This made it possible for an artist to win multiple prizes in a single Olympic competition, like Michael Phelps! At one time or another, there were suggestions in the past Olympics to also include dancing, film, photography, or theatre, and although none of these art forms was ever included in the Olympic Games as a medal event in the past they could certainly be included in future Olympics.
Coordination with UNESCO and United Nations cultural organs could also encourage development of the arts in each country and early professional development amoung the youth of each country; teams from each nation in the arts could be selected by competitions similar to those in the sports half of the Olympics or otherwise as deemed desirable.
Appreciation for the arts across the broader populations of the competing nations and for works of lesser known nations across the world would be fostered. Participation of women, the elderly and intellectuals not so generally attracted to pure sport would thus democratize and universalize the Olympics. When the first post-war Olympic Games were held in WWI-ravaged Belgium, Art contests were again on the program, although they were little more than a sideshow.
This was different for the Summer Olympics in Paris. There the contests were taken seriously for the first time, and artists submitted works. The growth continued at the Amsterdam Olympics, where over 1, works of art were exhibited in the Municipal Museum, not including the submissions in World Literature, music and architecture. In Amsterdam, the number of events was also increased, as four of the five fields of art were subdivided, creating more events. Because of the economy and the remote location of Los Angeles, participation in the athletic events of the Games was lower than that of The Arts competition did not suffer from this problem, and the number of art works entered remained stable.
Art contests were also held in Berlin and London , with reasonable success, although the number of entered works had significantly dropped by The literature competitions were divided into a varied number of categories. Until and again in , there was only a single literature category. In , separate categories were introduced for drama, epic and lyric literature. Awards in these categories were also presented in , while the drama category was dropped in A modern revival could considerably enlarge the categories, including novels, short stories, e-Books, Blogs and Flash Fiction of any length as well as popular genres such as Science-Fiction, Fantasy, Literary Fiction, Historical Novels, Romance, etc.
Categories would include special awards for Best Contribution to World Literature. Awards could be coordinated with the Bookers, Pulitzers, Nobels etc. In Ancient Greece it was also the tradition for Poets such as Pindar to extemporize and write poems and songs to celebrate the winners in the sports events, a practice that could also be revived for the Modern Olympics.
A single event for music was held until , when three categories were introduced: one for orchestral music, one for instrumental music, and one for both solo and choral music. The juries often had trouble judging the pieces, which were entered on paper. Possibly related to the problematic judging, juries frequently decided to award only a few prizes. On two occasions, no award was given out at all in the music category and in the instrumental music category.
Josef Suk was the only well-known musician to have competed, winning a silver medal in Olympic World Architecture. The Olympic Stadium, designed by Jan Wils, won the gold medal in architecture at the Olympics. Until the Amsterdam Games in , the architectural competition was not divided into categories.
The games introduced a town planning category. However, the division was not always clear, and some designs were awarded prizes in both categories. A notable example of this is the gold medal for architecture awarded to Jan Wils for his design of the Olympic Stadium used in the same Olympics. The revival of the Architecture Award could be coordinated with the Pritzkers, and include designs for both the Olympic venues and recent World Fairs.
Jean Jacoby is the only artist to win two gold medals. He won his second with the above drawing, titled Rugby. As with the other art forms, a single painting category was on the program until , when it was split out into three sub-categories: drawings, graphic arts and paintings. The categories then changed at each of the following Olympic Games. Four years later, the prints category had disappeared, and had been replaced by graphic arts and commercial graphic art. Olympic World Sculpture. The sculpture class had only a single category until , when two separate competitions were designated; one for statues and one for reliefs and medals.
In , this was split up further, separating reliefs and medals into their own categories. While several of the Olympic Art medalists have achieved at least national fame, few of them can be considered well-known artists globally. In fact, the Games featured better known jury members than artists, with artists like Igor Stravinsky judging the entered works.
By eliminating the limitation that the works be sports-related as well as opening the Olympic Arts competition to all stars and professional artists as has already been done for athletes, the greatest world artists, writers, film directors and stars will surely make the Olympic Arts events as prestigious as the sports events.
Walter Williams, an American who lived in England, won a gold medal as a marksman at the Summer Olympicss in the running deer double shot competition. In , he won another shooting medal — Silver this time — in the running deer team competition. By then, he had already won a Gold medal for his sculpture An American trotter. The other Olympian with successes in both fields was Alfred Hajos As a swimmer.
He won two Gold medals at the Athens Olympics. Twenty-eight years later, he was awarded a Silver medal in architecture for his stadium design, co-designed with Deszo Lauber. Two Presidents of the International Olympic Committee have also been among the entrants in the Olympic Art competitions. Avery Brundage, who competed as an athlete at the Games, entered literary works at the and Olympics, earning an honorary mention in The oldest Olympic medalist outside the art competitions Swedish shooter Swahn who won his last medal at age Indeed, in a modern world in which lifespans have doubled and the elderly composing up to a third of the population of some countries,it is critical to the Olympic Movement that Senior Citizens be included in the competitions, for which Art and Writing, talents that may mature with years instead of declining, may make a meaningful contribution, a change as important in equality of opportunity as the broadening of the Olympics to include women and the handicapped via the Paralympics.
All of this is a good reminder to us all that the Olympic Movement was from its very origin involved with the Arts and World Literature as well as sport. Both halves of the Olympic Movement contribute to the overall goals of overcoming conflict and war between nations, building global understanding and appreciation, and supplanting a Clash of Civilizations with a Clasp of Civilizations.
It also from the start encouraged the development of the whole persons of the athletes, including both mind and body. This was a goal of the Ancient Olympics as well as the Modern Olympics. I for one would partially agree that to some degree such ranking and awarding is not only vulgar but in some cases idiotic, with each great work being unique unto itself and making its own unique contribution to the body of art and literature from which it evolves.
Without the Olympics we already have the Nobels, Pulitzers, Man-Bookers, Pritzkers, Oscars, Grammys and a host of honors which though fundamentally flawed, perform some value in identifying deserving artists and writers alongside some undeserving of course. Moreover, the existence of such awards, though flawed, may well serve to launch, nurture and sustain the careers of new Titans of the Arts.
On balance the awards may well do more good than harm. Why were the Olympics held every four years, defining the Olympiad period? In the ancient Olympics this was the case because they were part of a series of Four Panhellenic Games and festivals held each year. The Delphic Games in particular emphasized the cultural half of the Olympics with concurrent festivals and awards for music, dance, drama comedy and tragedy.
We may recall also that education in Ancient Greece included not only academics and philosophy but also music, gymnastics and martial arts, in all cases emphasizing the well-rounded cultivation of the whole person. There have been parallel efforts to revive the Delphic Games or Cultural Olympics in modern times, reflected in the work of the International Delphic Council.
Their re-inclusion will make the Olympics a much more spectacular and richer experience in the future. The goal of the Olympic Movement beyond mere sport has always been to make a meaningful contribution to the development of our Universal Civilization, World Culture and World Peace. Art competitions were held as part of the Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. It was the first time that art competitions were part of the Olympic program. Medals were awarded in five categories architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture , for works inspired by sport-related themes.
Art competitions at the Olympic Games were part of the Olympic program from to , but were discontinued due to concerns about amateurism and professionalism. Since , a non-competitive art and cultural festival has been associated with each Games. At the time, medals were awarded to these artists, but art competitions are no longer regarded as official Olympic events by the International Olympic Committee. Art competitions were held as part of the Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium.
Art competitions were held as part of the Summer Olympics in Paris, France. Art competitions were held as part of the Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The art exhibition was held at the Stedelijk Museum from 12 June to 12 August, and displayed works of art from 18 different countries. Additionally, the literature competition attracted 40 entries from 10 countries, and the music competition had 22 entries from 9 countries.
The art competitions at the Game was larger in scope than for previous Games. Instead of a single competition in each of the five artistic categories, awards were presented in multiple subcategories. Art competitions were held as part of the Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. The art exhibition was held in a hall of the Berlin Exhibition from July 15 to August 16, and displayed works of art from 22 different countries.
Additionally, the literature competition attracted 40 entries from 12 countries, and the music competition had 33 entries from 9 countries. The art competitions at the Games were similar to the and Games, with medals being awarded in multiple subcategories for each of the five artistic categories. The art exhibition was held at the Victoria and Albert Museum from 15 July to 14 August, and displayed works of art from 27 different countries. The literature competition attracted 44 entries, and the music competition had 36 entries. The art competitions included multiple subcategories for each of the five artistic categories.
Alex Diggelmann of Switzerland won both a silver medal and a bronze medal for two different entries in the applied arts and crafts subcategory, a feat unlikely to be duplicated in any event in the current Olympic program. That is not to mention the mega-distribution of the great religious scriptures with the Bible printed in over 5 billion copies and the Koran close behind at 4 billion.
Of course authors for centuries have sought the key to the puzzle of what makes a bestseller. The existence of any book is half the product of creative art and half the product of business. But it was not only the demographics of shear numbers which made huge book sales possible, but also the quintessentially American democratic rise of mass literacy and middle-class incomes, coupled with a highly competitive book market which drove down the price of books to allow the public to make mass-volume purchases.
The dynamics of the literary marketplace and its practices also drive the quest for bestsellerdom. This encourages the retailer to take a chance on the book but also encourages it to pull the plug on the book. The achievements of American capitalism have always been ambiguous. The dominance of American publishing was built on blatant theft and piracy of famous works by European authors, a condition famously denounced by Dickens on his visits to America and hypocritically forgotten by those wishing to paint America as the eternal champion of intellectual property rights.
The scholar F. The American book, piratically immune from the cost of copyright evolved as a radically less expensive book sold closer to production cost that ultimately was affordable to the common man. US book prices often being five to ten times less expensive than premium editions of the same book in Britain, a foundational fact which made the rise of the American bestseller possible. This piratical condition persisted until when the passage of the Chase Act in the US finally brought American law into accord with European copyright by recognition of the enforceability of foreign copyright rights within America.
While freewheeling piratical capitalism drove down the price of books in the US and nurtured a book-buying middle class mass market, monopoly capitalism and price-fixing cartels in the UK drove the price up and resulted in a middle-class book-borrowing public who subscribed to commercial and public lending libraries to deal with the artificially high cost of books.
Free market-minded violators would be subject to industry boycotts, reprisals and law suits and generally driven out of business by the ruling cartel. The results of this anti-competitive system were not all bad however, as protected publishers had the extra resources to develop new authors and talent as well as means of compensating authors well with royalties. The absence in Britain of the American practice of publishers accepting returns of unsold book inventories without cost to the retailer also discouraged bulk stocking and buying for resale and hence impeded large-volume bestseller marketing.
The cartelized price-fixed structure of the British market under the Net Book Agreement continued until when it was abolished as incompatible with the free market and anti-monopoly principles of the European Union. That development might have resulted in global competition across national borders in a free for all that might have lowered the cost of English-language books for consumers worldwide.
The result was a global condominium of profits controlled by the big publishers in their respective domains. Like the Net Book Agreement these price-fixing and cartelization regimes continued until challenges from anti-trust authorities in the US and EU along with competitive and technological pressures resulted in their breakdown towards the end of the 20 th Century, ushering in an era of globalized market competition and global industry consolidation.
Before America was decidedly junior in this relationship. As has been observed above, from to , abetted by copyright piracy, British authors actually constituted the majority of bestsellers in America. Even with the ascendency of the US the tradition of strong British literary influence and leadership continued, even as America found itself largely parochial and resistant to reading works from non-English outside authors. The bond of a common language and shared culture of ideas has proven resilient. The following table illustrates the continuing strong Transatlantic British literary influence over the past century:.
Reciprocally, leveraging the huge home market of American publishers along with the rise of globally recognized American authors allowed American books to heavily influence British and Commonwealth literature, just as Hollywood often dominated the English-language film market in Britain, the Commonwealth countries and Europe.
In an America of million persons that would require sales of at least 3 million, with at least 1 million in the first year of publication. Just as movie box-office ticket and revenue numbers are constantly increasing with increased population and globalized markets over the years, so the quantitative definition of bestsellerdom is in constant flux. Nonetheless, in modern times first-year sales in excess of one million have become unexceptional for big-name authors and titles, a considerable shifting of the goalposts from a century before:.
In this book reportedly attained sales of over , copies at a time when the total population of the 13 American colonies totaled only 3 million, ensuring that distribution effectively reached every American family. This revolutionary work truly influenced World History as few have ever done, and is credited with turning the American people decisively towards the Declaration of Independence in , as well as being a key document in catalyzing the French Revolution in its Declaration of the Rights of Man and the abandonment of the institution of monarchy in In Britain, Sir Walter Scott developed the mass market with his historical romances such as Ivanhoe, Rob Roy and the Waverly novels, a development that had worldwide influence.
Mass publishing developed further with the close nexus between novels and newspapers both in America and across Britain and Europe. Bestseller statistics often overlook this form of mass circulation of novels. She only came close in placing as No. Yet her cumulative sales have been credited by the Guinness Book of Records as the very bestselling novelist ever, with a cumulative total, including translations into all major languages, of over two billion volumes—ranking with the Bible and Koran in mass distribution.
If the attractions of the flesh are always with us, so also is the call of the spirit, especially in religious America. Ray Bradbury with novels such as Fahrenheit , his satire on philistine driven TV culture, broke out of the genre ghetto and began to attract a mass readership and critical acclaim. The father of the fantasy genre and a cult classic was J. Tolkien and his Lord of the Rings Trilogy, later rendered into Oscar-winning films.
Sales of the Tolkien franchise reached over million. That incredible volume was overshadowed by another Britisher, J. Rowling and the Harry Potter franchise, which sold over million. Yes, Yes, Yes! One would be well advised to get your copy now before the global stampede carries away all available stock! I caution the big Hollywood studios to make their bids for the subsidiary film rights now before they are snatched away by the more farseeing masters of the big screen to whom the future belongs.
I know that God is just and His Eye watches over our earth and universe noting the fall of every sparrow, let alone the fate of works of genius and suffering writers——and His loving Invisible Hand is at work as we speak! Whither then the Bestseller? Digitization has impacted every aspect of book publishing, even far beyond the rise of the e-Book and e-Commerce marketing platforms such as Amazon.
The technological revolution has impacted composition, printing, inventory control, POS Point-of-Sale monitoring and marketing, generally reducing the cost of books and thus indirectly enabling the mass-volume sales at the heart of bestsellerdom. Even though the physical traditional may look the same the machinery behind it is half a millennium different. Marketing and publicity channels have also been revolutionized, with author sites, reader networking sites such as Goodreads, publisher sites, e-Commerce sites such as Amazon.
Viral marketing, the blogosphere, blogcrit, blogbuzz and bloghype magnify the old interpersonal interactions that have always been at the heart of the literary marketplace. At the same time the rise of the Global e-Book has expanded the marketplace to worldwide proportions and multiplied potential buyers of books by millions across the globe, bypassing traditional distribution channels, customs control, copyright restrictions and logistical delays.
All of this magnifies the potential for newer and greater bestsellers and sales volumes. Some, nonetheless, have predicted that the Age of the Internet would spell the doom of the bestseller. The argument was that the Internet and e-Commerce would fragment the literary marketplace into a myriad of small niches and genre-specific networks, or result in data-mining and consumer profiling which would focus on the individual, precluding the common mass market on which the bestseller is predicated.
Reading, it is safe to prophesy, will survive and thrive beyond any technological threshold it is called upon to transit in the course of history. The appetite for on-page digital or print fiction and imaginative experience looks to be as insatiable as it ever was, even in competition with its transformations into cinema, video and online media. In the Age of Globalization, which is also the Age of the Internet and Digitization, the literary marketplace seems set to go on expanding, and lowered costs of e-Books, along with rising incomes, higher-education and literacy rates and the continuing role of the English language as the international language of the world supplemented by ample resources for translation, augurs well for the rise of the consumption of literature, good and bad, as well as the periodic emergence of bestsellers and blockbusters across all of the new and old media within this vastly expended literary marketplace.
The globalization of the literary marketplace also creates new opportunities for people of all nations and cultures to partake of other cultures and literatures as well as participate in the emergence of our emerging World Literature and of global consciousness shared by all citizens of the world generally. Note: These books do not have reliable sales data; however, there is evidence that they have sold at least 10 million copies, and therefore belong on this list.
This week the approach of the Chinese New Year marks a major celebration of the role of Foreign Experts in making a major contribution to the building of modern China, highlighted in the speech of Premier Li Keqiang before an assembly of many noted expatriate scholars, experts and educators. The Premier, together with State Foreign Expert Bureau Deputy Director Liu Yangguo, also announced a major initiative inviting all Foreign Experts to share their experience working in China and to make suggestions, both towards the development of China nationally, and also towards the strengthening and reform of Foreign Expert system itself.
At Peking University I taught a course in Public International Law and in the International Relations Department helped to institute a program where the BeiDa students of International Relations for the first time visited the American, Canadian, Indonesian and European Union Embassies on bussed field trips and spoke face-to-face with the Ambassadors and frankly questioned their staffs on their bi-lateral and multi-lateral relationships with China, including meetings with American Ambassador James Sasser, EU Ambassador Endymion Wilkinson, and Canadian Ambassador Howard Balloch and others.
In the second decade of my work in China much of my public work focused on various aspects of the United Nations in China. In recent years a greater part of my activity in addition to teaching has focused on being a professional writer, publishing in my two-part best-selling novel Spiritus Mundi , in which about a third of the action takes place in China. But it, like the related laws and regulations on visas, permanent residence and the status of all foreign persons in China suffers from serious flaws and still uncompleted reforms that leave serious shortcomings for both the foreign experts and for the benefit of the nation as a whole.
In many cases well-intentioned reforms have been begun but are still half-incomplete. Isabel Crook—Chinese Foreign Expert at 98 years. The Foreign Expert contract is invariably a one-year contract which may be renewed for successive years with mutual agreement but is never permanent and never includes any prospective retirement benefits or security of tenure.
Thus while a US Permanent Resident or Green Card holder may be granted tenure, promoted to departmental chairmanships, and enjoy pension, health, disability and pension rights on an equal basis with US Citizens, such remains an impossibility to even a Foreign Expert with Chinese Permanent Residence. To be fair, this usually met the needs and desires of the majority of both the foreign experts and the employers, who usually only contemplated a few years of service at most before returning inevitably to their home countries to take up their lives they left behind.
Quite a few were sponsored by religious organizations from their home countries with a covert religious agenda. Despite the reforms of two years ago which theoretically extended applicability of the Chinese Social Security system to all foreigners, not only foreign experts, including liability for Social Security tax I still have no prospect of qualifying for Chinese retirement benefits. Because although the law gives us a right to participate in the retirement system after fourteen years of employment in China and at 62 I am past the normal Chinese retirement age of 60, the benefits only derive from and are calculated from having had a Social Security account into which the employer has paid Social Security tax over the years of employment.
Under the US system I again qualify for US Social Security benefits, but since working in China for twenty years no credit has been made to my Social Security account in the US, so that the level of benefit based on contributions before coming to China is averaged down by the many years of no contribution while in China, with the result that benefits are skewed artificially down to the minimum level, inadequate to sustain life in retirement either in the US or in China. Similarly, there is no retirement health benefit available for the retired expat foreign expert living in China. They are callously sold off and shipped to the meat factory to be butchered into dog food when they can no longer work.
China has made immense progress in avoiding the condition or the Orwellian dystopian prophecy and should hasten and complete its reforms of the Foreign Expert System to prevent the foreign experts who have given the better part of their lives to China from suffering such an Orwellian end. This is also true of the Foreign Expert in China, whether of the garden variety such as English and basic academic instructors or even of the special categories of foreign experts created to attract specialized talent.
The pay for ordinary Foreign Experts is poor. On the whole it is adequate to the condition of the typical foreign expert—a young college graduate looking for a cultural overseas adventure, first international job or travel opportunity or an older Western retiree seeking a twilight challenge or covert religious mission with church sponsorships and subsidies.
For a single person without family burdens the pay is adequate for a modestly comfortable life in China, though the amount it is possible to save and take home on return after a year is so small as to hardly pay for a week in a hotel in the US. Exchange scholars and professors seconded or on leave from their home universities who enjoy their home salaries on top of the low-level Chinese salary have no problems. This is in no way accidental. Nor will the band of compensation increase with any achievement or accomplishment.
The inevitable result of this monopoly government price fixing is that the best people after their year of new experience are quick to look for other employment in the sectors of the economy not price-fixed. The typical foreign expert job is seen only as a temporary stepping-stone to something better with a future. Because the for-profit Kindergartens are not within the leaden price-fixing system of the State Foreign Expert Bureau and respond to market demand and the near manic compulsion of Chinese parents to give their children even the slightest head start or advantage in the perceived crawl to the top of the heap.
To be fair, this system that keeps Foreign Experts poor had important justifications in its origins. At the beginning of the PRC China was in fact extremely poor and could only afford to pay little to foreigners. Most foreign experts, moreover, were not motivated by money but rather by cultural curiosity, a spirit of adventure, altruism or other motives and were planning only a short sojourn before moving on to bigger and better things elsewhere. As Premier Li and President Xi emphasize, the deepening of the market-based reforms applied to other sectors may now be usefully extended in the area of education.
The price-fixing system for keeping Foreign Expert salaries low and uniform should be abolished or modified to allow greater compensation to greater talents, achievements and qualifications. Foreign Experts, teachers and professors should be allowed to freely unionize and engage in collective bargaining to improve their compensation and working conditions. And Chinese teachers and scholars should be similarly empowered to bargain collectively with their employers for improvement of their much more severe conditions of undercompensation and exploitation!
Though in the short-term this will be costly and inconvenient for the schools and government, in the long-run it will be the only way to lift the quality of the Chinese educational system and transform it into a system capable of fostering the critical thinking, innovative and creative capacity capable of raising China to fulfill its still unmet aspiration of a fully developed and globally competitive nation and economy, based on quality and not just bulk quantity. With due sensitivity to questions of cultural and political control, the scope for private and Chinese-Foreign joint-venture education should be markedly opened in the educational sector as it has been in the industrial sector, including increased attraction and participation of foreign talent and foreign experts at increasing levels of management.
One of the serious shortcomings of the present Foreign Expert system in China is its lack of provision for the children of foreign experts, both those born abroad and accompanying their parents and those born in China, often of marriages with Chinese national spouses. All expatriates in China, not only Foreign Experts have serious problems securing adequate educations for their children.
It is literally true that it often costs more to send foreign children to international kindergarten, elementary and high schools in China than to send them to a university in the US or other Western nations. The result is extreme hardship for any children of Foreign Experts relying on earned income to educate their children. Even if these factors are overcome, the school may ill prepare them for competing to enter university in their home countries, including necessary subjects for college entrance exams.
Middle school was more problematical. Claire, the eldest had a Beijing Hukou and was assigned by lottery to No. For Joseph No. She was accepted by No. But when we went to the Public Security Bureau with her US Passport to update a current visa they refused to issue one on the ground that she was born in Beijing to a Chinese mother and thus could be claimed as a Chinese citizen with a Beijing Hukou. Chinese law and treaties do not provide for dual citizenship.
Thus they refused to issue a current visa until she went through a procedure to formally renounce her entitlement to Chinese citizenship, an unfortunate decision to force on a child and her parents, and one which takes more than a year to complete. With regard to medical care for expatriate Foreign Experts in China my experience is that despite State Foreign Expert Bureau regulations and standard Foreign Expert Employment Contract provisions which mandate that all employers provide such care to the standard of the care enjoyed by comparable Chinese national employees, and despite recent laws extending comparable guarantees to all foreign workers in China, the actual care received, especially in medical emergencies such as required operations, births, and emergency hospitalization are far from adequate.
We all know how hospitals and health care providers are grossly overburdened and inadequately staffed to handle the incredible numbers of both Chinese national patients and the few foreign patients they are responsible for. A visit to a Chinese hospital or doctor will involve a wait in incredible lines and a very limited time with the doctor for communicating, diagnosing and treating the problem. This is a regrettable condition we hope will improve with time for both Chinese and foreign patients, and this is not the time or place to analyze the entire medical care and medical insurance program of the nation as a whole, which is slowly improving.
I will make only a few comments and suggestions more specific to the experience of the average Foreign Expert with a serious medical condition. For ordinary problems in a major city like Beijing foreign experts can generally receive adequate care if they are patient enough to go through the lines and waits and manage the communication and language problem by bring along a Chinese colleague or friend to translate. Many bigger hospitals like Xie He Hospital in the Embassy district have an international department which makes communication easier and lines shorter, though sometimes at a slightly increased but generally moderate cost.
If a foreign expert wishes to pay a considerably higher fee out of his own pocket, which may not be reimbursed by the employer or its standard care plan he is free to use Western-oriented hospitals such as the Sino-Japanese Hospital or the Beijing Family United. When a major medical emergency requiring hospitalization of a Foreign Expert occurs, however, the response of the employer is often far from adequate. This means that for something big you have to first pay cash out of your own pocket, get receipts and then take them to the employer and beg for reimbursement, which may or not occur.
For a major operation if you do not have , RMB in your pocket you would find great difficulty getting your employer to advance payment or a voucher for the funds. This system is detrimental because it forces people to often delay treatment until the condition worsens and costs more and more money. Moreover, when major operations or hospitalization occurs for a foreign expert the university or employer is often obstructive and evasive in providing for reimbursement.
The usual reason for this is that the employer has no system of funding, budgeting or insurance for its legal liability to the Foreign Expert under the employment contract and Foreign Expert Bureau Regulations. Costs of a hospitalization or major operation will come out of surplus funds already coveted by high administrators for their own perks and pet projects at best, and corrupt diversions of funds at worse.
The employer will therefore often deny liability, insist you should have gotten your own insurance, delay, and often descend into dishonest practices in your greatest time of need. They may even take away your pay for the time you are disabled for the medical treatment and recovery. The foreign expert may be strongly urged to return his own country for treatment or deceptive reasons given for discontinuing the contract. In my own experience over twenty years most of the time I was very healthy and minor problems were managed reasonably.
When I required an emergency hernia operation while employed as a professor at Peking University, however, I found that the supposedly top university was far from forthcoming and shamefully failed to meet its legal obligation of reimbursing health care to its Foreign Experts. To prevent such shortcomings every employer of Foreign Experts should be required to file an Annual Plan for meeting the unforeseen medical needs of foreign staff including either a third-party insurance or a pre-budgeted purpose-specific reserve fund account set aside for such emergencies.
Another shameful consequence of a Foreign Expert having a medical emergency is the very likely prospect that the contract will be cancelled or almost certainly the contract will not be renewed, simply because the employee is seen as a potential drain on funds. This is shameful behavior by employers of Foreign Experts. Having enjoyed the benefit and contribution of the worker for years the merest medical expense often results in showing the unfortunate worker the door at the time of greatest family need. Appropriate temporary disability coverage by the employer should be required.
Another area of abuse is the frequent failure of the employer to pay the return-air-ticket fee which is part of every Foreign Expert contract. In many instances if the Foreign Expert does not permanently return to his home country but instead changes to a new employer at the end of the year the Foreign Affairs Office of the school or employer often improperly refuses to pay and simply pockets the air-ticket money, often for official perks or worse. The Foreign Expert Bureau should have a Hotline to report and correct such abuses.
I shall always treasure the experience and opportunities which I have had to contribute to the rise of China during the past twenty years of my service here. I hope that service and the suggestions made here based on that experience may make some small further contribution to improving our common future together. Find out the final fate of the world by reading Spiritus Mundi now!
Magazine and small book press editors are invited to nominate up to six works they have featured. Anthologies of the selected works have been published annually since Compelling characters, wisdom, insight, and beautiful depictions of locations all over the world will power you through the book. Nicole Breanne, Content Coordinator, Ranker. Expecting a thorough summoning of your inner heart? Aspiring to find an extraordinary voice to enlighten your understanding heart? The author will spirit you into a exciting world filled with fantasy, myth, conflicts and wisdom from a fresh perspective.
Its compelling saga reveals the sexual and spiritual lives of struggling global protesters and idealists overcoming despair, nuclear terrorism, espionage and a threatened World War III to bring the world together from the brink of destruction with a revolutionary United Nations Parliamentary Assembly and spiritual rebirth. This modern epic is a must read and compelling vision of the future for all Citizens of the Modern World and a beacon of hope pointing us all towards a better world struggling against all odds to be born.
A must read for any thinking, compassionate human being living in these perilous times. I highly recommend this powerful testament of the current course of our so-called life on his planet. April 25, I have read it and find it over the top fascinating. I am very glad to see Robert share his creativity with the world through this work of fiction, and know it will be a huge hit.
His work should be read and made the subject of critical study. We must not forget the influence of a largely secular world. Robert tirelessly checked, rechecked and triple checked his resources in order to bring a fiction of occurrence, and psychological impact as set forth in his novel Spiritus Mundi. His novel is as wide ranging as are his interests and expertise.
He can explain his various ideas with great clarity and he does this with compassion. Novel is worthwhile reading. The heroes battle and overcome the treacherous opposition of Mephisto and his satanic subaltern Mundus through their Underworld and Otherworld adventures and successfully plead the cause of the continuation of the human species before the Immortals, returning with the critical Silmaril Crystal.
China and Russia stand down from aiding Iran in seizing the Mid-East oil reserves, but in a treacherous blow the Chinese instead utilize their forward-positioned armies to attack their former ally Russia and seize Siberia with its large oil and gas reserves instead. His wife and rock-star partner Isis then leads a spiritual movement to reconcile and unite the clashing religions and catalyze a common global spiritual Renaissance through a Global Progressive Spiritual Alliance which seeks to construct an Inter-faith Temple on the ruins of the atomic blast in Jerusalem.
All the Highlights of the novel cannot be contained in such a short Introduction, but a few of them would include:. Spiritus Mundi is the first novel in world history to portray the creation of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly on the working model, inter alia , of the European Parliament;. Features the romantic and sexual searching and encounters of dozens of idealist activists, rock-stars, CIA and MI6 agents, public-relations spinmeisters and billionaires with a detour into the bi-sexual and gay scenes of Beijing, New York, California, London and Tokyo:.
Establishes and grounds the new genre of the Global Novel written in Global English, the international language of the world,. Spiritus Mundi is a novel of Spiritual Searching featuring the religious searching of Sufi mystic Mohammad ala Rushdie, as well as the loss of faith, depression, attempted suicide and recovery of faith in life of protagonist Sartorius. Follows bogus religious cult leaders and the Messiah-Complex megalomanic-narcissistic mission of rock superstar Osiris that leads to his dramatic assassination on worldwide television in Jerusalem, followed by the religious conversion of his wife and rock-star parner Isis;.
Features the search for love and sexual fulfillment of Eva Strong, a deeply and realistically portrayed divorced single mother involved in the United Nations campaign, who reveals her tortured heart and soul in her Blog throughout several disastrous sexual affairs and ultimately through her final attainment of love and marriage to Sartorius;.
You can browse and sample both onlline for free now, then purchase immediaetly by clicking on the following Amazon sites:. Book I 5. Book II 5. Beautiful Dreamer! The shear numbers are still daunting given a total population of 1. However, if the proven record of the last thirty years can be sustained over the coming thirty years, an assumption far from a foregone conclusion, the task would be as attainable as it is dreamable. A Gini Coefficient between 0. China has witnessed a growing disparity between the prosperous cities and the impoverished countryside since the early s, while lower-income city residents have been left out of a property boom that enriched many since the housing market debuted in the late s.
China has 2. The Gini Coefficient of the USA, an ideologically capitalist country and one of the most unequal of the developed countries by contrast, was lower at 0. The measure of the material progress of China is the material well-being of its people enjoying all of the necessities of life including safe food, decent housing, personal security and safety, and access to the material opportunities and expectations of human life through access to high quality higher education for all, modern and adequate health care, and secure retirement on old age.
The means of such well-being are well recognized in good jobs, viable families, diverse entertainment, freedom to travel and proper protection of individual rights, liberties and property under a rule of law. Both types of society have strengths and weaknesses and can, in their lives and dreams, fruitfully learn from one another.
The principal idea is that as more urgent lower-level needs are satisfied human wants and aspirations turn to higher-level needs. The scope of individual self-realization and fulfillment have been stymied at various phases in recent history by repressive and conformist political institutions such as the Communist Party and the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, as well as by the subsequent conformism and compromise of individuality necessitated by the fierce competition for success or survival in a neo-capitalist market economy.derivid.route1.com/tubrculos-andinos-conservacin-y-uso-desde-una.php
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Of course for individuals to achieve these social norms, conformities, expectations, customs and practices must evolve and change as well as individual behavior. Paralyzed for centuries by the corrupt and repressive feudal regime of the Emperors it turned decisively first to modernization and the embrace and idealization of Western values, and then in an intensified form to the ideals of Communism. In the communist era much of the spiritual heritage of Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism lost its legitimacy, credibility and social acceptance and was both repressed and willingly abandoned.
Some turned to the project of rehabilitating traditional pre-Communistic ideals from Taoism, Confucianism or Buddhism or imported ideals from Christianity or Islam, some to a more enlightened socialism and others to Western ideals, often with limited success. Individual Chinese yearn like all other persons for greater influence and control over their destinies through greater Democracy in political institutions and greater scope for dissent and individual expression as a check on Communist Party corruption and helplessness in the face of repressive and often corrupt institutions.
The above observations lead into the historical dimension of the Chinese Dream. During the Han Dynasty China was fully comparable to the Roman Empire at its height, and suffered a similar decline and breakup through its medieval age. This remarkable fluorescence was cut short again, however, with the Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan and his successors. Han China again reunified and expelled the Mongols under the Ming, but the state descended into despotic corruption and stagnation leading to another foreign invasion, that of the Manchus of the north who established the Qing Dynasty which persisted until the final overthrow of the emperors and establishment of the Republic of China under Sun Yat Sen Sun Zhongshan.
During the last two centuries China almost inexplicably declined from being perhaps the greatest economy and empire on earth—the producer of silks, porcelain, tea, paper, gunpowder, printing and other goods coveted by the entire world, to subjugation in a semi-colonial status and carving up, first amoung the Western imperialist powers through the grant of concessions and outright invasion by the Japanese, to the disintegration of the nation amoung regional warlords.
A still unanswered question of the Historical Chinese Dream is that of the ongoing role and further evolution of the Communist Party and its ideology. The Soviet Union and the East Bloc began in Communist revolutionary idealism, descended into Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship, attempted reform and finally disintegrated and abandoned the path of socialism.
China to date has escaped that fate by pragmatic adaption and evolution, abandoning the excesses of totalitarian control and introducing a mixed economy and liberalized social institutions which embrace substantial aspects of capitalism while preserving the core communist state. The role of the Party has undergone parallel evolution from a command and control dictatorship by a self-chosen and self-perpetuating elite to greater flexibility and sharing of power with market driven institutions. It has incorporated elective democratic procedures at the village level and some small democratic mechanisms at higher levels but has to date not taken the step of other one-party states such Mexico or India in opening the political process to full democracy including a choice of opposition parties and elections of Party and governmental officials by the people.
It is fair to say that the Party has made significant strides in becoming more sensitive to the voice of the people through internet feedback and outreach, but always short of the point of subjecting itself to possible replacement by competing parties or of factions competing democratically within the Party for public support. Mexico gradually relaxed the one-party grip of the PRI to allow other parties to challenge it and ultimately replace it, as did the Congress Party in India. The Chinese Communist party indeed has over 80 million members—the size of the whole population of Germany!
However frequently such disingenuous arguments are put forward, the reality is that no one in China can unite with the people around him or her to change or remove either specific incompetent, corrupt or abusive powerholders or to change policies or practices backed by the Communist Party which may be objectionable to the larger majority of the Chinese people.
Thus at the present time real democracy does not exist in China under the Communist Party. The Party is a self-chosen and self-perpetuating elite not accountable to the people of China, except insofar as they are forced to modify their behavior for their own protection. Undoubtedly there have been many admirable leaders such as Wen Jiabao who were respected and even loved by the majority of the people and who could have been easily elected. The top positions in the Party and government are increasingly occupied by more competent technocrats rather than mere party hacks.
However public resentment is very strong against the many corrupt Communist Party officials who abuse their powers and cannot at present be removed by the people in their just outrage, and such officials would rationally fear a real democratic process in the state and in the party. Apparatchiks are quite rational to fear a significant loss of power through real democratic reform. In theory and in substantial truth the Chinese Dream should serve to benefit the world immensely. In either case it is dangerous, as fear and resentment are very apt to feed on themselves and become self-fulfilling prophecies or spiral out of control unless rationally managed on both sides.
While Chinese people and leaders protest their good intentions in the world, it is an axiom of geopolitical reality that military and strategic analysts rationally judge and react to nations based on their capabilities and not on their momentary intentions, which are subject to change under undeterminable future circumstances. It also expands the range and scope of new strategic interests and vulnerabilities, such as worries about oil and energy supplies shared by heavy importers such as China, India and Japan.
This is also true for many other recently rising economies such as India, Brazil, a recuperating Russia, Korea and many others. Pandillas - accion - Peliculas Comodines Deuces Wild drama. Drama - Nazismo - Peliculas Conspiracion Holocausto. Ficcion - Terror - Peliculas Critters Comedia. Romance - Drama - Peliculas Daisy accion. Ficcion - Accion - Peliculas Daredevil superheroes. Drama - Comedia Peliculas Dedication Romantica. Ficcion - lucha - Peliculas Dororo demonios. Accion - policial - artes Peliculas Dragon Squad marciales. Ficcion - Accion - Peliculas Eragon Aventuras.
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Ice Cube, Samuel L. Collins, Dwain Murphy, Wes Williams. Mcginley, Elizabeth Berkley. Harris, Anika C. Mcfall, Jason Melling. Simpson, Robert Goulet. Simpson, Fred Ward. Jake Gyllenhaal, Robert Downey Jr. Para detene Las hermanas Stratford son muy distintas. En la autopista, Jack, un cond. Un templo Maya, oculta toda la verdad sobre este pasaje de la biblia Londres es un cementerio.
Y reina un silencio total. Remake del film de de Delmer Daves. Arizona, a finales de Bebe en un hotel barato, para q. Entonces decide que no quiere saber nada de chicas, por lo que se auto. Basada en un hecho real ocurrido el 28 de febrero de , cuando dos hombres fuertemente armados, con rifles de asalto y armamento militar, intentan atracar el Bank of America de North Hollywood.
Su plan falla al ser cercados por numerosa. Pero recibe la desagradable visita de un viejo amigo y para salvar a su hermano, se ve obligado a hacer lo que mejor sabe hacer: robar coches. Su aventura fue bruscamente interrumpida por el estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Acaban de declarar ruinosa su casa y ha encontrado a su novia en la cama con otro hombre.
En lugar de ello, acaba con una obra de Van Gogh de valor incalculable entre las manos, y uno de sus hombres Jimmy Smith Jr. Obviamente se enamora.
Entretanto, suma problemas cuando otro cabecilla reclama un ajuste de cuentas. En su hu. Vive en una lujosa casa de su propiedad en la que organiza lujosas fiestas. Sus combates, tanto fuera como dentro del ring, le. Ali G tiene una emisora pirata en su barrio. Los Aliens a bordo escapan y matan a todos los Predators excepto a uno. Edward es un investigador de efectos paranormales. De repente, a sus vein. Milo Ryan Phillippe , un joven genio programador, tiene madera para convertirse en uno de los mejores informativos del mundo.
Defendiendo la cas. Durante una salida rutinaria, una patrulla estadounidense se ve envuelta en una emboscada. Octavio, un joven adolescente, decide fugarse con Susana, la esposa de su hermano. La humanidad ha sido un caos y los humanos se han refugiado en la ciudad, androides son servidores del hombre, pero estan tomando protgonismo. Comedia familiar.
Pero no puede escapar de su pasado violento. Escrita p Drama. Jesse y Celine una vez se conocieron en un tren y pasaron juntos una noche inolvidable paseando por Viena. Ella es impulsiva, de espiritu despojado y esta locamente enamorada de su novio ingles, Ian Paul Nicholls. Aquamarine ha aparecido en tierra tras una gran tormenta que h Tres homicidios en serie. Dos hombres con un mismo objetivo: imponer su dominio. Atila, Rey de los Hunos, no se conforma con la conquista de naciones vecinas, quiere un nuevo orden mundial.
El general romano Flavius Aetius representa lo me Un grupo de amigos vuela hasta una isla desierta para pasar el fin de semana. Animales perros. Las agendas no suelen ser lo que parecen. Enfrentados en un duel. A pesar Batman Christian Bale regresa para continuar su guerra contra el crimen. Cuando Un matrimonio de fantasmas Geena Davis y Alec Baldwin contrata los servicios de Bitelchus Michael Keaton , un especialista en asustar mortales, para que ahuyente de la que fue su casa a los nuevos propietarios.
Jake Hopper ignora que su hija Jessica y su amiga Sarah han sido secuestradas mientras iban con sus mochilas por el sur de Asia. Todo lo contrario. Narra la historia del guerrero Beowulf y su batalla contra un troll asesino y sediento de sangre, Grende. Durante los ultimos nueve anos Andre has estado inmerso en reconstruir su mundo rodeado de sus dos hijos. Disfruta de estas damas que tienen gran pechonalidad natural.
Jackson rescata a la joven Rae Christina Ricci que yace medio muerta al borde de la carretera. Los Replicantes Nexus-6 eran superiores en fuerza y agilidad, y Danny Chris Pine es un joven apuesto, inteligente y ciego. Wong, un capo de la mafia china. Kennedy, hermano del presidente J. Esta es la historia de los hechos, centrada alrededor de 22 personas que estaban en ese momento en el hot.
Lo que en principio parece ser un simple viaje tu. Sin darse c. Elvis Presley vive y reside en una vieja residencia al este de Texas. Es decir: no devolver favores, sino pagarlos por adelantado, y no necesariamente a quien te lo hizo a ti. Rooney, y su propia familia. Son tiempos duros en Rock Island, donde la mafia irlandesa impone su ley. Layale ama a Rabih, pero es un hombre casado. La mujer, con. Hasta ahora. Ben Willis, estudiante de Bellas Artes, sufre de insomnio como consecuencia del abandono de su novia, Suzy.
A pes. Las Vegas, , Sam "Ace" Rothstein, un profesional de las apuestas en carreras de caballos, es elegido por un grupo de mafiosos como director de un importante casino. Movidos por la miseria de su gente, sus jefes deciden regresar a sus praderas natales.
El detective Gittes, especializado en divorcios, recibe la visita de la esposa de Mulwray, el jefe del Servicio de Aguas de la ciudad. Mientras el Viento del Norte arrecia en esta c Chopper Read es un joven que quiere pasar a la historia como un criminal legendario y hace todo lo posible para conseguirlo. En su lugar las mejores presentacions de circo show Timoteo. Cobra es enviado para detener a los miembros de un culto asesino y para proteger a Ingrid, la testigo de un asesinato. Las caras pasan por el retrovisor; la gente y los lugares entran y salen de su vida Durante esa n.
Melodrama surrealista. Su vida cambia cuando conoce a Marie Juliette Binoche , la nueva novia de su hermano menor. Al mismo tiempo Benjamin Barry McConaughey , atractivo soltero que trabaja en una agencia de publicid. Los primeros comienzan una guerra sin cuartel contra la droga Bandas callejeras con romance para una cinta publicitada co.
Un grupo de presos considerados muy peligrosos son trasladados a un nuevo centro penitenciario. Barcos vikingos, provenientes de Escandinavia, arriban en busca de esclavos. Cuando llega descubre que su amigo ha John Constantine ha estado en el infierno y ha vuelto. Director Robby D. His La vida de Neale se derrumba por momentos. Sin trabajo, sin familia, sin hogar Durante sus viaje.
Durante un permiso carcelario, Sailor va en busca de Lula, su novia, y juntos deciden escapar a California. En realidad, teme al joven, ya q. Ahora Shanghai, La Sra. Jenne es parte de "la cru Siglo XII. En tiempos de las cruzadas. Noche de luna llena. De repente, algo surge de entre las tinieblas y los hermanos Ellie y Jimmy dan un volantazo y caen por un barranco.
Park Yi Jung Woo-sung es un asesino profesional que queda profundamente impactado por la belleza y sensibilidad de la joven. Junto a un grupo de amigos, Sean hace el viaje para adqurir la herencia. De hecho, su medio es la oscuridad. Una chica se prepara para suicidarse. Tony Thick esta esperando 5 millones de dolares en efectivo que le seran enviados por Lenny Long desde Los Angeles. Lenny es una mula y va a desaparecer con el dinero. Nadie sabe. Ashen regresa a la escena del crimen, el pueblo de Raven's Fair. La oferta son 5. Po Drama judicial. Al principio los alumnos tratan a Dulaine con escepticismo, especi Unos criminales raptan a una familia y emprenden un viaje en su camioneta, hasta que hacen parada en un apartado local en medio del desierto.
Pero en el siniestro garito, lo mismo te sirven tequila que sangre de un cliente despistado Unos amigos deciden formar una banda de rock llamada Tenacious D. Decide entonces recurrir al laboratorio de Recall, una empresa de vacaciones virtuales que Una estudiante universitaria es brutalmente violada.
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