyalty. It's World War Two and Britain is on the brink of invasion. A fast-paced adventure that zips along and mixes up the facts with tantalising mythical and magical elements. With bold, easy to read rhyming text and beautiful pictures to fire the imagination, this book, exploring all manner of transport and adventure, is one to be treasured and shared.

    Blending a tense and compelling murder mystery with a thoughtful story of self-discovery , this is an impressive debut novel. Twins Bul-Boo and Madillo are determined to save their friend Winifred from an arranged marriage with her uncle's friend, who is old enough to be her grandfather. Inside an imaginary glass butterfly house, we make our way through a variety of butterfly and moth species, all fabulously illustrated by the very talented Alice Pattullo.

    A very lovely and informative read. An imaginative, entertaining story about scary new beginnings, featuring some comical, crazy characters and sprinkled with funny illustrations. The Call masterfully blends fantasy, horror and folklore. They take their revenge by 'calling' teenagers to the Grey Lands - where they are hunted, tortured or killed.

    Author: Louis Sachar Publisher: Bloomsbury. When year-old space mad Stella visits NASA, the last thing she expects is for a black hole to follow her and live in her house as a pet. A heartwarming, sensitively funny and uplifting illustrated story of one girl's journey in confronting her grief. Author: Sarah Hall Publisher: Faber. Britain is in a bad way. Flooding, fuel shortages and overseas military commitments have taken their toll on the environment and the economy. The Castle is a fast-paced adventure story that is sure to keep readers turning pages.

    It also touches upon issues of domestic slavery, politics and human rights. Author: Sharon Creech Publisher: Bloomsbury. Two orphaned peasant children, Pia and Enzio, find a pouch, stolen from the King and dropped in their path. A fairytale about rich and poor. This is a timeless fantastical story about overcoming greed, power and corruption. Lorina is a brave heroine, who fights for what is right against all odds. There are lots of other fun characters, too - all illustrated by the wonderful Chris Riddell. The bold, earthy colour palate and close observation of the human and natural world make this a striking collection to be treasured — and remembered.

    Author: Nick Sharratt Publisher: Scholastic. When the royal castle is destroyed in an Unfortunate Incident involving a fire-breathing dragon, the King and his best friend, the cat, are forced to find an alternative home. When Sally and her brother are left alone on a rainy day, they think they are in for a dull time - but then the Cat in the Hat appears. After causing havoc at home, Jingles the playful kitten disappears, and the family spends Christmas frantically searching for their beloved pet.

    This amusing festive tale, with comical illustrations, is ideal for newly-confident independent readers. Miss Ponsonby is reclusive and eccentric. She is certain that she has living with her, in feline form, not only her dead parents and friends, but Queen Victoria. There is a cave that is home to a creature: a creature that never leaves its cave… Because of the wolf. Author: Manil Suri Publisher: Bloomsbury. Manil Suri's new novel, The City of Devi , is a weird postmodern dystopia, a thriller and a love story.

    Hyacinth Hayward is on a mission to save her kidnapped Mum. A delightfully silly, surreal and addictive adventure. Author: Catherine Fisher Publisher: Firefly. Orphan Seren Rhys has been sent to live with her mysterious Godfather after living for 12 years in an orphanage.

    The possibility of her first happy family Christmas seems like it might finally be within her reach. On her solo journey to Wales, Seren is given a mysterious package to look after by a stranger and ends up feeling obliged to take it with her. Everyone loves art class; everyone except the little girl who sits alone and draws nothing, a black cloud glowering above her.

    Many years after an unspecified cataclysm, the Earth has been shattered into a myriad of tiny planetoids floating in a vast ocean of air. Franklin was called 'The Cloudspotter' - and he didn't want to share his clouds with anyone. That's why he pops the infuriating Scruffy Dog into a hot-air balloon and lets her fly away. A charming story about a lonely little boy who finds a friend.

    Humour, adventure, mystery and plenty of innocent childhood antics pepper this comical chapter book for young readers. Author: Holly Black Publisher: Indigo. Welcome to Coldtown. Once you enter, you can never leave. Delightfully dark and gorgeously gothic, it is certain to enchant fans of all things chilling and supernatural.

    Author: Anna Llenas Publisher: Templar. An original and entertaining picture book using colour, collage-effect illustrations and a delightfully cute monster to help youngsters identify and understand different emotions. On Hassan's first day at school he paints a colourful picture of his home and family in Somalia, but then adds soldiers, flames and bullets. Drawing on personal experiences of living in a family blighted by depression, this unusual, yet important, book may help youngsters to make sense of an illness they cannot see.

    It offers a wide range of opportunities and new ideas for parents and schools, working across the curriculum through art, history and beyond. Author: Harriet Whitehorn Publisher: Stripes. This adventure book is a total rollercoaster ride that will catch your breath as gutsy Cass weaves in and out of peril. After all, who doesn't want swashbuckling fun and women warriors with the hearts of lions? Fortunately she meets Morag, a friend from orchestra, who says she can stay at her house. Author: Publisher: Andrews McMeel.

    The comic-strip adventures of Calvin, a naughty boy with a philosophical bent, and his soft toy tiger companion Hobbes, delighted readers from to The General of a powerful country sends his troops into the last unconquered territory, but to their surprise, when they march across the border, they meet with no resistance. Ever woken up to an eerie howl in the night and wondered what it was?

    This creepy tale about the Considine family might just have the answer. The great beauty and diversity of the coral reef is explored in this stunningly beautiful picture book, which is a true work of art. The rhyming non-fiction text scans well and the information about coral reef conservation is pitched at the right level. This accessible and diversely illustrated picture book gives helpful suggestions for more or less any reading issue.

    It's likely to especially interest schools. A madcap, yet moving, story about having the courage of one's convictions, even when others doubt you. One night, a little cow falls to earth from the moon, but none of the earth animals speak her language. Author: Jeremy Lachlan Publisher: Egmont. Jane Doe appeared on the steps of the mysterious Manor with her sick father as a baby, and ever since the residents of Bluehaven have considered her The Cursed One.

    But Jane's about to find out who she really is in a storming, funny and gripping adventure romp. Monsters under the bed AKA The Creakers are acknowledged as scary, but the warm and humorous narrator will make more nervous children feel they are in safe hands. After reading this brilliantly creepy book, you'll never look at a potato in the same way again.

    Author: Dawn Kurtagich Publisher: Orion. Kurtagich has created an incredibly assured, claustrophobic horror with a fractured and troubled teen narrator that will have you gripped to the very last page. Who has left it, and where is its matching pair? An engaging story with a rhyming text and a fun Croc puppet attached to bring the story to life. Witty, colourful and delightful. Matty is sick, and very sad because he's too sick to go to the Queen's birthday party! But when he gets an unexpected visitor, it seems that Matty might not miss out after all Author: Jennifer Bell Publisher: Corgi.

    Few, however, were so transformed in this period. The town lost its political importance as the resort of kings and the meeting-place of great councils. Its position as the head of navigation on the river Thames was taken by Henley, and the wealthy merchants who had dominated the town's economy and government were replaced by lesser men.

    Above all, the relative positions of town and university were reversed, and by the end of the period the town's economy depended almost entirely on supplying the university's needs. Growing awareness of a decline in Oxford's fortunes in the early 14th century coincided with a prolonged period of social unrest in the town and its neighbourhood, culminating in a great town-gown riot on St. Scholastica's day ; as a result of that and previous conflicts the university's privileges were so increased that it controlled many aspects of town life until the 19th century.

    The university's monopoly of much of the walled area also dates from the later Middle Ages, when the continued reduction of Oxford's trade and population made possible the acquisition by colleges of central sites, leaving only a much reduced commercial area around Carfax. The university's population seems to have reached a peak soon after ; it has been estimated at c. John's hospital was highest between and Many halls were vacant in the years immediately after the Black Death, and after a brief recovery in the s the number of halls leased to graduates by the abbey and hospital fell fairly steadily from the last quarter of the 14th century.

    In the later Middle Ages the town's suburbs contracted, and within the walls there was structural decay and an abundance of vacant plots. Very little church building or restoration may be dated to the century following the Black Death. The gloomiest picture was that drawn by a jury in of a thirteen-acre site in the north-east corner of the town: the land, neither built-up nor inclosed, was a dump for filth and corpses, a resort of criminals and prostitutes, and it was felt that the building of New College there would be an advantage to the whole town.

    For the reduced population there were compensations: the university, and particularly the expanding colleges, provided immediate employment, particularly in building work, and secure long-term opportunities for a wide variety of tradesmen. Wage-rates were high and rents low.

    Although the rate of freeman admissions in Oxford is not known before the 16th century, an increase in the entry fee in the later Middle Ages fn. The townsmen's awareness of deteriorating economic conditions; disasters such as the famine of ; the university's growing control in the market-place; widespread hostility to monastic landlords; a general breakdown of law and order-all probably made some contribution to the disturbances, and there were connexions between some local affrays and the baronial struggles of the time.

    In Henry Tyes, later a prominent supporter of Thomas of Lancaster, was appointed keeper of the town. An imposter who appeared at the Carmelite friary in claiming to be the true son of Edward I may have chosen to start his bid for the throne at Oxford because it was a centre of discontent, but it is not clear how much support he attracted; he was fairly quickly arrested and taken to the king at Northampton, where he was executed.

    In the university was ordered to hold Smith Gate, which was in its custody, against Roger Mortimer and his 'multitude of aliens'. The Oxford men, who were involved in the second phase of the violence, were led by Philip de Eu and included the mayor and bailiffs and other prominent burgesses. Frideswide's priory and forced the prior to swear to observe the town's statutes. Although Oxford was chosen as a suitable place for holding royal councils in and , fn.

    There was relatively little town-gown rioting in the earlier 14th century, but ill-feeling between the two bodies arose frequently, particularly over such issues as the control of prices. Martin's parish, where the crime was committed, to sanctuary in the Austin friary. At the friary the killers were supplied with food by John the painter, a burgess involved in most of the disturbances of the previous decade, who eventually took them, by force of arms according to one account, to St.

    Mary Magdalen's church, whence they were allowed to escape. The great riot of St. Scholastica's day lasted for three days. From such a small beginning violence spread rapidly, townsmen rallying to the innkeeper's support, clerks to the scholars', despite the efforts of town and university authorities to restore peace.

    On the second day of fighting a large body of countrymen marched into the town to support the townsmen, and their combined forces proved too strong for the scholars who fled the town or took shelter in the academic halls, of which many were sacked. Both sides accused the other of robbing, wounding, and killing; 6 clerks were alleged to have been killed and 21 seriously injured, but no account survives of the town's casualties.

    The riot and its consequences were a serious blow to a community already devastated by plague. Mortality was high: at least 57 wills made in that period were enrolled in the town's register, fn.

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    The register was of wills devising real property, and thus illustrates the sufferings of the town's elite. The increase in registrations is remarkable, even allowing for the fact that unusual care was taken to enrol wills during the plague. The parish clergy, a group unrepresented in the wills, probably suffered at least as badly as the property-owning burgesses: between April and December the incumbents of 7 of the 14 parish churches were replaced, at least 5 of the vacancies having been created by death.

    Although little is known of the mortality among ordinary townsmen it is likely to have been at least as high as that among the parish clergy. Nicholas Bishop recorded in that his mother had lost her parents and all her friends in the great pestilence, fn. Although it was usual for numbers to fluctuate considerably from list to list, the fall from names in October to in October was probably significant, particularly since only c.

    It seems likely that Oxford lost at least a third of its population in the Black Death. The assize lists suggest that part of the loss was made good almost at once from immigration, and recovery was probably aided by a lower death rate in the years immediately following the epidemic, but the immediate effect was catastrophic. The evidence of the rentals of Oseney abbey and St. John's hospital supports a statement of the burgesses in that they were greatly impoverished.

    Even so the Black Death was only one, and by no means the most important, of many factors in the town's decline. Plague and other epidemic diseases continued to afflict the town in the later Middle Ages. The second outbreak of bubonic plague in seems to have been much less severe than the first: only 11 wills were enrolled in the town's register, fn.

    Michael at the Northgate and All Saints in seven years between and suggest that the outbreak of , when the university proctors were paid extra for the danger they had undergone, fn. In there were only 34 deaths, but the university claimed that townsmen were dying daily and that some members of congregation had also been carried off.

    The comparative calm of laterth-century Oxford was probably in part a reaction to the violence of the previous half century; St. Scholastica's day, in particular, had shown the futility of violent resistance to the university. There may also have been a slight improvement in the town's economic condition, but in the 15th century declined continued, and Oxford lost what national importance it had retained in the earlier 14th century. Richard II held a council there in , fn.

    Most of the conflicts of the later Middle Ages were between the town and religious houses. In , however, perhaps in a dispute over rights of jurisdiction, some members of the university overthrew the town gallows at Green ditch in the fields north of Oxford. Nicholas's church and aided and abetted by an Oxford man, William Bampton.

    John's hospital in about subsidy contributions, fn. In the town apparently refused to admit the abbot's attorney to do suit to the town court; fn. The abbot complained that men led by the mayor, bailiffs, and two aldermen, had broken his weirs, fished his fishery, assaulted and imprisoned his men, and carried off his goods; a bailiff and a subsidy collector alleged that the abbot and canons had assaulted them, one attack having taken place in St.

    Mary Magdalen's church during mass. Oxford was not immediately involved in any of the political upheavals of the later Middle Ages. The university complained in of the number of violent criminals who found refuge in the town and its suburbs, fn. He was pardoned by Henry IV and later became an alderman.

    There is no evidence that the town as a whole was involved in the rebellions, nor does it seem to have been greatly affected by the Lollardy which flourished briefly in the university. In the mayor and bailiffs were ordered to assist the university authorities in rooting out Wycliffe's followers in the town and university, fn. Oxford was one of several towns which speedily forwarded to the Privy Council a letter of from Richard, duke of York, which came close to inciting rebellion. No Oxford men were recorded among the supporters of Lambert Simnel in , although he was the son of an Oxford joiner and had been launched on his imposter's career by an Oxford priest.

    By the early 11th century the walled area of the town was fairly densely built up and there were suburbs. If speculations about the original size of the walled town are correct, fn. Peter's church was built in the 10th century, fn. The buildings on them seem to have been detached and to have formed an irregular building line along the street; on some tenements buildings lay two or three deep, covering the full length of the plot. Aldate's Street was built on a site without any street frontage. Michael at the Northgate. The building of early water-mills caused many changes in the branches of the river Thames close to the west and south sides of the town.

    A parallel, perhaps natural, stream on the east side of Grandpont served Trill mill, which may also have existed in the 11th century. The provision of water to the two Grandpont mills presumably reduced the flow in the stream across Christ Church meadow, and one branch of it, beneath the wall of St. Frideswide's priory, seems to have silted up by the late 12th century.

    The branch of the Thames passing beneath Oseney Bridge, in modern times the navigation channel, served Oseney mill; before becoming a mill-stream, probably in the 12th century, this branch may have been a natural stream, since it seems to have been called Aldee 'old river' in and later. Another change in the river, of uncertain date, was the decline in importance of the Shire Lake stream, which branched north-eastwards from the main river before Folly Bridge, crossing beneath Grandpont at Denchworth Bow, and flowing across Christ Church meadow to the river Cherwell.

    By the road beside it seems to have been more important to the town than the stream itself, presumably for riding the franchises, fn. The description of Oxford in Domesday Book fn. In addition to St. Frideswide's minster, rebuilt after its destruction in , there were at least five parish churches: St. Peter-in-the-East, St. Ebbe's, recorded between and , fn. Martin's, recorded in , fn. Michael at the Northgate and St.

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    Mary the Virgin, recorded in Domesday Book. Mildred's and St. Edward the Martyr, dedicated to relatively obscure Anglo-Saxon saints, were also in existence by , and St. Mary Magdalen and St. George in the Castle also may have been pre-Conquest foundations. George's tower to the south-west corner of the castle.

    Thereafter the motte, with the adjacent St. George's tower, dominated the town. The town's prosperity in the 12th and early 13th centuries was reflected in intensive building activity, although there were setbacks through a fire in , which was said to have burnt the whole town, fn. Frideswide's priory, fn. The churches founded in this period were All Saints, converted from a secular building in the late 11th or early 12th century, fn. Michael at the Southgate, recorded in , fn. Giles's, founded c. Budoc's, recorded in , and St. John the Baptist, recorded in Martin's church, before a new hall was established in a house on the east side of St.

    The building of the castle barbican destroyed the first St. Budoc's church. There is much evidence of the continued subdivision of tenements and buildings, fn. Frideswide's Lane. Mildred's parish, Oseney abbey c. Shop frontages were sometimes as narrow as 6 feet, but the cellars beneath them often extended almost the whole width of the tenement on which several shops had been crowded.

    Party walls and the maintenance of gutters caused frequent disputes. Most 13th-century Oxford houses were probably timber-framed, with walls of wattle and daub, but stone was used frequently for party walls and gables. Large stone cellars were built, as in an extensive rebuilding in Cornmarket Street at that date, fn. A large stone house outside North Gate c. On the east side of Cornmarket there were perhaps 12 shops crowded into the first 70 feet from Carfax.

    There were shops in front of the early inn, Mauger's Hall later the Golden Cross , and a little further north there was a group of 12 shops, averaging only 9 feet in width and very shallow, whose standard rents suggest a planned development. Some of the High Street shops seem to have been wider, but on the site of nos. Behind the shops were dwelling-houses, usually comprising a hall and chambers, often with detached kitchens, extra chambers, and other out-buildings. An example of the larger type of dwelling-house was Haberdasher's Hall in High Street, which in was a 'great stone house' used as an academic hall; it stood behind a row of 7 shops, separately leased out, and comprised a solar and cellar at each end of a hall, a great solar facing the street, presumably above the shops, and a separate kitchen and stable, all of stone.

    John's Hall, at the corner of Merton Street and Magpie Lane, in comprised a hall, two solars with cellars, a wardrobe, and a kitchen, all roofed with stone slates; fn. Frideswide's Lane, then an inn, comprised a hall parallel to the street, flanked at each end by a solar over a cellar; there was also at least one chamber, and a bakery, probably a free-standing building. The main areas of suburban expansion in the 12th and 13th centuries were north and west of the town.

    There is archaeological evidence for 12th-century settlement in Broad Street and at least part of St. Giles's Street, fn. Giles's Street c. Giles's Street, and of Worcester Street to the west, seems to have been built up by Giles's Street retained a partly rural character throughout the Middle Ages, and presumably many of the houses near the edge of the built-up area were used as farm-houses. The width of Broad Street accords with evidence of its use as a market-place; it was called Horsemonger Street by the 13th century, fn.

    Giles's Street, a similarly wide area, with an early market, fn. Giles's church, fn. A western suburb in St. Thomas's parish developed in the late 12th century and 13th, perhaps encouraged by Oseney abbey, which built St. Thomas's church there in the s. An agreement of c. A survey of Oxford in fn. Thomas's parish, excluding the rural settlement at Twentyacre, near the modern Jericho, and houses, 28 cottages, and 8 shops in Northgate hundred, excluding the detached settlement of Walton.

    The total of c. Clement's, just across Magdale'n Bridge but outside the town's boundaries; it appears to have been a largely rural community. The central parishes of All Saints, St. Martin's, St. Aldate's, and St. Michael at the Northgate were the most heavily built up, and the extramural parishes of St. Michael at the Southgate were also densely settled. Property values were on the whole highest in the very centre of the town and along High Street, and lowest in the suburbs. There is a suggestion of an inner ring of poorer property on the fringes of the trading area, in the parishes of St.

    Ebbe's, St. Peter-le-Bailey, St. Mildred's, and St. In those parishes the average value of properties was only between 6 s. Mary's parish and 15 s. Peter-in-the-East, All Saints, and St. John's parish, however, did not share the characteristics of the other 'fringe' areas; the average property value was 16 s.

    Areas of medium wealth were St. Aldate's parish and Grandpont between 13 s. Thomas's parish. Most of the shops recorded in were in Cornmarket Street and High Street: there were 77 in the north-east ward and 53 in the north-west, compared with only 8 in the south-west, 7 iri the south-east, and 8 in Northgate hundred.

    There were more or less clearly defined quarters for the more important trades, the sites of the freemen's permanent shops. Michael's parish, the latter in St. The shambles were at the west end of High Street, called Butchers' Street c. Martin's and All Saints parishes. Martin's parish were a mercery, probably on the east side of Cornmarket near Carfax, fn. Aldate's Street, fn. Mary's church, in St. Aldate's Street, from Carfax to just below the town hall, in the east end of Queen Street, and in the whole of Cornmarket Street; all those streets were fairly wide.

    Aldate's Street was called Fish Street fn. Although corn was sold in Cornmarket Street, that name did not replace Northgate Street until a roofed market-place was built in the street in The Jewish quarter lay in St. Martin's and St. Aldate's parishes, on both sides of St. Aldate's Street. The synagogue, known as the Jews' school and later Burnel's Inn, was on the east side of the street on the site of the north-west tower of Christ Church.

    John in , fn. The traders who depended on the university for a livelihood were concentrated in St. Mary's parish or St. Among the 13th-century householders in Catte Street were 4 bookbinders, 4 parchment-makers, 4 limners, a copyist, and a scrivener; fn. John's parishes, fn. In the university's own properties, only 6 schools and 7 houses, lay in the eastern part of the town, all but two in the parishes of St. Mary or St. Mary's church, which was the centre of the university even before the congregation house was built in the early 14th century.

    Mary's; some, such as Broadgates and Haberdasher Hall in High Street, were in the commercial area of the town, and were fronted by shops. Architecturally Oxford was still dominated by its walls, gates, castle, and churches. Nearly all the parish churches were enlarged by the addition of chantry chapels in the later 13th or earlier 14th century; St. Martin's, the town church, St. Peter-in-the-East were particularly imposing, and Merton College by had completed the large choir and sacristy of the new church of St.

    The religious houses were mostly around the edge of the town; St. Frideswide's priory, refounded in , was the only monastic house within the walls. Oseney abbey founded in , dominated the western approach to the town, and north of it stood the much smaller Rewley abbey, founded in as a place of study for Cistercian monks. Outside East Gate was the hospital of St. John the Baptist, its buildings north of the road to the bridge, its cemetery to the south.

    In the s the Dominican friars built their large church and friary outside Littlegate, and the Franciscans built a little to the west. The Austin friars settled on the site of the later Wadham College in , and the Carmelites moved from Stockwell Street to the king's houses in The decline of Oxford's population in the later Middle Ages led to contraction of the built-up area and some physical decay.

    There are a few references to empty plots and derelict houses in the late 13th and early 14th century, fn. In it was reported that even in the main streets some houses were being pulled down and others were falling down because tenants, particularly those of houses in multiple occupation, were failing to carry out repairs. At least three houses on Grandpont became gardens, fn.

    Inside the walls decay was worst in the eastern part of the town, but it was masked by the expansion of the university, particularly the newly founded colleges, into vacant areas. Between and Merton College acquired much of the land between Merton Street and the town wall. The Queen's College acquired the northern part of its site, in Queen's Lane, between and , and a frontage on the High Street in Frideswide's priory gave a site, including 9 empty plots, for the foundation of the Benedictine Canterbury College on the site of the later Canterbury quadrangle, Christ Church, fn.

    A reconstruction of the history of the area between the eastern ends of High Street and Merton Street illustrates several features of Oxford's changing topography in the later Middle Ages. An inn, the Tabard later the Angel had been extended southwards from High Street as far as Harehall Lane, presumably providing stabling on former house sites.

    It was in that area that Wayneflete was able to acquire the site of Magdalen Hall. In Cornmarket a hall had become a vacant plot by , and the shops fronting the site needed to be rebuilt in ; fn. A house in High Street was in ruins in , and another, recorded in , had become an empty plot by In Merton Street a large academic hall became a garden between and , and an adjacent hall was ruinous in There are fewer references to decay in the western part of the town, perhaps because of inferior documentation.

    A house in Queen Street had become a vacant plot by and a garden by ; fn. Peter-le-Bailey parish declined seriously in the later Middle Ages, and it seems unlikely that the area escaped the physical contraction and decay evident elsewhere. Sources : R. Figures in brackets show ranking of parishes. Later medieval tax lists provide only the broadest indications of the relative prosperity of different areas of the town, since parishes varied widely in size and social structure and their population is unknown. In general the earlier lists show, predictably, that taxable wealth was concentrated in the central commercial area, in the parishes of St.

    Martin's and All Saints, and was spread thinly in the outer suburbs, notably in St. Comparison of the lists of and see Table I with evidence of property values in suggests that the relatively low assessments of some parishes, which are known to have contained lucrative property, may be explained by the ascendency there of the university, whose members were not likely to be taxed highly on goods.

    Thus the parishes of St. John's were assessed much lower than might be expected from evidence of property values, and it was in those parishes that the university is known to have been most predominant. Some of the parishes on the fringe of the commercial area, such as St. Ebbe's and St. Peter-le-Bailey, contained some wealthy, but probably many poor, inhabitants; both those parishes ranked highly in on the basis of average individual assessments, for relatively few people were assessed there.

    Peter-le-Bailey became a place for leading burgesses to live in, although few appear to have favoured it before the second quarter of the 14th century. Of the mayors and bailiffs between and whose addresses are known, as many as 28 lived in St. Peter's, compared with 30 in All Saints, only 25 in St. Martin's, 13 and 12 in St.

    Aldate's, and 10 in St. Mary Magdalen parish; few lived in the university area only 9 in St. Mary's and 4 in St. Peter-in-the-East, although both contained numerous High Street sites , and none is known to have lived in St. Despite housing some prominent men St. Peter-le-Bailey parish declined in overall prosperity, and by its assessment had been reduced to almost half that of , and its actual payments in and were less than half its earlier assessments. Michael at the Northgate, also on the fringe of the commercial area, was not much wealthier.

    By that date the suburban parishes of St. Thomas had emerged as centres of population and wealth. Mayors and bailiffs began to live in the northern suburb in the late 14th century, and by St. Mary Magdalen was assessed third highest among Oxford parishes. There were several minor changes in the street plan during the later Middle Ages.

    At least part of the lane between Oriel Street and Alfred Street, known as Shitbarn Lane, was closed before , and the whole of it before Aldate's churchyard. Aldate's churchyard, provided that a way remained open to a tenement there. John's hospital Harehall or Nightingalehall Lane between Logic Lane and Merton Street; the lane, reputedly a haunt of suspicious persons, was closed and in included in the site of Magdalen Hall.

    Peter's churchyard, and in a strip along the south side of Brasenose Lane was granted to Lincoln College. Although the number of houses was reduced there was a considerable amount of building. The name New Rent, later given to houses built near Carfax in , fn. Several landlords, including Oseney abbey, St. John's hospital, and the colleges, built or repaired properties regularly in the 14th and 15th centuries. In John Gibbes, a wealthy vintner and former mayor, leased a large plot of land from the church of St.

    Michael at the Northgate, and agreed to build houses on it and let them at farm. Aldate's to the mason William Orchard, apparently so that he could rebuild them. Thomas's parish, and it is possible that there was expansion there in the early 15th century; 5 new houses were recorded in the s and s.

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    Thomas's church was largely rebuilt and extended westwards in the 15th or early 16th century. In provision was made for the division into several dwellings of a tenement in St. Edward's parish. The scale of college building in the later Middle Ages radically altered the appearance of the eastern part of the town, as large stone buildings and high-walled enclosures became predominant. The 13th- and earlyth-century foundations developed piecemeal, the earliest quadrangle, in Merton College, assuming its shape almost accidentally with the building of the library in the s; later colleges followed the example of New College, founded in , arranging the chief buildings around spacious quadrangles.

    The only medieval college comparable in scale to New College, however, was Magdalen, built between and c. John's hospital outside East Gate. Later-medieval domestic buildings were mostly timber-framed, but sometimes stone was used for the lower walls or for party walls; no. The shops, and sometimes the solars and cellars, were still held separately from the rest of the tenement. In New College granted a lease of a shop and a cellar, each 7 feet wide, and the solar above them which was 14 feet wide and extended over a neighbouring shop in other ownership.

    In a house called the Garret at Carfax had several solars built one above the other. Many houses, particularly those used as academic halls and inns, were large and complex buildings. Those built behind street frontages were usually entered by gateways between the shops. On the far side of a courtyard, and parallel to the street, was a hall containing an oriel window, and above it a great chamber. The south range of the courtyard contained two chambers and on the north was a 'middle solar' with a cellar beneath it; towards the garden, on the west, were more chambers and a brewery.

    The house was extensively rebuilt by Oseney abbey in and , and demolished c. A smaller, neighbouring tenement survived, incorporated in the Clarendon Hotel, until It stood at right angles to the street and contained a barrel-vaulted cellar, mainly of 14th-century date but with a 12th-century arch at its west end. On the ground floor was a room 27 feet by 13 feet with two narrow shops on the street frontage; above was a solar with a fireplace, and in the roof a cock-loft.

    The ground floor had been 6 feet or 7 feet above the medieval street level, and both the ground-floor room and solar were only c. Tackley's Inn in High Street, built c. The hall, which was open to the roof, was 33 feet long, 20 feet wide, and c. The south wall of the building, which survives, was partly of stone and contained a large two-light earlyth-century window; the cellar, of the same date, is the best preserved medieval cellar in Oxford, and has a quadripartite stone vault and carved corbels.

    Originally it was entered by stone steps from the street. By the property was divided; the eastern part was an inn, probably comprising two of the shops with their solars, the whole of the cellar, and the large rear chamber, while the western part continued as an academic hall, perhaps comprising the other shops and solars and the great hall.

    Thomas's parish in comprised a hall on the street, flanked at each end by a chamber and solar, and a similar house survived in St. Thomas's High Street until the 19th century. By the early 10th century, when there were apparently four moneyers in the town, fn. In the late Saxon period pottery made in Stamford Lincs. Cloth and leather played an important part in the town's economy.

    Flax-retting and leather-working were apparently carried on in the Grandpont area c. Supplying the needs of local consumers, however, played an increasingly important part in Oxford's economy in the 12th and 13th centuries. The royal palace and the castle created business for builders and for victuallers. Royal visits, of course, cost the town money; the mayor and bailiffs spent c. In , while the king was at Woodstock, 42 tuns of wine were taken from Oxford merchants for his use, and in 10 tuns were taken for the king when he spent Christmas in Oxford. Far more important than such intermittent sources of income was the rapidly increasing academic community.

    Until the later Middle Ages most students lived in lodgings or academic halls, yielding substantial rents, providing a body of consumers for Oxford tradesmen, particularly victuallers, and attracting to the town specialist craftsmen such as bookbinders. Although the number of men engaged in 'service trades' such as victualling probably increased greatly in the 13th century, the cloth and leather industries remained prominent; occupational surnames recorded in fn.

    The university's influence accounted for surnames denoting 3 bookbinders, 2 copyists, a limner, and a parchment-maker. No reference was made to many trades, notably fulling, gloving, and drapery, which are known to have been practised in Oxford in the 13th century.

    Jews had settled in Oxford by , and by the town was one of those in which a Jews' archa or chest for the safe-keeping of their chirographs had been established. His initial contribution to the tallage of was the second largest in England, and on his death in his widow paid relief of 5, marks. Jacob of Oxford, grandson of Simeon of Oxford, in conjunction with his brothers in other parts of the country, carried on a large business; his debtors included men from Lincolnshire and Norfolk as well as local landowners and burgesses.

    Most of his extensive property in Oxford, London, and York was seized by Queen Eleanor on his death in Until the mid 14th century there were frequent references to Oxford merchants, particularly those concerned with cloth and wine. A merchant returning to Oxford from London figured in a reported miracle of St. Frideswide c. Ives Hunts. Frideswide's, attracted merchants from all over England. Foreign merchants came regularly to Oxford: French merchants were expected to be there in , cloth was taken there from merchants from Douai in , and Flemish merchants were exempted from Oxford murage in Many Oxford merchants dealt in both cloth and wine.

    John of Coleshill, who sold cloth at Northampton fair in , supplied wine to Henry III at Woodstock in and at Winchester fair in ; he imported his wine through Southampton. Ives fair in ; he was also proctor of the Friars Minor, who obtained for him a grant of exemption from tallage for life. There were strong trading contacts with London in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Oxford complained that in spite of London's acceptance of the charter the mayor and sheriffs continued to disturb Oxford burgesses and make them pay heavy customs, and in the London husting confirmed its acceptance of the Oxford charter.

    Most of the town's leaders in the early 14th century were probably merchants, although the trading interests of Robert Worminghall, apparently the wealthiest of them, are not known. William of Bicester and another Oxford burgess were among merchants summoned to London in to make ordinances for the staple, and in William was exporting wool through London.

    The continuing wealth of Oxford's merchant class in the early 14th century is confirmed by a royal tallage of The individual taxpayers were assessed on goods worth c. In people were assessed for the lay subsidy at a twentieth of movables worth a total of c.

    An apparent fall in overall wealth was common, however, and it seems likely that methods of assessment had changed and that neither tax gives a reliable indication of real wealth. The most significant change in Oxford seems to have been the death of the two Worminghalls, Philip in and Robert in ; fn. There was considerable turnover among leading families between and of the top 10 per cent of taxpayers the family names of fewer than two-thirds survived, and of the top 10 per cent of taxpayers in two-fifths were from families unrepresented in The town's decline in population and overall prosperity, revealed in abundant signs of physical contraction and decay, and by a dramatic fall in its taxable capacity compared with that of other towns, fn.

    Oseney abbey's income from its Oxford property was falling steadily in the later 13th century, largely because of arrears. Nevertheless arrears of rent accumulated and many properties fell vacant. A sharp decline in the early 14th century coincided with, and was probably caused by, a time of high food prices which culminated in the European famine between and John's hospital.

    No Oseney rentals survive for the period between and the Black Death, but the hospital's rental increased again in the s and s, reaching c. John's hospital, and St. Frideswide's priory all took action to recover arrears of rent between and Contemporaries were aware of a decline in the town's fortunes. In William of Bicester was accused by a butcher of carrying out his duties as mayor so badly that during his terms of office 9 years between and the town had declined faster than ever before.

    Oxford's decline probably began with changes in the organization of the cloth industry, which affected many other large cloth towns in the 13th century as entrepreneurs became increasingly aware of the advantages of rural cloth production. There were similar workers in near-by villages such as Islip. The evidence of personal names suggests that cloth production was established in many Oxfordshire villages by Other factors, however, contributed to Oxford's decline and, equally important, to its failure to recover from the initial setback.

    Many of the advantages which had influenced its rise were gradually lost. To some extent its decline relative to other towns reflects a comparative decline in the wealth of its county, fn. Its assessment for subsidy in , although exceeded by that of Bampton and its 10 hamlets, was at least treble those of Faringdon, Abingdon, Bicester, and Banbury. By , however, its assessment was not quite double that of Abingdon and not quite treble those of Burford, Henley, and Chipping Norton.

    Frideswide's and the other great fairs in the later Middle Ages. The cessation of close royal contact with the town and growing difficulties in navigation on the river Thames were probably also important. The significance of river transport may have been exaggerated, fn. Nevertheless, enough traffic passed through Oxford to support several inns, and the university licensed carriers to many parts of the country. Another possibly ominous trend for the future of the town's economy was the transfer during the 12th and 13th centuries of a large proportion of Oxford's domestic property to religious houses, either by purchase, gift, or grants in return for corrodies.

    By 11 religious houses held over properties in demesne and received rents from others; in ecclesiastical corporations held over 62 per cent of the rent-income of the town as assessed for tallage, and another 4 per cent was held by the university and colleges. With the outbreak of the Hundred Years War Oxford's wine trade, which earlier seems to have been complementary to its trade in cloth and wool, was seriously damaged, fn. Such a limited economy, while providing secure and profitable employment for a wide range of tradesmen, could hardly support as large a population as Oxford seems to have held in the earlier Middle Ages.

    If, as seems likely, the number of scholars fell during the later Middle Ages fn. Moreover few of those engaged in such localized trade were wealthy compared with members of the merchant class which finally died out in the mid 14th century. The constitutional victories of gown over town, almost complete by the mid 14th century, meant the loss not only of much freedom and prestige, presumably discouraging settlement in the town by enterprising men, but of powers and privileges that had been important sources of revenue to the town. If Oxford had been flourishing in the Black Death might have caused only a temporary setback, but it struck a town which had already lost or was losing many of its economic advantages.

    Its immediate effect on the population was catastrophic, and its impact on the number of scholars in the university may also have been serious; fn. The urban rents of Oseney abbey and St. John's hospital reached a low point in the early s, but Oseney's rent-income by the s seems to have been about the same as in the s; although the hospital's rental after never reached the level even of , which was lower than in the s, it reached c.

    Rental evidence suggests continuing economic stagnation in the 15th century, if not further decline. John's hospital, later Magdalen College, seem to have fallen later, from c. Although Oseney's rental was raised slightly in the later 15th century, the amount actually paid fell, partly because of substantial temporary reductions allowed to tenants who had improved their properties.

    Leading townsmen in the later Middle Ages seem not to have been much involved in external trade. The families of some of the wealthy earlyth-century merchants had died out by mid century, and those that survived were represented by mercers, drapers, brewers, and vintners rather than merchants; even William of Bicester's son-in-law, Richard Cary d. In Oxford's representatives, having obtained exemption from all custom, were instructed to seek exemption from toll, murage, pavage, and similar exactions; fn.

    Although there is evidence of trading contacts with London, Southampton, and Bristol in the 15th century, few of the Oxford men involved seem to have been of the stature of some of the earlyth-century merchants like the Worminghalls. Oliver Urry, apparently a skinner, fn. Most of the merchants were Southampton men, but four Oxford burgesses, notably Robert Walford or Sadler, mayor in , owned consignments of goods, and another Oxford man carried salt in his own cart.

    Minor contacts with many other English towns were recorded, particularly the relatively close towns of Henley, Abingdon, and Reading. Thomas's guild in St. Mary's church in included men from Winchester and Norwich, fn. Martin's church in The change in Oxford's economic base from manufacturing and commerce to service trades dependent on the university was well advanced by , when the occupations of c. The occupations of some men, including some of the aldermen, were not stated; the table also excludes wives and the inhabitants of the outlying hamlets of Walton and Binsey, but includes the immediate suburbs.

    The food and drink trades were predominant, in terms of both numbers and wealth, but cloth and leather trades were still strong and some of the town's leaders were drapers. The mayor, William Dagville, whose interests included brewing, fn. Another draper and a spicer paid 13 s. By contrast, most of the cloth- and leather-workers paid less than the average of 1 s. The privileged persons of the university paid very low sums, but were assessed separately and perhaps to a different standard; the largest group, the manciples, were probably, as later, fn.

    There seem to have been remarkably few representatives of the book trades. Two other large groups whose numbers bear testimony to the presence of the university were the tailors and the building workers. Few tailors and none of the masons or carpenters appear to have been prominent; as with other provincial towns, Oxford may have depended for specialized building work, particularly in the university, on outside masters. Metal-workers were few but some were prosperous, notably John of Deddington, a cutler, possibly a descendant of Richard of Deddington, an ironmonger in the town a century earlier.

    The large number of skinners accords with other evidence of a thriving guild, but the craft declined in the later Middle Ages. Although the general occupational structure revealed by the poll tax is probably accurate, some men, particularly the wealthier, followed several occupations of which only one was recorded; the servants of John Hicks, spicer, included a brewer and a maltman, fn.

    The largest recorded households were those of Walter Wycombe, brewer, with 11 servants, and William Northern, alderman, with 10; the 12 other households employing 5 or more servants were those of 3 tailors, 2 weavers, both members of the Cade family, 2 spicers, 2 brewers, a tanner, a chandler, and a baker. Proceedings under the Statute of Labourers in the s fn. There were about three times as many building workers as cloth-workers, perhaps because of the nature of the evidence rather than because of a drastic decline in the cloth industry or a boom in building since That the cloth industry did decline, however, is evident from aulnage accounts taken in Oxford.

    In 46 men and women paid on cloths, but none can be proved to have come from Oxford, and certainly none held office there; Robert Butterwick, who paid on the largest number of cloths c. A few weavers and dyers continued to be recorded, including two 'malefactors from Flanders' in , fn.

    By the early 16th century weavers had virtually disappeared from Oxford. Sources: cartularies, tax lists, court records. Coverage is uneven, since the occupations of almost all bailiffs serving in the period may be derived from the poll tax and Statute of Labourers presentments, whereas fewer than a third of the occupations of bailiffs before are known. Men who followed two unrelated trades have been entered twice. The known occupations of town bailiffs see Table III confirm the dominance of the victualling and distributive trades, and suggest a rise in status of leather-workers in the 15th century, probably associated with the growth of gloving, for which the town quickly acquired some reputation; fn.

    The spectacular increase in the number of brewers and taverners among the bailiffs after probably owed much to changes in the organization of brewing in the town. Records of the assize of ale fn. The apparent lack of brewers among the bailiffs between and may be due largely to lack of evidence of occupations in that period. The bailiffs engaged in distributive trades included 14 spicers or apothecaries, 11 mercers, 3 chandlers, and a grocer. Among the metal-workers in the town the ironmongers, who might also be classified with the distributive trades, most often reached bailiff's rank, but the two who occur between and were goldsmiths.

    Of the textile-workers 9 were drapers and 4 dyers. The other occupations recorded were a clerk in the period , a gentleman and an esquire , a husbandman , and a gentleman The prominence of the drink trades is even more marked when the occupations of those bailiffs who became mayors are considered: 10 brewers, vintners, or taverners served the office between and compared with 5 men from the distributive trades, and 4 from the other victualling trades. There were no leather or metal workers and the textile trades were represented only by 3 drapers; a hosier and a tailor were recorded between and The inhabitants of Oxford had developed some sense of corporate identity by the mid 11th century when the reeve and all the citizens omnes cives of Oxford witnessed a lease by St.

    Alban's abbey. The concept, however, was not without difficulties. In the burgesses granted the island of Medley, part of their common meadow, to St. Frideswide's priory in exchange for stalls in Oxford. Frideswide's over the earlier grant to that house no such intermediary as William de Chesney was necessary. The agreement with St. Frideswide's was made by the burgesses of the vill of Oxford and sealed with the seal of the alderman of the guild. The citizens of the commune of the city and of the merchant guild who granted Medley to Oseney abbey in and confirmed the grant in were clearly the successors of the 'burgesses' of , for they held the burgesses' common pasture; but it would be hasty to assume fn.

    Indeed, the use of the words citizens or burgesses 'of the community of the city and of the merchant guild' in both and suggests that there was some distinction, in origin at least, between the two bodies. In and succeeding years, for instance, a firm distinction was made between the burgesses and the minuti homines of Oxford, who contributed quite separately to an aid for the marriage of the king's daughter. In the early 14th century admission to the guild gave exemption from toll and other customs in the market and fairs.

    Membership of the guild was not restricted to residents within the walls; lists of c. The first known charter to Oxford was granted by Henry II c. It confirmed to the citizens the liberties they had enjoyed under Henry I: their guild merchant with all liberties and customs, so that no one who was not a member of the guild might carry on any business as a merchant in the city or its suburbs; quittance of toll and transport dues passagium throughout England and Normandy; all the customs, liberties, and laws of London; the right to serve the king at his feast with those of his butlery; the right to enjoy trading privileges with Londoners within and without London; the right not to be impleaded outside Oxford in any lawsuit, but to settle all disputes according to the law and custom of London; the rights of sac and soc, toll and teme, and infangthief.

    Most of those rights can be shown from other evidence to have been enjoyed by the burgesses in Henry I's time. They had a guild by c. Frideswide's, who produced Henry II's charter in support. In King John granted the borough to the burgesses to hold at a higher farm than they used to pay in the time of Henry II and Richard I, and confirmed their privileges generally. Another charter of the same date granted that burgesses' goods should not be seized anywhere for debt, except when they were the principal debtors or their pledges, or when the debtors were of 'the commune and power' of the borough and the burgesses themselves had failed to do justice; that burgesses should not lose their goods as a result of any trespass committed by a servant; and that if any burgess died within the kingdom, whether or not he had made a will, the king would not confiscate his goods until notice had been given to his heirs.

    In the burgesses claimed to hold the town at farm of the king as freely as the men of London, fn. Edward I in confirmed the charters of and Within the borough and its suburbs the mayor and burgesses were to make executions of all property judicially recovered and acknowledged and damages adjudged before them. In all actions about tenements, rents, and tenures, the burgesses might plead by writ of right patent.

    The king's clerk of the market was not to interfere in the borough or its suburbs. The burgesses' right to buy and sell freely throughout the kingdom and their exemption from toll, murage, pavage, pontage, piccage, stallage, and other customs were confirmed. Merchants coming to Oxford were to buy and sell only in the market, and no one was to expose goods for sale until he had paid custom.

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